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Exercise IV. Suggest appropriate English variants for the following units of Ukrainian specific national lexicon

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Exercise IV. Suggest appropriate English variants for the following units of Ukrainian specific national lexicon:

голова колгоспу/сільради, дружинник, суботник, січовик, січові стрільці, запорожець, герої Крутів, тризуб, універсали (Центр. Ради); залік, залікова книжка, відкритий урок, педрада, табель успішності, похвальна грамота/лист, курсова/дипломна робота; кобза, кобзар, бандурист, гопак, повзунець(танець), веснянки, коломийки, боярин, дружка, весільний батько, бублик, вареники, галушки, голубці, бабка, коржі з маком/шулики, борщ, куліш, ряжанка, узвар, грубка, лежанка, піч (у хаті), скриня, свитка, кожух, кептар, вишиванка, плахта, чобітки, льох, хата, гривня, карбованець, десятина, «бігунець», профорг студентської групи, крашанка, писанка, думи, «Ще не вмерла Україна».

Exercise V. Explain the proper meaning of the particular English national notions below and translate them into Ukrai­nian.

A. №10. Downing Street, Whitehall, the Upper House, the Com­
mons, the woolsack, speaker, teller, whip (Parliament), division of Par­
liament, the White paper, the Stock Exchange; John Bull, the British
Lion; lobby; ladyship, lordship, peerage, coroner, proctor, bacon, York­
shire pudding, frankfurters, hot dogs; ale, gin; crown, farthing, guinea,
sixpence, private/independent school, comprehensive (grammar, mod­
ern) school, the 6th form; jeans, jersey, pullover, leggings, stretches,
tweed; calumet, wigwam; bushel, foot, inch, pint, sheriff.

B. Suggest possible ways for faithful conveying the mean­
ing of peculiarly American government offices and their princi­
pal officials in the passage below. Identify the ways of transla­
tion which you employ for the purpose.

The United States, unlike most other countries of Europe, Asia and America has no «government» but only an «administration» or to be more precise, a «president's administration». The latter in its turn



has no ministries and consequently no «ministers» but departments and secretaries performing the functions of ministries and ministers. Traditionally established in the USA are the following thirteen depart­ments: Agricultural Department, Commerce Department, Defence Department, Educational Department, Energy Department, Health and Human Services Department, Housing and Urban Development De­partment, Interior Department, Justice Department, Treasury Depart­ment, and Veterans Affairs Department. Each of these government institutions is headed respectively by an appointed leader, as an­nounced by the presidential secretary. The only exception is the Jus­tice Department which is headed not by a secretary but by the Attor­ney General. Almost all Secretaries have their Assistant Secretaries performing the functions of deputy ministers in other European and American governments. Exceptions from the list include only four de­partments which have Deputy Secretaries instead. These are Com­merce Department, Housing and Urban Development Department, Educational Department and Treasury Department. Still other depart­ments in the U.S. administration government have Under Secretaries performing the duties of assistant secretaries which correspond to the government positions occupied by deputy ministers in other coun­tries. To these departments belong the Commerce Department and Veterans Affairs Department. Secretary of the Interior Department, contrary to all others, has an Inspector General for the first assistant. But certainly the most peculiar are the duties of the Interior Depart­ment which include building roads, and overseeing the national park system, and not keeping law and order and fighting criminals, which the ministries of the interior are responsible for in other countries. These functions are performed in the U.S.A. by the F.B.I. (Federal Bureau of Investigation).

Exercise VI. Pick out the nationally specific English no­tions in the text below and then translate them in writing or in viva voce into Ukrainian.

The former Beatle Paul McCartney was awarded a knighthood in the New Year's honours list. Among other showbiz figures receiving honors: Sir Andrew Lloyd Webber, the composer of «Evita», «Phantom of the Opera» and «Jesus Christ Superstar» becomes Lord Lloyd Webber allowing him to sit in the House of Lords. Among others recognized: the actress Joan Collins, best known for her role as Alexis in the television show «Dynasty», received an OBE (Officer of the Order of the British Empire), while the playwright Alan Ayckbourn was knighted. Frederick Forsyth, whose best-sellers include «The

Day of the Jackal», becomes a Commander of the Order of the British Empire, which entitles him to add the initials CBE after his name. The racing driver Damon Hill, the current Formula One world champion, was given an OBE for services to auto racing.

Exercise VII. Read through the text on the British Parlia­ment below and translate it point by point in writing or in viva voce into Ukrainian.

The Glimpse of Great Britain and Its Parliament Life

  1. Great Britain or the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland as the country is officially called ranks among the oldest constitutional monarchies in Europe. The country's first con­stitution, the Magna Charta, was signed under the pressure of her Parliament by the despotic King John Lackland, son of King Richard the Lion Hearted, as far back as June 10,1215. The Magna Charta had a great influence on the country's parliamentary life and traditions which have remained unchanged for centuries. Thus, the Palace of Westminster where Parliament is held and which was built anew and rebuilt for several times is in the same place for more than 1,000 years. Besides the Parliament consists of two Chambers or Houses - the Upper Chamber or the House of Lords and the lower Chamber or the House of Commons.

  2. The Upper House consists of over 1,100 Members belonging to one of the three unequally represented groups of peers: 1. Heredi­tary Peers, Marquises, Earls, Viscounts, Barons (almost half of all peers), and Peeresses in their own right (ab 20); 2. Life Peers and Life Peeresses; 3. Archbishops (2) and Senior Bishops (20).

The House of Lords is headed by the Lord Chancellor who is also the minister of Justice and Head of the High Court.

  1. The House of Commons consists of 659 elected MPs (1997 elections). The House is headed by the Speaker. The number of seats in the House, however, covers the need of only two-thirds of the elected MPs, the rest using the «front benches», the «cross benches» and the «back benches».

  2. There are nine Royal British orders of Knighthood. The high­est of them is the order of the Garter, which was founded by King Edward III in 1348. It consists of two parts - a collar gold chain worn around the neck with St. George killing the Dragon, and an eight-pointed star with the words Honi soit qui таї у pense (in French) meaning: Shame on them who think badly. The order is conferred to the members of the Royal family and 25 knights. The only commoner to have received the order was Sir Winston Churchill in 1957. This



order gives the bearer the right to be buried in Westminster Abbey.

The next important order is that of the Bath established during the reign of Henry IV (1399-1413). The name of the order comes from the ceremony of bathing (the symbol of purity) before being given it. There are three different degrees of the order, the highest being the first: 1) G.C.B. (Grand Cross of the Bath); 2) K.C.B. (Knight Com­mander of the Bath), 3) C.B. (Commander of the Bath). The highest military award in Great Britain is the Victoria Cross instituted by Queen Victoria in 1856 to mark the victory in the Crimean War. It is a bronze Maltese Cross with a Lion in its centre and the inscription «For Val­our» under it. The cross is made from the metal of the Russian guns captured in Sevastopol during the Crimean War in 1855.

5. Several traditional ceremonies are held in the capital of Great Britain attracting the attention of many Londoners and their numerous domestic and foreign quests. One of them observed every day is the changing of the Household Guards quartered in the Chelsea and Wellington Barracks near the Buckingham Palace. The Brigade of Guards of the Queen (and the Royal family body-guards) consists of two regiments representing the nationalities of the United Kingdom. The English Grenadiers wear the bear skin caps twenty inches high. The Scots Guards wear a wide black ribbon on the back of their uniform colour 15 cm wide and 25 cm long.

All the Guards wear scarlet or red tunics and black trousers except the Scots Guards wearing their traditional regimental cloth. The Irish Guards wear a triple row of brass buttons and distinctive plumes. The second ceremonial event which can be seen at 11 a.m. every weekday and at 10 a.m. on Sundays is Mounting the Guard. In this ceremony the Household Cavalry (the Royal and Life Guards) take part. They wear breast and back shiny plates made of steel armour. The third ceremony is observed only once a year on the second Saturday in June at ab. 11.15 a.m. and is called Trooping the Colour. The ceremony marks the «official» birthday of the Queen and presents an inspection parade of the Queen's own troops. This spectacular ceremony with the Queen riding side-saddle on a highly trained horse ahead of the Guards is watched by many hundreds of people.

Among other old traditions the most prominent are the cer­emony of the Keys which is over 700 years old (since 1215 when King John was forced to sign the Magna Charta) and Lord Mayor's Show. The latter goes back to the mayoralty of Richard (Dick) Whittington, who was mayor four times (1396, 1397, 1406 and 1419). The Lord

Mayor rides from the City in a splendid six horses-spanned coach through the streets of London and stops at Law Courts where he is presented to the Lord Chief of Justice, who hands him his sword of office after receiving a solemn promise to carry out his duties faith­fully. The procession then continues to Westminster, and then returns to the Mansion House, the official residence of the Lord Mayor.


Exercise VIII. Read the stories A, B, C, D, E below, pick out the units of the English culturally biased lexicon and trans­late the stories into Ukrainian.


An Englishman's day - and who better to describe it than an Englishman's wife? It begins when, ignoring me, he sits down to break­fast with his morning paper. As he scans the headlines (or the racing results) there is nothing he likes better than his favourite breakfast of cornflakes with milk and sugar (porridge if he lives in the North) followed by fried bacon and eggs, marmalade and toast, the whole accompanied by tea or coffee. But whether he in fact gets such a meal depends on the state of my housekeeping budget! After breakfast, except on Sundays and (in many cases) Saturdays which are holidays, he sets off to work by train, tube, car, motor scooter, motor bike or even on his own two feet. The time he sets out depends in large degree upon whether he is what might colloquially be termed a «striver» (one who works himself), a «driver» (one who sees that others works) or a «thriver» (one who profits from others work). If he is a «striver», he will jostle along with thousands like him on the 7.20, probably still reading his paper (or somebody else's) and studying the successes (or otherwise) of his favourite team.

The «drivers» customarily depart about an hour later while the «thrivers» travel up to the City in great style about an hour later. But be he «striver», «driver» or «thriver», he will enjoy his tea or coffee break around about 11. The tea or coffee is usually brought to the factory bench or office desk.

Then, at mid-day, everything stops for lunch. Most offices and small shops close for an hour, say from 1 to 2, and the city pavements are thronged with people on their way to cafes. Factory workers usually eat in their canteens.



The usual mid-day meal usually consists of two courses - a meat course accompanied by plenty of vegetables, followed by a sweet dish, perhaps fruit pudding and custard with tea or coffee to finish. Most Englishmen like what they call «good plain food, not messed about with». They must be able to recognize what they are eating. Otherwise they are likely to refuse it. Usually they like beef steaks, chops, roast beef and Yorkshire pudding and fried fish and chipped potatoes.

They are in the main not overfond of soup, remarking that it fills them without leaving sufficient room for the more important meat course. Then back to work again, with another break in the middle of the afternoon, once again for tea or coffee, sometimes with a cake or biscuit.

The working day finishes at time between 4 and 6, with the «thrivers» usually first home and the «strivers» last. On arrival home, many Englishmen seem to like to inspect their gardens before their evening meal.

This goes under various names - tea, high tea, dinner or sup­per depending upon its size and also the social standing of those eating it. Usually a savoury meat course is followed by stewed fruit or cake and tea. His evening meal over, the Englishman might do a bit of gardening and then have a walk to the «local» for a «quick one». The «local» means the nearest beer house while a «quick one» means a drink (alcoholic, of course!) taking anything from half-an-hour to three hours to imbibe! There is plenty of lively, congenial company at the «local» and he can play darts, dominoes, billiards or discuss the weather or the current situation.

But if the Englishman stays at home, he might listen to the radio, watch television, talk, read or pursue his favourite hobby. Then at any time between 10 and 12 he will have his «nightcap» - a drink accompanied by a snack - and then off to bed ready for tomorrow. (S. Andrews)

B. You Say Pasta, We Say Noodle It's too soon to declare peace in the world's pasta wars. But the combatants finally sat down together at the table. U.S. pasta-makers have been angered over European Union subsidies, which sometimes made Italian pasta cheaper than American brands on U.S. grocery shelves. A few months ago, the U.S. International Trade Commission decided there was merit to American pastamakers' com-

plaints about being hurt by Italian add Turkish imports. No settlement has been reached yet. Italy's Menconi was quick to recall how na­tional pride was pricked earlier this year by a claim from some U.S. experts that pasta could be bad for some people, especially the over­weight. Focusing on the common goal of increasing pasta consump­tion, savvy spaghetti sellers aren't overlooking any market. C. Fast Food Burgers

Two quick service restaurants specializing in burgers are at­tracting locals and foreigners alike. If you're looking for a tasty, cheap meal in a convenient location, Kentucky Beirut Chicken and Boston Burger, both located in the center of Kyiv, measure up Kentucky Bei­rut Chicken wins on the burger front. Their Lebanese-seasoned burg­ers - it's a secret recipe, - are crave-indicing. They come on crisp buns with a variety of fixings that are in the plate option. A plate is like getting a full meal deal at McDonald's, only in Kyiv it includes a hamburger or cheesburger, French fries, pickles and coleslaw. KBC's drawback is Boston Burger's saving - French fries. While KBC's tend to be soggy and too cool, Boston Burger's are perfect, string-like morsels. Boston Burger's hamburgers are fine, but they're missing a special touch. They're simply a bland hunk of meat, with wilted let­tuce and ketchup. KBC has an advantage in that it cooks as food is ordered, whereas Boston Burger premakes a bunch of sandwiches, which means they sometimes are served lukewarm and not-so-fresh. Until the Big Mac makes its way to Kyiv, Boston Burger and Kentucky Beirut Chicken will fill that fast-food burger whole in your stomach. 0. The Candymaker's Witness

A candymaker in Indiana wanted to make a candy that would be a witness, so he made the famous throughout America Christmas Candy Cane on which he incorporated several symbols for the birth, ministry and death of Jesus Christ.

He began with a hard candy stick of pure white, which symbol­izes the Virgin Birth and the sinless nature of Jesus; and hard to symbolize the Solid Rock, the foundation of the Church, and the firm­ness of the promises of God. This candy cane was made in the form of the letter «J» to represent the name of Jesus, who came to earth as our Savior. It could also represent the staff of the «Good Shepherd» with which he reaches down into the ditches of the world to lift out the fallen lambs who, like all sheep, have gone astray.

Thinking that the only white candy was somewhat plain, the



candymaker stained it with red stripes. He used three small stripes to show the stripes of the scourging Jesus and the large red stripe was for the blood that was shed by Christ on the cross so that we could have the promise of eternal life.

Unfortunately, in America the candy became known only as a sweet Candy Cane - a meaningless decoration seen at Christmas time. But the meaning is still there for those who «have eyes to see and ears to hear».

E. Scotland

It is one of those places where civilization has not tramped all before it. Scotland has uniqely combined the untouched beauty of nature with the kind of facilities that guarantee comfort.

Your impressions from Scotland very much depend on you, on how open you are to new cultures and traditions of this country. Start your trip with the cities and then go deep to the Highlands. Step by step you will be unweiling the quiet magic of this miraculous place and falling in love with its unforgettable authenticity, which gets smoothly with modernity. Tartan is no longer just an echo from the past. Any bank or football team has its own tartan. Any local family can have a tartan by just registering it at the Scottish tartan Society.

And it is not only fashion that reflects a changing conscious­ness. Over the last 10-15 years Scots seem to have become more conscious of their national identity, just as we Ukrainians have. They do not only debate their more independent status, but wear kilts more often - for weddings and for parties, even for work. They feel proud and comfortable on these double-pleated skirts, even when they have to pay something in the region on of 600 USD for a full outfit.

Exercise IX. Translate the passage below into English. Explain the ways you employed to convey faithfully the notions of the specifically Ukrainian national lexicon.

1. Кобзар О.М. Вересай

Старий уже був Грицько Вересай. Він брав кобзу і простував на церковний майдан Калюжинців. Поводирем сліпого ставав малий онук Остапко, що мусив жебрати, бо кріпацького хліба вистачало сім'ї лише до Різдва. У М'ясниці гуляли весілля, на які запрошували Остапкового батька Микиту Вересая, котрий гарно грав на скрипці. Після тяжкої хвороби 4-річний хлопчик осліп. Дід переконував онука, що для закріпаченої людини - то захист, хоч не бачитиме, що діється на нашій зболеній землі. А через десятиліття саме пісня «Про правду і неправду» понесла славу

Кобзаря Остапа Вересая по України за її межі. Коли влітку 1874 року в Києві відбувався визначний в історії кобзарства III Археологічний з'їзд, на який з'їхалися учені з усієї Европи, французький професор Н. Рамбо назвав знаменитого виконавця народних дум і пісень «Гомером в українській свиті». Завдяки своєму мистецтву Остап Микитович побував у царському палаці в Петербурзі - прийшов зі скаргою на тяжку долю селянина, наївно думаючи, що цар допоможе.

Спливли роки. У Сокиринці на Чернігівщині, як до Канева на могилу великого Шевченка, приходять люди вклонитися співцеві.

2. Мандрики

Це печиво пекли у Петрівський піст або на Петра. На це свято годилося шанувати пастухів і підпасків. їх частували і дарували мандрики («мандриги»)-сирні пампушки. Вірили: хто з'їсть їх у Петрівку, того весь рік минатиме лихоманка. Після Петра вже переставала кувати зозуля, що й породило приказку: «Зозуля мандрикою вдавилась». Особливо смачними були мандрики із сиру, відтопленого із сколотини (маслянки), тобто сироватки, яка залишилася після збитого із сметани масла.

3. Обряд з кашею

Щоб відзначити таку важливу для сім'ї подію, як хрещення дитини, у хаті влаштовували святковий обід, відомий у народі під назвою «христини». За північноукраїнською традицією баба-повитуха приносила круто зварену кашу, накривала їїхлібом-сіллю або млинцем і пропонувала розбити горщик тому, хто покладе більше грошей. Гості скидали їх новородженому - «на мило», «на воза», «на коня», «на люльку», «на віночок». Дарували й полотно на пелюшки, хустинки.

Хрещений батько клав більші гроші і розбивав горщик качалкою або тричі підіймав його і за останнім разом ударяв об кут стола. Якщо каша ціла, не розвалилася, - це на достаток і щастя. її годилося скоро схопити і з'їсти, «щоб дитина говорила скоріше», «щоб дитя на ноги хваталося швидко». Частування кашею було насичене й іншими діями, супроводжувалося примовками, наприклад: «Роди, Боже, жито й пшеницю, а куму й кумі дітей копицю». Хлопчику бажали, «щоб орач був, щоб не злодій був». Дівчинці - «щоб хлопці поважали й любили» і т.ін. Обряд з кашею - багатозначний ритуал. У ньому реалізувалася ідея входження дитини в сім'ю.




Idiomatic or phraseological expressions are structurally, lexi­cally and semantically fixed phrases or sentences having mostly the meaning, which is not made up by the sum of meanings of their com­ponent parts1. An indispensable feature of idiomatic (phraseological) expressions is their figurative, i.e., metaphorical nature and usage. It is this nature that makes them distinguishable from structurally identical free combinations of words Cf.: red tape (free word-comb.) червона стрічка - red tape (idiom) канцелярський формалізм (бюрократизм); the tables are/were fumed (free word-comb.) столи перекинуті/були перекинуті - the tables are turned (idiom) ситуація докорінно змінилася; супротивники помінялися ролями/місцями; play with fire гратися з вогнем біля багаття (free word-comb.) гратися з вогнем - наражатися на небезпеку (idiom).

On rare occasions the lexical meaning of idiomatically bound expressions can coincide with their direct, i.e., not transferred mean­ing, which facilitates their understanding as in the examples like: to make way дати дорогу; to die a dog's death здохнути як собака; to receive a hero's welcome зустрічати як героя; wait a minute/a mo-mentзачекайте хвилинку/ один момент; to tell (you) the truth правду казати/правду кажучи; to dust one's coat/jacket витрусити пальто/ піджака - дати духопеликів (idiom).

Some proper names can also be endowed with figurative mean­ing and possess the necessary expressiveness which are the distin­guishing features of idioms2: Croesus, Tommy (Tommy Atkins), Yan­kee, Mrs. Grundy, Jack Ketch, etc. These proper names have ac­quired their constant meaning and can not be confused with usual (common) proper names of people. As a result their transferred mean­ing is conveyed in a descriptive way. So Mrs. Grundy means світ, люди, існуюча мораль; JackKetchnar, Croesus Крез, надзвичайно багата людина; Tommy Atkins англійський солдат; Yankee (in Eu­rope) янкі/американець, etc.

Idiomatic/phraseological expressions should not be mixed up with different fixed/set prepositional, adjectival, verbal and adverbial

1 See: Кунин А.В. Фразеология английского язьїка. - М.: Международ.
отношения, 1972. Martin H. Manser. A Dictionary of Contemporary Idioms. - Lon­
don, Pan Books Ltd., 1983.

2 See: Collins V.N. A Book of English Idioms. - Л.: Учпедгиз, 1950. Англо-український
фразеологічний словник. Склав К.Т. Баранцев. - Київ: Рад. шк., 1969.

phrases the meaning of which is not an actual sum of meanings made up by their constituent parts either: by George, by and by, for all of, for the sake of, cut short, make believe; or compounds like: topsy­turvy, higledy-piggledy; coordinate combinations like: high and dry, cut and run, touch and go; Tom, Dick and Harry, etc. These and a lot of other stable expressions can very often be treated as standardized collocations. Their meaning can be rendered in a descriptive way too, like that of genuine idiomatic expressions: fifty-fifty так собі; ні добре ні погано; О.К все гаразд, на належному рівні; cut short обірвати, присікти/припинити щось (поїздку), обірвати (розмову).

Such and the like stable expressions, like most of other stand­ardized collocations, have usually a transparent meaning and are easier to translate than regular idioms (the so-called phraseological fusions). Meanwhile it is next to impossible to guess, for example, the meaning of the English idiom Hobson's с/ю/се from the seemingly transparent meanings of its componental parts. Only a philological inquiry helps establish the meaning of the name and the real sense of the idiom -«no choice whatsoever», «acceptance of what is offered» жодного вибору.

Similarly treated must also be many other English and Ukrain­ian picturesque idioms, proverbs and sayings, which have national literary images and reflect the traditions, customs, the way of con­duct or the mode of life of a nation. Their meaning, due to absence of similar idioms in the target language, can be rendered descriptively, i.e. through a regular explication. The latter, depending on the seman­tic structure of the source language idiom, may be sometimes achieved in the target language with the help of a single word. Cf.: English: an odd/queer fish дивак; Canterbury tale небувальщина, вигадка; blue bonnet («синій берет») шотландець; ніде курці клюнути crammed; зубами тертяка вибивати to be chilled. Most often, however, the meaning of this kind of idioms is conveyed with the help of free word-combinations: to dine with Duke Humphrey залишитись без обіду (нічого не ївши); to cut off with a shilling позбавити когось спадщини. Similarly in Ukrainian: ноги на плечі to go quickly (or very quickly) on one's feet; зуби з'їсти на чомусь to have great experience in something; кивати/накивати п'ятами to run away quickly/hurriedly.

It goes without saying that none of the phraseologisms above can be translated word-for-word since their constituent images would lose their connotative, i.e., metaphorical meaning in the target lan­guage. So, пообідати з герцогом Гамфрі or * обрізати шилінгом could be understood by the Ukrainian language speakers in their lit-



eral meaning. The same can be said about our idiom ноги на плечі та й гайда, i.e., *with one's legs on the shoulders which would never be understood, when translated literally, by the English language native speakers. Therefore, the componental images, when mechanically transplanted to the target language, may often bring about a complete destruction of the idiomatic expression.

The choice of the way of translation of this kind of idioms may be predetermined by the source language context or by the exist­ence/absence of contextual equivalents for the idiomatic/stable ex­pression in the target language. Thus, in the examples below units of this kind can be translated into Ukrainian either with the help of a single word or with the help of a standardized phraseological expres­sion: to give a start здригнутися; to give heart to one підбадьорювати, морально підтримувати когось; the weaker vessel (facet) жінка (прекрасна стать; жіноцтво; слабша половина людства), me Holy /МотегБогоматір.

Not infrequently the meaning of a standardized collocation (af­ter Acad. V.V.Vinigradov) like that of a regular idiom may have syn­onymous single word equivalents in the target language. The choice of the equivalent is predetermined then by the meaning of the stand­ardized collocation/phraseologism and by the style of the sentence where it is used: to make sure упевнитись (пеконатися), забезпечувати; to make comfort втішатися; to take place відбуватися; траплятися; the world and his w/feyci.

Similarly treated are also traditional combinations which have in the target language several stylistically neutral free equivalents (words or word-combinations) as: to run a risk ризикувати, йти на ризик, to apply the screw натиснути (на когось); to drop like a hot potato швидко позбутися когось, обірвати стосунки, раптово припинити знайомство.

Faithful translating of a large number of picturesque idiomatic/ phraseological expressions, on the other hand, can be achieved only by a thorough selection of variants having in the target language a similar to the original lexical meaning, and also their picturesqueness and expressiveness. This similarity can be based on common in the source language and in the target language componental images as well as on the structural form of them. As a result, the meaning of such idioms is mostly guessed by the students, which generally facilitates their translation.

A few examples will suffice to prove it. English: a grass widow (widower) солом'яна вдова (вдівець); not to see a step beyond one's

nose далі свого носа нічого не бачити; measure twice and cut once сім раз одміряй, а раз відріж; nor for love or money ні за які гроші/ ні за що в світі; Ukrainian: не знати/тямити ні бе, ні ме, ні кукуріку (not to know chalk from cheese); вночі що сіре, те й вовк all cats are grey in the dark, який батько, такий син, яка хата, такий тин (яблучко від яблуні далеко не відкочується) like father, like son; not a cat's/dog's chance жодних шансів/можливостей, (однієї) клепки бракує (he) has not all his buttons, etc.

It often happens that the target language has more than one semantically similar/analogous phraseological expression for one in the source language. The selection of the most fitting variant for the passage under translation should be based then not only on the se­mantic proximity of the idioms/phraseologisms but also on the simi­larity in their picturesqueness, expressiveness and possibly in their basic images. The bulk of this kind of phraseological expressions belong to the so-called phraseological unities. (Vinogradov). Here are some Ukrainian variants of the kind of English phraselogisms: either win the saddle or loose the horse або пан, або пропав; або перемогу здобути, або вдома не бути; many hands make work light це згода, там і вигода; гуртом і чорта побореш; гуртом і батька добре бити; громада - великий чоловік; a man can die but once від смерті не втечеш; раз мати народила, раз і вмирати; раз козі смерть; двом смертям не бути, а одної не минути; haste makes waste/the more haste, the less speed тихше їдеш - далі будеш, поспішиш - людей насмішиш, хто спішить - той людей смішить.

A number of phraseological units, due to their common source of origin, are characterized in English and Ukrainian by partial or complete identity of their syntactic structure, their componental im­ages, picturesqueness and expressiveness (and consequently of their meaning). Such kind of idioms often preserve a similar or even identi­cal word order in the source language and in the target language. Hence, they are understood and translated by our students without difficulties: to cast pearls before swine кидати перла перед свиньми; to be born under a lucky star народилася під щасливою зіркою; to cherish/warm a viper in one's bosom пригріти гадюку в пазусі; to be/ fall between Scilla and Charybdis бути між Сціллою і Харібдою/між двох вогнів.

One of the peculiar features of this type of idiomatic expres­sions is their international nature. Only few of them have phraseologi­cal synonyms of national flavour, being thus restricted to correspond-



ing speech styles, whereas international idioms predominantly belong
to the domain of higher stylistic level:
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