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WAYS OF RENDERING THE MEANING

OF THE SUBJECTIVE

WITH THE INFINITIVE CONSTRUCTIONS

This predicative infinitival construction or complex, as it is often referred to in grammars, consists of the secondary subject, usually noun or pronoun, and secondary predicate expressed by the infinitive. The latter is mostly separated from the nominal part of the complex subject by the primary predicate: Mr. Chritchlow had never been known to be glad to see anybody. (Bennett) or: You are to live here for the next six months. (B.Shaw)

The secondary subject may often be expressed by the antici­patory pronoun it lt_was considered a virtue not to talk unnecessarily at sea. (Hemingway).

Translation of the infinitival complexes into Ukrainian depends on or is predetermined by some factors, the main of which are the following:



  1. the lexical meaning of the verb or rather the semantic group to which the verb (after which the syntactic construction is used) belongs;

  2. the voice form (active or passive) of the subjective (nomina­tive) infinitive;

  3. the structure of the parts of the sentence and that of the sentence itself, which may be simple or composite;

  4. the translator's choice of the means and language units conveying the meaning of the subjective with the infinitive construc­tions.

Thus, when used with the verbs expressing permission, request, intention, order, compulsion (to allow, to permit, to order, to command, to force, to make, to request, to intend, etc.), the subjective with the infinitive construction may be rendered in Ukrainian in the following ways:

  1. with the help of an indefinite personal sentence;

  2. with the help of an impersonal sentence having the passive verbal predicate in -ho, -to;

c) with the help of an object subordinate clause, for example:
A. The inmates were ordered not to try to leave their wards.

(USA Today)

1) В 'язням наказали не робити спроб залишати камери;


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  1. В 'язням було наказано/наказали не виходити з камер...

  1. В 'язням наказали, щоб вони не робили спроб залишати камери.

B. The subjective with the infinitive construction used with the
verbs of physical perception (to feel, to hear, to see, to taste, etc.)
can be translated:

a) with the help of the one-member introductory indefinite per­sonal sentences followed by an object subordinate clause as in the following sentence:



He was seen the first to come. Бачили, що він прийшов

(D. Carter) першим.

A certain man was seen to reel Бачили, що якийсь чоловік.

into Mr.Twain's hotel last night, заточуючись, ввалився вчора
(Mark Twain) ввечері в готельний номер


містера Твена.

Alongside the introductory definite personal sentence, some­


times the impersonal introductory sentence may be used in Ukrainian
to render the meaning of the nominative with the infinitive construc­
tion. Thus the sentence below can be translated in two ways:
The garden gate was heard to bang. (Lawrence)
1) Чули/було чути, як 2) Почулося, як у садку

хляпнула хвіртка в садок. хляпнула хвіртка.

Similarily in the sentence below where the Ukrainian reflexive verb performs the functions of the introductory/subject clause:



It was felt to be hopeless. Відчувалося. що це

(Galsworthy) безнадійноУВідчувалося. що з

цього нічого не буде.

This sentence may have in Ukrainian one more quite unex­pected condensed version of a two-member simple sentence: 1) Відчувалася безнадія. 2) Відчувалася якась безвихідь.

C. Similar ways of translation are employed when the subjective
with the infinitive complex/constrtuction is used with the verbs of mental
perception (to believe, to deny, to expect, to know, to suppose, etc.):

He is supposed to be working Вважають (вважається), що

in the sanatorium. (Cusack) він нібито працює в санаторії.

Irene was known to take very Знали, що Айріні приймає

sudden decisions. (Galsworthy) зовсім несподівані рішення

(здатна на несподівані рішення).

Depending on the context, the translator may suggest some other structural (and, naturally, semantic) versions for the last sen­tence. As for example:



Айріні знали як людину, що здатна на зовсім несподівані (непередбачені) рішення. Знали, що Айріні може приймати зовсім непередбачені рішення.

D. When used after the verbs of saying and reporting (to say, to report, to tell, etc.), the nominative with the infinitive complex is translated with the help of the introductory indefinite-personal sen­tence followed by an object subordinate clause. The choice of the form of this introductory clause is predetermined by the verb with which the subjective with the infinitive construction is used. Thus, the verb say, for example, can not have а -ся/-сь equivalent in Ukrainian, whereas the verb report can have both the :ся. form as well as the third person plural form introduced by the conjunction як.



Paper is said to have been invented in China. (Bennett)

Кажуть, що папір винайдений/винайдено в Китаї.

But: US Secretary of State is reported to have arrived in Ge­neva. (The Guardian)

  1. Повідомляють, що державний секретар США прибув до Женеви.

  2. Як повідомляють, державний секретар США прибув до Женеви.

  3. Повідомляється, що державний секретар США прибув до Женеви.

Apart from the verbs of saying and reporting the verbs to ex­pect, to understand, and to see are used in oral and written mass media in the same functions. Their meaning may sometimes differ from their commonly known vocabulary meanings. For example:

Sax sales this year are ex- Очікується, що продаж

pected to blow past last year's платівок саксофонної музики
67000. (USA Today) цього року перевищить


торішню на 67000 (штук)

But: The rally was seen to be Виявилося (як виявилося),



much smaller than had been ex- мітинг зібрав менше людей,
pected. (The Guardian) ніж очікувалося.

The sentence can also be translated with the help of the imper­sonal -ся verbal clause introduced by the conjunction як: Як переконалися, мітинг зібрав менше людей, ніж спершу очікувалось.




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265


The verb understand'with which the subjective with the infini­tive construction is used, has a peculiar meaning - згідно наявних відомостей:

The trial is understood to be Згідно наявних відомостей.

held next week. (The Guardian) суд відбудеться наступного

тижня.

Е. When used with the verbs to appear, to chance, to hap­pen, to prove, to seem, or with the mood phrases to be sure, to be certain, to be likely/unlikely the subjective with the infinitive con­structions may have different interpretations in Ukrainian. Thus, the verbs seem, believe, appear, etc, which function as simple verbal predicates in English are converted into parenthetic words or intro­ductory сь-1-ся impersonal/definite personal sentences (Вважається/ вважають, здається):



«Alice didn't seem to have Еліс, здавалося, не чула про

heard of me.» (Braine) мене./Здавалося, Еліс не чула

про мене.

She was believed to have Вважали/здається, вона

taken part in the first flight to Al- брала участь у першому по-
pha 73. (J. Christopher) льоті до Альфи 73.

Other contextual semantic variants of sentences with the predi­cate verbs to appear, to believe, to seem, etc. followed by the sec­ondary subject expressed by the subjective infinitive may be the ad­verb очевидно or the modal particle ніби/нібито:



He seemed to be thinking of Він, здавалося, думав про
something else. (Dreiser) щось зовсім Інше.

_ This sentence can also have some other equivalent in Ukrain­ian: Його думки, очевидно, були зайняті чимось іншим/Він ніби думав щось (про щось) зовсім інше.



Note. The structure of some English sentences containing the subjective with the infinitive constructions may undergo certain slight changes in Ukrainian translation:

Mrs. Cowperwood, in spite of Місіс Каупервуд, незва-



the differences in their years, ар- жаючи на різницю в роках,
peared to be a fit mate for him at виявилась для нього під цю
this time. (Dreiser) пору гідною партнеркою.

Sentences with the subjective with the infinitive constructions

may have predicates expressing the modal meanings of certainty, uncertainty, probability, etc. (to be sure, to seem, to be certain, to be likely/unlikely, etc). Such sentences are not transformed in Ukrain­ian translation, i.e., they maintain their simple structure, with the predi­cates turning into modal words/particles or adverbs (such as можливо, певне/напевне, навряд/чи/неможливо, обов'язково):

The fire is certain to produce Пожежа обов'язково зчи-

panic in the morning. (Dreiser) нить паніку взавтра вранці.

But he is sure to marry her. Але він обов'язково (певно-

(T.Hardy) таки) одружиться з нею.

Alice did not seem to have Еліс/Аліс, очевидно/зда-

heard me. (Braine) валося. не почула мене.

Ukrainian semantic equivalents for the modal words likely/un­likely'followed by the subjective infinitive may also be clauses of modal meaning:

є можливість (існує ймовірність), не виключена мож­ливість:

«... we're unlikely to get eve- «■■■ навряд чи можна в одній

rything we want in one man.» людині поєднати все, що хо-
(Snow) чеш.»


She was likely to consume Існує можливість, що вона

contaminated food or water in споживатиме в Мексицізабруд-
Мехісо. (Hailey) нені продукти чи питиме заб-


руднену воду.

The last English sentence and sentences like that having nominal predicates with implicit modal meanings of supposition, doubt, uncer­tainty, etc. followed by the subjective infinitive may have other lexico-semantic equivalents in Ukrainian to express their meaning. Among these are the modal phrases as цілком імовірно/цілком можливо, не виключена можливість, може бути/статися: Цілком імовірно/Цілком можливо, що вона буде споживати в Мексиці забруднені продукти чи питиме забруднену воду. Може статися. що вона в Мексиці споживатиме забруднені продукти.

The subjective with the infinitive constructions may be used with some other English verbs as will be seen in the exercise below. They may sometimes influence the choice of faithful Ukrainian equiva­lents for these English sentences as well.


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267


Exercise IV. Suggest possible contextual equivalents for the subjective with the infinitive constructions below and trans­late the sentences into Ukrainian:

1. They were seen to just touch each other's hands, and look each at the other's left eye only. (Galsworthy) 2. «She wants, I'm sure, to be seen today.» (J.G.Griff in) 3. Paper is said to have been invented in China. 4. Her situation was considered very good. (Bennett) 5.... he was impelled to reestablish their lines of communication (Seghal) 6. ... the injured teacher had an operation for a head wound and is said to be improving. (The Guardian) 7. She was not expected to reply, but she did. (Dreiser) 8. «They're certainly entitled to think that, and they're entitled to feel respect for their opinions ...» (H.Lee) 9. The economic problems facing France are certain to have strong repercussions. (The Guardian) 10. They were told to get the children back to sleep. (H.Fast) 11. ... the fetters that bound their tongues were considered to be locked and the key thrown away. (M.Twain) 12. He was thought to be honest and kindly. (Dreiser) 13. He was never expected to recover his equilibrium. 14. «You appear to be in poor shape, all the same.» 15. Her name appeared to be Millicent Pole. 16. I happen to know young Tasburgh who isn't with his ship. 17. «I just happened to drive up.» (Galsworthy) 18. Bob finds it impos­sible to keep pace with stroke, because stroke rows in such an ex­traordinary fashion. (Jerome K.Jerome) 19.... he seemed to be ask­ing what was the matter with me. (Snow) 20. «I seem to have prom­ised that I'd take you into my laboratory.» 21. «I seem to be getting over it a little.» (M.Wilson) 22. The tower seemed to rock in wind. (Lawrence) 23. For about ten days we seemed to have been living on nothing but cold meat, cake, and bread and jam. (Jerome K.Jerome) 24. The goods are reported to have been awaiting shipment for several days. (The Guardian) 25. The girl seemed to perceive that a question of taste was concerned. 26. He seemed to take rather a fancy to me.

27. She seemed, indeed, to have heard it before.

28. Some fellows seem to know everybody and exactly how to work


them. (Galsworthy) 29. The child is likely to face a first period of un­
certainty and bewilderment on being taken into care. (Schimmels)
30. Being subject to endorsement by the Cortes, the «reform» is likely
to be of little practical significance. (The Guardian) 31. The money is
unlikely to be repaid, unless there is a fundamental change in the
policies of the United Federation ... 32. The latest cease fire agree­
ment between the worrying forces in Bosnia is unlikely to hold. (The
Guardian)

WAYS OF TRANSLATING THE PARTICIPLES AND PARTICIPIAL CONSTRUCTIONS

The choice of the method and means for translating English participial constructions into Ukrainian is predetermined by the gen­eral implicit and dependent explicit meanings of the participle itself. These meanings reflect the lexico-grammatical nature of the partici­ple as a verbal. Namely: 1) its voice, tense, and aspect distinctions; 2) its lexical and grammatical meanings; 3) its functions in English and Ukrainian word-groups and sentences.

A peculiar feature of Ukrainian is the restricted use of both the preposed and postposed (to nouns) attributive present participles. As a result it is not always possible to translate English VingN or NV pattern word-groups with the help of these same structural types от word-groups in Ukrainian. Especially when the participles originate from the verbs of motion, due to which the word-groups are translated into Ukrainian mostly with the help of attributive subordinate clauses. For example:

The house was alive with ... Будинок наповнювали го-

running voices. (Mansfield) лоси..., шолунали повсюди.

This present participle may also be translated with the help of the semantically equivalent adjective лункий or even with the help of the verb лунали: Будинок сповнювався звідусіль лункими голосами/ У будинку повсюди лунали голоси.

This same way of translation is employed when conveying the meaning of English word-groups with postpositive attributive present participles whose equivalents in Ukrainian are attributive subordinate clauses:

In the night, going slowly along Уночі, відходячи запрудже-

the crowded roads we passed ними дорогами, ми бачили
troops marching under the rain, військові частини, шо крокува-
guns. horses, pulling wagons, ли під дошем. гармати, коні,
mules, motor trucks, all moving що тягли вози, мули, ванта-
from the front. (Hemingway) жівки, які всі відступали з


фронту.

As can be seen, the postpositive present participles in the sentence above are all translated with the help of attributive subordi­nate clauses: troops marching under the rain - військові частини, що/які крокували під дощем; horses, pulling wagons - коні, що




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тягли вози; motor trucks, all moving from the front - вантажівки, що всі відступали з фронту.

The last word-group, naturally, can also be translated with the help of the finite verb: motor trucks, all moving from the front - всі

/вони/ відступали з фронту.

There exist some exceptions, however, when attributive present participles are translated with the help of Ukrainian equivalents of the same nature, even though they originate from the verbs of motion:



«I think the whole turning point «Думаю, що причиною

in my life was that a wful Trenchard цього поворотного пункту в
boy...» (Cheever) моєму житті був той


жахливий тип Тренчард.»

There came a rushing clatter Раптом залунали, наро-

of footsteps. (Steinbeck) стаючи, кроки полісменів.

The VingNP pattern of the Ukrainian word-group in the above-given sentence, though grammatically/structurally acceptable, can have some other faithful variants, which are more typical for Ukrain­ian. These are two:



  1. the subordinate clause: Почулось, як загупотіли, наближаючись, кроки полісменів;

  2. a construction with a diyepryslivnyk: Почулось, як загупотіли, наближаючись, кроки полісменів.

English attributive past participles, on the other hand, are mostly translated into Ukrainian with the help of their morphological, lexical, and functional equivalents, e.g., past participles. This makes no prob­lems in the choice of Ukrainian faithful equivalents for English attribu­tive word-groups of this type. For example:

«... many disappointed hearts « ... не одна розчарована

still wonder why Coleman never душа й досі дивується, чому
married. (W.Maken) Колеман не одружився.


Her face... with swollen eyes її обличчя ... з підпухлими

and swollen lips looked terrible, очима та розпухлими губами
(Mansfield) мало жахливий вигляд.


They came to a deserted Вони прийшли до поки-

store. (Ibid.) ну тої/залишеної комори.

All round lay the black night. Довкола все накрила темна

speckled and spangled with ніч, усіяна мерехтливими
lights. (Lawrence) зірками-світлячками.

270


English predicative participle» may sometimes undergo, when being translated into Ukrainian, a morphological/structural transfor­mation and turn into a finite form of the verb, i.e., into a simple verbal predicate:

..he went out to Chancery Lane, buying a paper on his way. (Galsworthy)

The weather looked settled. (Ibid.)

Sunshine came spilling upon us. (Cronin)

...він вийшов у провулок Чансері Лейн і по дорозі купив газету/купивши по дорозі га­зету.

Настала, здавалось, по­года.

Сонце залило нас своїм промінням.

The compound predicates with component participles (looked, settled, came spilling) have for their equivalents respectively simple verbal predicates настала (погода), нас сонце осяяло.

The English past participle used as part of a compound verbal/ nominal predicate may often be translated with the help of perfective and non-perfective verbs. The latter, depending on the meaning of participles, may be personal or non-personal:

What is done can not be urt Що зроблено, те зробле-

done. (Proverb) ho.(Що з воза впало, те про-

пало.)
The street was deserted. Вулиця спорожніла (була


(Snow) безлюдна).

When used in an adverbial function, the English indefinite and perfect participles have mostly diyepryslivnyks for their semantic and functional equivalents in Ukrainian:



Reading the works of men, who had arrived, he noted every result achieved by them. (London)

Having gained her degree, she was doing no more reading. (Ibid.)

Читаючи твори авторів, що досягни успіху, він схоп­лював усі особливості їхнього стилю.

Отримавши вчений

ступінь, вона вже не відводила стільки часу на читання.

The perfect participle, naturally, can be translated in the last sentence by means of a paraphrase: Після отримання/Після того, як вона отримала вчений ступінь ...

Some present participles with the implicit predicative meaning

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and function may be rendered into Ukrainian either with the help of a corresponding diyepryslivnyk or with the help of a finite verb (simple verbal predicate):

Then he cut chemistry from Потім він викреслив із

the list, retaining only physics, списку хімію, залишивши
(Ibid.) тільки фізику.

Instead of the diyepryslivnyk, like in the example above, the finite form of the verb may also be used in Ukrainian here: Потім він викреслив із списку хімію і залишив тільки фізику.

In some sentences the translator may have difficulties while choosing in Ukrainian the language unit or its particular form for the English participle. This is because of the existence of some ways of conveying their meaning: a) with the help of a simple verbal predicate or b) with the help of the diyepryslivnyk. For example:

When shaving, or dressing, or combing his hair, he conned these lists (of words) over. (London)



Коли він голився, одягався or: Голячись, одягаючись чи
чи
розчісувався, він усе зубрив розчісуючись, він усе зубрив
ці слова. ці слова.

When translating English passive participles (predicative con­structions with them) preference is given, however, to diyepryslivnyks:



Ashamed of our stupidity, she Вражена нашою нетяму-

murmured: «Of course, of щістю, вона промимрила:
course.» (Leacock) «Авжеж, авжеж».


«I am going the same day my- «Затримавшись тут два

self having been detained here дні через повінь, я тепер і сам two days by the flood. (Goldsmith) поїду звідси в цей самий день.

Some other faithful variants of translating participles and parti­cipial constructions are not excluded either, which is predetermined by the factors already mentioned above.




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