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Exercise V. Translate in viva voce the following sentences into English. Use the nominative absolute participial construc­tions where required.

1. Після того, як лекція закінчилась, всі студенти пішли до читального залу. 2. Оскільки настала сприятлива погода, ми заходились готуватися до етнографічної експедиції. 3. Бартерні операції були заборонені до кінця жовтня, тож сільськогосподарське виробниче об'єднання шукало інших шляхів роздобути потрібні нафтопродукти й запасні частини. 4. Хоч температура повітря була -15°С, чимало киян купалося в Дніпрі. 5. Він заснув, а світло в кімнаті залишилося горіти до ранку. 6. Всі студенти групи склали успішно зимову сесію, причому жоден з них не отримав посередньої оцінки. 7. Студентів було завчасно попереджено, і ніхто з них не запізнився на нульову пару. 8. У нього вдома не було англо-українського словника, і він змушений був їхати до бібліотеки ім. Вер-надського. 9. Оскільки відведений на контрольну роботу час закінчився, студенти стали подавати свої переклади викладачеві на стіл. 10. Хоч запис промови на плівці був нечіткий, всі добре зрозуміли і правильно переклали його. 11. Найвидатніші твори Івана Багряного написані ще в 50-60-ті роки, причому всі вони побачили світ не на його батьківщині. 12. Мільйони українців змушені жити за кордонами України, причому найбільше їх у Сибіру та на Далекій Півночі Росії. 13. Гелікоптер зазнав катастрофи в горах. Нікого не залишилося в живих. 14. Не було жодних заперечень. Рішення було схвалено. 15. Не маючи тоді іншого виходу, я змушений був заглянути до словника.



TRANSLATION OF THE GERUND AND GERUNDIAL COMPLEXES

Translation of the gerund performing its nominal or verbal func­tions in the sentence usually does not create great difficulties. Care should be taken, however, when identifying the nature of the -/ngform verbal, which may influence its way of translation. Thus, the -/ngform moving in the sentence below, where it has an attributive function, may be taken by mistake for the present participle. In reality, how­ever, it has the nature of a gerund which is also proved by its syntactic function:



Chester liked a moving day to Честеру подобалось, що в

be dry and fair. (Cheever) день переїзду була суха гарна

погода.


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Nouns and infinitives are usually employed in Ukrainian as func­tional equivalents for the English non-prepositional and prepositional gerundial objects:

The noun or the infinitive is also used in Ukrainian to convey the


The adverbial functions of the gerund are conveyed in Ukrainian with the help of the diyepryslivnyk or a phrase with the diyepryslivnyk. When paraphrased, the gerund may be translated as an adverb (some­times as a subordinate clause):
As can be seen, «moving», though it performs an attributive function to the noun («day») is nevertheless a regular gerund by its nature, as it always is in the compounds like dressing-table, dress­ing-gown, sitting-room, writing-table, etc.

Translation of the indefinite or perfect gerund in its nominal function of the subject, object or a predicative usually presents no great difficulty either, provided it is not used idiomatically. When used in idioms, proverbs or sayings, the gerund may acquire some trans­parent meaning and not express its direct lexical meaning. The trans­lator should choose then some similar means of expressing their idiomatic meaning in Ukrainian. For example:



1) Doing is better than saying. Судять не по словах, а по
(Saying) ділах. (Вірять не словам, а

ділам)

2) Cunning is the fools' sub- Хитрощі у дурнів замість
stitute for wisdom. (Saying) розуму (nop. Хоч дурний та


хитрий).

Translation of the indefinite gerund, as has been said, mostly depends on its function and meaning in the sentence. Gerunds of nominal functions, therefore, are usually translated into Ukrainian as nouns of the corresponding lexical meaning:



Crying and graying followed all По всьому дому лунав плач

over the house. (Hughes) упереміш з молитвою.

The ugliest habit of our teen- Найогидніша звичка наших

agers today is smoking. (NfUkr.) підлітків - паління/куріння.

Predicative and subjective gerund may also be translated with the help of the infinitive or infinitival phrase:



Deciding is acting. (Saying) Вирішити - ие діяти/

означає розпочати діяти.

Note. On rare occasions the indefinite gerund may be trans­lated into Ukrainian as the finite verb:



«I've heard of making a ga- «Буває, і стайню переоб-

rage out of a stable,» Tom was ладнують на гараж,» - відпо-
saying to Gatsby. (Fitzgerald) вів Том Ґетзбі/Чув, що із стай-


ні роблять гараж...»

Usually infinitival or substantival are also the Ukrainian func­tional equivalents of the gerund used as part of the compound modal

and aspect verbal predicates: The phone went on shrilling.

(Cusack)

Anthony finished cutting and

buttering the rolls. (London) ...the house wanted painting.

(Fitzgerald)

We know a thing or two about financing plays now. (Maugham)

«Marriage doesn't prevent you leaving a woman - does it?» (Greene)

gerund in its attributive function: / hated the idea of turning out.



(Maugham)

The prospect of getting away

from the misery... made it easier

to bear. (Ibid.)

After watching him walk away ... Soames returned to the draw­ing-room. (Galsworthy)

He spoke without shifting his position, without even turning to look at her. (E.Seghal)

...no one could very well slip in or out of that house without being seen- (Dreiser)

Телефон не переставав дзеленчати.

Ентоні закінчив нарізувати і намазувати маслом булочки.

... будинок/дім потребував пофарбування/ треба було фарбувати

Ми дещо-таки знаємо про сьогоднішнє фінансування вистав.

«Обов'язки законного шлюбу не заважають вам кидати дружину, чи не так?

Про виселення я не допускав навіть думки.

Перспектива вирватися із иих злиднів ... полегшувала переносити їх.

Провівши його очима ... Сомз повернувся знову до вітальні.

Він говорив, не поворухнув­шись з місця і навіть не повер­нувшись до неї обличчям.

Ніхто/жоден не міг уско­чити в той будинок чи вискочити з нього непомітно/ щоб його не помітили.


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The prepositional gerund in the function of the object may some­times be translated into Ukrainian as a diyepryslivnyk introducing a subordinate clause:

What had Tom meant by say- Що Том мав на увазі,

ing that she ate out of his hands? сказавши, що вона «їсть у
(Maugham) нього з рук?» (що вона стала


зовсім приборканою)

Depending on the meaning expressed in the sentence, a sim­ple/indefinite gerund may sometimes be translated into Ukrainian as a subordinate clause:



There are some advantages jn В тому є певні переваги,

being fifty and an old hand, шо тобі п'ятдесят, і що ти
(J.Priestley) досвідчений.

Still other simple/indefinite prepositional gerunds in the func­tion of an object are often translated into Ukrainian through a preposi­tional noun or a subordinate clause:



«I look forward to hearing «Чекаю на відповідь від

you.» (Cronin) тебе/що ти відповіси

The perfect gerund is usually translated with the help of the subordinate clause:



He did not remember everhav- Він не пригадував, що будь-

ing been in that room. (Galsworthy) коли бував/побував у тій

І thanked him for having кімнаті.
helped me. (Ma ugham) Я подякував йому за те. що


він допоміг мені.

This perfect gerund can naturally be translated by means of a prepositional noun as well, with the predicate verb referring to the past, which may be indicated by the corresponding adverb: Я подякував йому /тоді/за допомогу.

Translation of the passive gerund is equally predetermined by its function in the sentence. The main means of conveying the mean­ing and function of the indefinite passive and perfect passive gerund are the same as those employed to express the active voice gerund.

They are as follows:

1) A noun or a corresponding nominal subordinate clause:

... I am indebted to Miss Betsey for having been born on a Friday. (Dickens)

Я зобов 'язаний міс Бетсі за Я зобов 'язаний міс Бетсі,

своє народження саме в шо я народився саме в
п'ятницю. п'ятницю (щасливий день).

2) A verbal word-group or a subordinate clause:

... the need for being loved began to wrestle with her pride. (Eliot)

1) ... потреба бути коханою 2) Потреба в тому, щоб її

увійшла в конфлікт з її по- кохали, зіткнулася з її по­
гордою, гордою.

3) An infinitival sentence introduced by the conjunction or an


object subordinate clause:

Only to think of being married to such a girl. (Dreiser)
1) Подумати тільки, щоб 2) Подумати тільки, щоб


одружитися з такою дівчиною, така дівчина та вийшла за

нього заміж. 3) A subordinate clause and no other means:

She could not bear being read Вона вже не витримувала/не

to any longer. (В. Sha w) могла терпіти, шоїй читають.

... she felt a strange certainty ... У неї була якась/майже

of being watched... (Galsworthy) впевненість, шо за нею

спостерігають.

WAYS OF TRANSLATING GERUNDIAL COMPLEXES/CONSTRUCTIONS

Gerundial complexes as secondary predication constructions are formed by a noun in the genitive case (rarer in the objective case) or a possessive pronoun (a pronoun in the genitive case cf. somebody's) plus the gerund in any of its paradigmatic forms. For example: Ann's/her reading (being read), somebody's reading (being read/having been read), etc.

The choice of the way of translation of a gerundial complex greatly depends on the paradigmatic form of its gerundial component, its lexi­cal meaning and on the lexical meaning of its nominal/secondary sub­ject component. Besides, the function of such a gerundial complex in the sentence may influence its translation as well.


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299


Thus, when used as a complex subject, this secondary predi­cation construction may be rendered depending on the paradigmatic form and meaning of its gerundial component, through the following Ukrainian syntactic units of the same function:

1) As a subordinate noun word-group or a subordinate clause:


Tom's coming was a blessing. Томів приїзд був великою

(Fitzgerald) розрадою/радістю.

Her being ill will spoil every- ft хвороба розладнає/зведе

thing. (Christie) нанівець усе.

It's no good your flying in tern- Недобре, що ти такрозлю-

ger. (Maugham) чуєшся/так шаленієш.

The gerundial complex subject of this type may sometimes have two or more faithful versions in Ukrainian:

... Annett's being French might upset him a little. (Galsworthy)
1) Те, що Аннет франиужен- 2) Французька наиіональ-

ка, може його трохи збентежи- ність Аннет може його тро-
ти. хи збентежити.

2) When used as a complex predicative or part of a compound


verbal predicate, the gerundial complex may be translated into Ukrain­
ian with the help of a functionally and semantically equivalent part of
the compound verbal aspect predicate expressed by an infinitive or
noun (as in the second sentence below):

The dollar at the Moscow Ex- Курс долара на Московській

change began its climbing up валютній біржі став знову

again. (M. News) рости/почав знову зростати.

It was Shchedrvk's singing that Саме спів дитячого хору

made it well-known in Poland and «Щедрик» приніс йому

now in France. (News from визнання у Польщі, а тепер і в

Ukraine) Франції.

3) When used as a complex object, the gerundial construction


may have various semantic, functional and partly structural realiza­
tions in Ukrainian. The most often employed are the following:

a) The object subordinate clause:

/ didn't like his hearing such Мені не подобалось, що він

stupid things. (Fitzgerald) слухає такі нерозумні розмови.

Tom and Daisy were afraid of Том і Дейзі боялися, щоб я

ту finding out the truth. (Ibid.) не вивідав правди.

b) An object subordinate clause or a noun phrase, the choice of which rests with the translator, who suggests the most fitting lexical and structural equivalent (substitution) for the gerundial complex in Ukrainian. Thus, the gerundial complexes in the sentences below may have two equally faithful realizations in Ukrainian - either a subordi­nate clause or a noun:



She was wakened by someone knocking at the door. (S.Ross)
1) Вона прокинулась, бо/ 2) Вона прокинулась від


тому що хтось постукав у чийогось стукоту в двері, двері.

І think everybody looked forward to his coming back.

(Maugham)

1) Думаю, всі чекали, що він 2) По-моєму, всі чекали на

повернеться. його повернення.

4) When used in the attributive function the gerundial complex may be translated in some ways, which are predetermind by the lexi­cal meaning and structural form of the gerundial component. These ways are as follows:

a) An attributive subordinate clause:

... she was tortured by the ...їїмучила думка, що Майкл



thought of Michael's unhappiness буде нещасливим і що її дитя

and her baby being looked after доглядатимуть чужі люди,
by strangers. (Ibid.)

b) An attributive infinitival word-group or an infinitive:


There's always the chance of Ніколи не можна відкидати

her having a baby... (Ibid.) (для неї) можливість мати

дитину.

or: Вона не може відкидати можливості завагітніти.


... there was no chance of their ... у них не було жодної
being left even for a moment by можливості навіть хвилину
themselves. (Ibid.) побути самим/щоб їх залишили

самими.

5) When used in an adverbial function, the gerundial complex may respectively be translated as an adverbial modifier expressed by diyepryslivnyk or as a functionally corresponding subordinate clause (of time, cause, purpose and attending circumstances:




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On my being settled a t Doctor Strong's I wrote to her again ... (Dickens).

1) Після того, як мене 2) Поселившись у лікаря

поселили у лікаря Стронґа, я Стронґа. я знову написав їй
знову написав їй листа. листа.

The gerundial complex expressing the adverbial function of pur­pose is translated by means of the corresponding subordinate clause:



Instinct made him step on the Він інст инкт ивно

accelerator with the purpose of натиснув на акселератор,

Daisy and Wilson leaving behind, щоб відірватися від Дейзі та

(Fitzgerald) Вільсона.

The gerundial complex expressing the attendant circumstances may be translated into Ukrainian with the help of the corresponding subordinate clause or an adverbial (or substantival) word-group:



Dusk dropped down without his noticing... (Galsworthy)
Сутінки настали так Якось непомітно для нього


несподівано (зненацька), що він впали сутінки... і не помітив...

І could know it without your telling me. (B. Sha w)
1) Я знав би це, навіть якби 2) Я знав би це і без тебе/


ти цього мені не сказав. твого повідомлення.

TOPICS FOR SELF-TESTING AND CLASS DISCUSSION

Expand on the following points concerning the verbal con­structions/complexes:

  1. The for-to-infinitive construction/complex, its functions in the sentence and ways of rendering its meanings into Ukrainian.

  2. The objective with the infinitive constructions/complexes, their functions in the sentence and ways of translating them into Ukrainian.

  3. The subjective with the infinitive constructions/complexes, their functions in the sentence and ways of rendering their meaning in Ukrainian.




  1. Ways of rendering the meaning of English word-groups with prepositive and postpositive present and past participles into Ukrainian.

  2. Ways of translating the objective with the present and past participle constructions/complexes into Ukrainian.

  3. Ways of translating the subjective with the present/past par­ticiple constructions into Ukrainian.

  4. Define the nature and structural forms of the nominative abso­lute participial constructions and give all possible ways of rendering their meanings into Ukrainian.

  5. Give examples of Ukrainian semantic equivalents rendering the meanings of the English nominative absolute participial construc­tions in the sentence.

  6. Give examples of the verbal and nominal functions of the active and passive gerund in English sentences and offer your ways of faithful rendering of these functional meanings into Ukrainian.

10. Give examples of different functions of gerundial complexes
in the sentence and offer your ways of rendering them into Ukrainian.

EXERCISES FOR CLASS AND HOMEWORK

Exercise I. State the function (nominal or verbal) of the gerund in the sentences below and translate the sentences into Ukrainian.

1. Talking mends no holes; winning the war is what counts. (Murdoch) 2. Fishing kills me exactly as it keeps me alive. (Hemingway) 3. Seeing and doing are two entirely different things. (Dreiser) 4. Avoiding difficulties is not my method. (B.Shaw) 5. Per­haps being conscientious was a family trait. (Hailey) 6. «Oh, well, it's no good crying over spilt milk.» (Maugham) 7. Not having money does that. (Saroyan) 8. Being adored is a nuisance. (Wilde) 9. Having a baby settled her. (Dreiser) 10. «Do you want me to go on seeing you?» (Maugham) 11. Gatsby had intended writing him. (Fitzgerald) 12.1 remember the candles being lit again. (Ibid.) 13. He continued blinking his eyes and trying to smile. (Joyce) 14. I'm not used to living out of doors. (K.Prichard) 15. «I tell you, you're not physically capable of carrying on this fight.» (Cronin) 16. «She's awfully keen on getting in the Siddon Theatre.» (Maugham) 17. Then he began asking people casually if they knew her. (Fitzgerald) 18. She never thought of doing anything. (Maugham) 19. He cursed himself for having come, and at the same time resolved that, happen what would, having come, he




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would carry it through. (London) 20. «Oh, what the good of beating about the bush?» (Maugham) 21. «That's a dog that'll never bother you with catching cold.» (Fitzgerald) 22. I can count upon getting back to France at the end of my six years. (Maugham) 23. «But come, I am forgetting your reason for calling.» (P.Preston) 24. «Thanks for having us, Edward, - we've had a love time.» (M.Spark) 25. «Fancy having to go back to-night,» said Tom. 26. I don't remember seeing either of them. 27. «I don't mind telling you.» (Fitzgerald) 28. «What was the good of having a bit of influenza if you didn't use it.» 29.1 only wanted to thank you for writing to me. (Maugham) 30. Now he remem­bered coming down through the timber in the dark holding the horse's tail... (Hemingway) 31. «That's a trick worth learning.» (Kipling) 32. «Can you ever forgive me for doubting you?» (Lardner) 33. «I don't much care to leaving London.» (Dreiser) 34. Bard ... made a particular point of keeping himself up-to-date. 35. To Dorothy, pleased at having confounded him, it seemed a good moment to leave. (Cronin) 36. He did not remember ever having been in that room. 37. «You give that girl absolutely no credit for having any good taste ... (Salinger) 38. He insisted on coming downstairs with her and putting her into a cab. 39. «There's no objection in going back to that.» 40. «I wouldn't mind making an exception in your favour if it would amuse you to come.» (Maugham) 41. Nobody thought of going to bed in this room. (Fitzgerald) 42. « ... there is no use in standing here arguing about it.» 43.... she has been reduced to working as a nursemaid. (Cheever) 44. «You do not object to having your picture taken, Mr.Eden?» (London) 45. Now she loved sitting here watching it all. (K.Mansfield) 46. Michael got the chance of letting the theatre go to a French company for six weeks. (Maugham) 47.... he had a way of finding out whom the yellow car belonged to. (Fitzgerald) 48. «I'm glad to have the opportunity of falling to you, Doctor.» (Cronin) 49. She was completely stunned at having left Paul's notebook on the train. (Murdoch) 50. One was not given his choice of having plums or not having plums. (Wolfe) 51. «I can't bear the thought of doing it in front of all those important people.» (I.Show) 52. «They were not in the habit of exchanging embraces at odd hours of the day.» 53. There is no use in losing your temper. 54.... her heart ached not for the lost opportunities, but because young man seemed to prefer playing golf with her son to make love with her. (Maugham) Exercise II. Offer the appropriate means and ways of faith­ful translating into Ukrainian the adverbial gerunds and sen­tences containing them.

1.1 did this by loosening all tile planks, by cutting the sinews, and heating the pitch that bound them together.(S.O'Dell) 2. Finally, after having abandoned so many, he decided that he must act or re­turn defeated. (Dreiser) 3. An 11 -year girl died after being savaged by two Rottweiler dogs which she had taken for a walk. (The Guardian) 4. After taking off her stage make-up Julia had not done anything. (Maugham) 5. Mr.Bumble's conduct on being left to himself was rather inexplicable. (Dickens) 6. After a long period of writing, editing and patching up, we agreed on a final draft. (Snow) 7. In five minutes they were at the Northern Light building, and without being kept too long they were shown up to Page's office. 8. Page left for Manchester without telling Malcomb about it. 9. In uttering those words, he was conscious of a girl coming down from the common just above them. 10. The day was spent in preparing and writing the articles to the new issue. (Cronin) 11. Upon reaching the park he waited and waited and Daisy did not come. (Fitzgerald) 12. After being expelled he became a reporter to Gas World. (J.Osborne) 13. Broken edges on lawns can be fixed by removing a square of turf and replacing it in the reverse position. (The Guardian) 14. He always ended up by sending her his best love and signing himself «hers very affectionately...» 15. And he felt that he should more profoundly spend his evenings ... by going to outlying theatres and trying to find talent. (Wilde) 16. They started by breaking a cup. (J.K.Jerome) 17. Before following her in her round of seeking, let us look at the sphere in which her future was to lie. (Dreiser) 18. After the summer, after being friends with Won-a-nee and her young, I never killed another otter. (S.O'Dell) 19. When the two men had gone, she looked through the photographs again before putting them back. 20. She consoled herself by thinking that he loved her as much as he was capable of loving. (Yalsworthy) 21. «I don't suppose you feel much like talking about it now.» (T.Williams)




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