И.Ҳ.Ҳамдамов, С. Б. Мустанов, Э. И.Ҳамдамова, Г. А. Сувонова ботаника и.Ҳамдамов, С. Мустанов, Э. И.Ҳамдамова, Г. Сувонова Ботаника



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47879 -> Термиз давлат университети жисмоний маданият факультети жисмоний тарбия ва спорт кафедраси

CHAPTER II TISSUES………………………………………………....................

The formation tissues (merisystem) ……………………………………………..…

Covering tissues. ……………………………………………………........................

The main tissues. …………………………………………………………………...

Mechanical tissues. ……………………………………………………....................

Conductive tissues. ……………………………………………………....................

Excretive system. …………………………………………………….......................

Test questions on the chapter. …………………………………………………….



CHAPTER III THE ORGANS OF PLANTS. ………………………………...…

The root. ……………………………………………………....................................

The interior structure of the root. …………………………………………………

The initial structure of the root. ……………………………………………………

The modificated roots (metamorphosis) ……………………………………………

The stalk…………………………………………………….....................................

The sprout. ……………………………………………………..................................

Modificated sprouts (metamorphosis) ………………………………………………

The structure of the sprout of monocotyledonous plants. …………………………..

The structure of the sprout of dicotyledonous. ……………………………………...

The leaf. ……………………………………………………......................................

Ordinary and compount leaves. ……………………………………………………..

The size and longevity of leaves. …………………………………………………...

The placement of leaves. ……………………………………………………............

The interior structure of the leaf. ……………………………………………………

CHAPTER IV THE PROPAGATION OF PLANTS. …………………………..

The sex propagation………………………………………………………………...

The sexless propagation…………………………………………………………….

The rotation of generations…………………………………………………………

The vegetative propagation. ……………………………………………………......

Reproductive organs……………………………………………………..................

The flower. …………………………………………………….................................

Single sex and double-sex flowers. …………………………………………...……

The floscules. …………………………………………………….............................

Microsporogenesis and the development of male hametophyte…………………….

Megasporogenesis and the development of female hametophite. ….........................

The pollination and its types………………………………………………………...

Double fertilization………………………………………………………………….

The structure and types of seeds…………………………………………………….

The fruits……………………………………………………………………………

The questions on the chapter………………………………………………………..



CHAPTER V THE SYSTEMATICS OF PLANTS. ……………………………

The tasks and methods of systematic of plants……………………………………..

The lowest plants. ……………………………………………………......................

The pre-cell structure of the plants – Procytobionta………………………………..

Nucleusless tallophytes Thallobionta Pracariota……………………………………

The section of Bacterias-Bacteriophyta……………………………………………..

The section of blue-green aqua plants (Alga)……………………………………….

Aqua plants (Algea)....................................................................................................

Nucleus talophytes Таllobionta eucariota..................................................................

Section of yellow aqua plants Chrysophita part. …………………………………...

Section of yellow-green aqua plants (Xanthophyta)..................................................

Section of dinucleus aqua plants…………………………………………………..

Section of greyish-brown aquaplants (Phaeophyta) part……………………………

Section of red aqua-plants (Rhodophyta) part………………………………………

Section of green aqua-plants (Chlorophyta)...............................................................

Class equal-twistics (Isocontae) .................................................................................

Class of Conugates (Conjugatopsida) .........................................................................

Class of khara (Charopsida) .......................................................................................

The significance of aqua plants in human life and in nature. ....................................

Section of lichen (Lichenophyta) ...............................................................................

Tellophytes plastideless (Tallobionta aplastidae) ......................................................

Section of mushrooms mukoptia or Fungi………....................................................

Class of (Archimycedopsida) or (Chytridiomcedopsida) ..........................................

Class of (Oomycedopsida) .........................................................................................

Class of (Zygomycedopsida) .....................................................................................

Class of (Ascomycedopsida) ......................................................................................

Class of (Basidiomyсеdopsida) ..................................................................................

Class of imperfect muchrooms or deitromycedopsida...............................................

The significance of muchrooms .................................................................................

Section of (Myxomycetophyta) ..................................................................................

Test questions on the chapter. .....................................................................................

CHAPTER VI THE GENERAL CLASSIFICATION OF HIGHER OR LEAFSTALK PLANTS……………………………………………………………

Section of (Lycophyta)................................................................................................

Section of (Psilotophyta).............................................................................................

Section of (Equisetophyta)..........................................................................................

Section of (Polypodiophyta)........................................................................................

Class of (Ophioglossopsida) ………………………………………………………..

Class of (Marattiopsida).............................................................................................

Class of (Polypodiopsida)............................................................................................

Seedy plants (Spermatophyta).........................................................................................

Section of (Gumnospermae) or (Pinophyta)...............................................................

Class of (Lyginopteridopsida......................................................................................

Class of (Cycadopsida)................................................................................................

Class of (Bennettitopsida)...........................................................................................

Class of (Gnetopsida)..................................................................................................

Class of (Ginkgopsida)................................................................................................

Class of (Pinopsida).....................................................................................................

Order of (Pinales)........................................................................................................

Order of (Cupressales).................................................................................................

Section of flowering plants (Magnoliophyta)..............................................................

The brief history of the development of systematic of plants. ……………………

The origin of angiosperm plants. ................................................................................

The basic evolutionary ways of development of angipsperm plants………………

The concept of types ...................................................................................................

Taxonomical cathegories ...........................................................................................

The general characteristics of angiosperm plants .......................................................

Class of dicotyledonous or (Magnoliopsida) ..............................................................

The order of (Magnoliales) .........................................................................................

The family of (Magnoliaceae) ....................................................................................

The order of (Ranunculales) .......................................................................................

The family of (Ranunculaceae) ..................................................................................

The family of (Berberidaceae) ...................................................................................

The order of (Papаverales) .........................................................................................

The family of (Papaveraceae) .....................................................................................

The family of (Fumariaceae) ......................................................................................

The order of (Urticales) ...............................................................................................

The family of (Саnnabinaceae) ..................................................................................

The order of (Junglandales ) .......................................................................................

The family of (Junglandaceae) ....................................................................................

The order of (Caryophyllales) ....................................................................................

The family of (Caryophyllaceae) .................................................................................

The family of (Chenopodiaceae) ................................................................................

The order of (Polygonales) ........................................................................................

The family of (Polygonaceae) ...................................................................................

The order of (Cucurbitales) ........................................................................................

The family of (Cucurbitaсeae) ...................................................................................

The family of (Moraceae) ...........................................................................................

The order of (Capparales) .........................................................................................

The family of (Сapparidaceae) ..................................................................................

The family of (Brassicaceae) .....................................................................................

The order of (Salicales) .............................................................................................

The family of (Salicaceae) .........................................................................................

The order of (Malvales) .............................................................................................

The family of (Malvaceae) .........................................................................................

The order of (Euphorbiales) ......................................................................................

The family of (Euphorbiaceae) ...................................................................................

The order of (Rosales) ..............................................................................................

The family of (Rosaceae) ..........................................................................................

The order of (Fabales) ..............................................................................................

The family of (Fabaceae) ..........................................................................................

The order of (Myrtales) ............................................................................................

The order of (Punicaceae) ........................................................................................

The order of (Vitales) ...............................................................................................

The family of (Vitaceae) ...........................................................................................

The order of (Linales) ..............................................................................................

The family of (Linaceae) ...........................................................................................

The order of (Araliales) ............................................................................................

The family of (Apiaceae)...........................................................................................

The order of (Convolvulales).....................................................................................

The family of (Convolvulaceae)................................................................................

The family of (Cuscutaceae) ......................................................................................

The order of (Boraginales) ........................................................................................

The family of (Boraginaceae).....................................................................................

The order of (Solanales)............................................................................................

The family of (Solanaceae)..........................................................................................

The order of (Sсrophulariales).....................................................................................

The family of (Sсrophulariaceae) ..............................................................................

The family of (Pedaliaceae).......................................................................................

The family of (Orobanchaceae).................................................................................

The order of (Lamiales)............................................................................................

The family of (Lamiaceae or Labiatae) .....................................................................

The order of (Campamdales) .....................................................................................

The class of (Monocotyledoneae or Liliopsida).......................................................

The order of (Lilialеs).............................................................................................

The family of (Liliaceae)............................................................................................

The family of (Asparagaceae)....................................................................................

The order of (Amaridales) .......................................................................................

The family of (Asphodelaceae)................................................................................

The order of (Cyperales)..........................................................................................

The family of (Сурегасеае) ......................................................................................

The order of (Poales)...............................................................................................

The family of (Роасеае) .............................................................................................

Chapter VII Botanical geography ecology and geography of plants.

Flora and

Areals of plants

Floristical schere

Ecological factors

Soil factors ................................................................................................................

Biotical factors .........................................................................................................

Vital forms of plants .................................................................................................

Phitocenology ............................................................................................................

Phitocenos and association of plants ..........................................................................

Vegetative zones..........................................................................................................

Vegetation of tundra ..................................................................................................

Vegetation of forest zone ............................................................................................

Vegetation of steppe zone............................................................................................

Vegetation desert zone ................................................................................................

The vertical zonality....................................................................................................

The vegetation of hills or foothill zones ....................................................................

The vegetation of mountains ......................................................................................

The vegetation of pastures (highmountains) ..............................................................

The protection of flora of Uzbekistan........................................................................



The test questions on the chapter. ...............................................................................

TEST VARIANTS. ..................................................................................................

CONTROL TEST VARIANTS ..............................................................................

SCIENTIFIC AND NATIVE NAMES OF PLANTS ............................................

THE DICTIONARY OF BOTANICAL TERMS .................................................

THE LIST OF LITERATURE. ...............................................................................







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