1. We liked neither reading aloud nor being read aloud to. 2.1 insisted on being told everything. 3. «... but damn it all, I insist on your being educated like a gentleman.» (Galsworthy) 4. Dartie on being told it was pleased enough. (Maugham) 5. «But he has no right to come without being invited,» said Tom. (Fitzgerald) 6. I am very fond of being looked at. (Wilde) 7. He had met the woman at last - the woman that he thought little about, not being given to thinking about
women... 8. Several times he barely escaped being caught by her brothers. (London) 9. Versh remembered laughing aloud, and the laugh being carried by the wind away from me. (Saroyan) 10. He did not like the idea of being haunted down by her. (Dickens) 11. Objection and argument finally ending in the question being allowed. (Dreiser) 12. The countries financial difficulties being unsolved undermines its economic stability. (F.News) 13.1 remember the candles being lit again. (Fitzgerald) 14. He became chief of a fine ship without ever having been tested by these events. (Caldwell) 15. There followed disturbing pictures of how their respective parents or relatives had it on being informed of their sins. (Dreiser) 16. The court was told that the victim had given himself up to police after having been beaten with sticks by a punishment squad. (The Guardian)
Exercise IV. State the function of the gerundial complex in each sentence first and then translate the sentences into Ukrainian.
1. «His singing is gorgeous,» I think. (Christie) 2. Miss O'Shay's calling her to the office had been in the nature of a preparation and warning. (Hughes) 3. «It's no good your flying in a temper.» (Maugham) 4. The most unexpected event then was her being engaged to Bob. (Wolfe) 5. I can't expect Julia's putting on shorts and coming for a sun with me in the park. 6. Her consideration was prevented by Evie's coming into the room. (Maugham) 7. «He is disturbed by my not taking part in the game.» (USA Today) 8. Tom was evidently perturbed by Daisy's running around alone. 9. I've heard of it's being made out of a stable. (Fitzgerald) 10. Tell me about this horrible business of my father wanting to set aside for another son. (B.Shaw) 11.1 dread him coming into the room. (J.Osborne) 12.... there is no use in my getting excited over it. 13. «Hope you don't mind my coming?» (London) 14.1 insist on both of them coming in time. 15. Doris was awakened by the sound of her husband's splashing in the bathhouse. 16. «Perhaps you wouldn't mind her coming in?» 17. «You don't mind my asking though, do you?» 18. It's my fault, I ought to have insisted on your taking a holiday long ago.» 19. «I don't know that I should altogether approve of your having animated conversations with ladies, while you're having your bath.» 20. «I couldn't bear to think of your having to throw away your good money on tips.» 21. «I am sur-prisedat your having said it.» (Maugham) 22. «Is there any objection to my seeing her?» 23. «Don't fear of my forgetting Daisy,» said Gatsby. 24. «I wonder at Tom's allowing this engagement,»
he said to Jordan. (Fitzgerald) 25.*We were astonished by the policeman's taking down names with such correction and sweat in a little book. (Greene) 26. «I could imagine his giving a friend a little pinch of the latest vegetable alkaloid ... (C.Doyle) 27. I remember her being surprised by Gatsby's gracefulness.28. «Don't fear my forgetting her. (Fitzgerald) 29. «And I don't worry about me losing a night.» (M.Puzo) 30. Speaking without thinking is shooting without aiming. (Cronin) 31. His father, not liking the idea of his going on the stage, had insisted on it. 32. She couldn't hear the thought of her wasting his life over her. (Maugham) 33. « ... there was no chance of your getting over to Apia for at least another week.» (W.Styron) 34. «The reason for your writing is to make a living, isn't it?» (London) 35. A feeling of its being too dangerous to take a step in any direction had fallen on them all. (Galsworthy) 36. Simultaneously came a tumult from the parlour, and a sound of windows being closed. (Wells) 37. Alice laughed so much at this that she had to run back into the wood for fear of their hearing her. (Caldwell) 38. «I can never do anything without your interfering.» (Maugham)
Exercise V. Translate the sentences in viva voce into English. Use in each of them an appropriate form of the gerund.
1. Оцінка залежала від своєчасного перекладу студентом цього тексту. 2. Ми раптом дізналися про те, що він минулого тижня їздив із делегацією до Лондона. 3. Після його повернення з Лондона, він відвідав мене вже двічі. 4. Незважаючи на те, що цей аспірант молодий, він досяг значних успіхів у науці. 5. Його відвідини стали для мене приємною несподіванкою. 6. Те, що він досвідченний, не дало йому помітної переваги над молодими учасниками змагання. 7. Перебування цього письменника тоді в зеніті слави пояснюється його чіткою патріотичною позицією, що звучала в його творах. 8. Уявити тільки, щоб ця вихована й культурна людина не вміла танцювати. 9. Я не пригадую жодного діяча української культури, щоб він у ті роки не переслідувався. 10. Не всі ще, на превеликий жаль, усвідомили величезну шкоду паління для людського організму. 11. Ми пишаємось тим, що українця Сергія Бубку паризька спортивна газета назвала найкращим спортсменом року. 12. Його всебічна поінформованість про плани футбольної команди не викликала здивування. 13. Студенти погодилися з тим, що їхній іспит перенесено на іншу годину дня. 14. Уникайте контактування із хворими на грип під час епідемії. 15. Нам стало відомо про проведення переговорів з метою
підписання вигідного для України торгівельного договору з державою-сусідкою. 16. Він розпочав колекціювання поштових марок, ще навчаючись у середній школі. 17. Те, що ці товари поставляються багатьом західним клієнтам, є свідченням виробничого потенціалу цього оснащеного найновішим устаткуванням заводу. 18. Як вам подобається, що ім'я цього українського баскетболіста не згадується серед найвизначніших спортсменів року? 19. Збори акціонерів наполягли на тому, щоб ця вигідна підприємству угода була підписана.
WAYS AND MEANS OF EXPRESSING MODALITY IN ENGLISH AND UKRAINIAN
Modality as an extralingual category expressing the relation of content to reality has in English and Ukrainian common means of realization. These include:
phonological means (stress and intonation);
lexico-grammatical means (modal verbs);
lexical means (modal words and modal expressions) conveying subjective modality;
grammatical means (mood forms of the verb) conveying grammatical modality.
The expression of modal meanings by phonological means has often an identical realization in both languages, though in Ukrainian the lexical means such as modal particles and modal adverbs are mostly preferred here. These means may also express the most subtle meanings of suggestion, admonition, supposition, doubt, assuredness, etc. Among the most frequently used particles, which create such and other meanings, are аж, ж, хоч, б, би, і, й, -но, -то, саме, таки, etc., and also adverbs авжеж, адже, надто, певне, напевне, все ж, все ж таки, мов, немов, ніби and some others. The choice of the particle or modal adverb is predetermined by the content, though sometimes it rests only with the translator, who may employ stronger or weaker means to convey the modal meaning in the sentence. Thus, the modal meaning in the proverb sentence below may have two expressions - a weaker and a stronger one (more emphatic) in Ukrainian:
After us the deluge.
1. Після нас хоч потоп.or: 2. Після нас хоч і потоп.
Since the phonologically expressed modality is always conveyed by translators as they themselves subjectively perceive the relation of content to reality, there may naturally be various ways of its individual realization in the target language. This can be seen from some possible interpretations of the modal meaning in the sentence where modality is expressed via the emphatic and logical stress laid on the predicate centres and on the pronoun you. Hence, there may be at least five different ways of expressing the modal meaning of the sentence in Ukrainian:
«I do really wish it hadn't been you.» (Greene)
«Мені й справді хотілося, щоб це був не 'ти.»
«Мені аж ніяк не хотілося, щоб це був 'ти.»
«Мені-такижаль, що це був 'ти.»
«Якжаль, що це був 'ти.»
«Я й справді жалкую, що це був 'ти.»
When under the emphatic or logical stress happens to be the English modal word, the expression of modality may coincide in both languages:
Jane is sure to be at her birth
day party to-night. (Hailey) Джейн неодмінно/обо
в'язково буде в неї на іменинах
This same modal meaning of certainty (assuredness) may equally be expressed in Ukrainian by means of the modal adverb певне/напевне and the particles ж, таки:
Джейн напевне ж буде в неї сьогодні ввечері на іменинах.
Джейн напевно-таки буде в неї сьогодні ввечері на іменинах.
The meaning of uncertainty or doubt expressed in English through prosodic means finds its full realization in Ukrainian with the help of particles and the corresponding intonation and stress as well, Cf.:
«What if I don't pass the examinations,» said Charlie. (D. Lessing)
As will be seen below, Ukrainian particles and adverbs may also be used to render modality which is expressed in English by some other lingual means.
THE LEXICO-GRAMMATICAL EXPRESSION OF MODALITY THROUGH MODAL VERBS
This kind of modality is realized in both languages via modal verbs/their lexical equivalents plus the infinitive of the notional verb. These constructions perform the function of the compound modal verbal predicate and express different meanings predetermined by the modal verb in the main, which can be observed in many citations and their Ukrainian translations on the forthcoming pages.
1. Thus, the modal verb can/could expressing physical or mental ability is usually translated into Ukrainian with the help of the modal verbs могти, вміти or by means of their equivalents мати змогу/ можливість, бути в змозі/мати силу:
а)І saw that he could hardly Я бачив, що він не може/не
take his eys off her. (Maugham) має сили очей відірвати від неї.
«А тепер ти молись, Гарольде,» - сказала вона. «Я не вмію.» відповів Кребс.
«Я не мав змоги зробити те, що надумав зробити ...»
«Now, you pray, Harold,» she said. «I can't», said. Krebs. (Hemingway)
«I haven't been able to do what I meant.» (E. Warton)
b) When expressing doubt, distrust, uncertainty, etc. (mainly in interrogative and negative sentences) the meaning of can/could is mostly enforced in Ukrainian with the help of the particles невже, хіба or the adverb навряд:
e) Some modal meanings of can/could are expressed in Ukrain
ian either lexico-grammatically or through phonological means. The
choice of the means rests then exclusively with the translator. Thus,
in the sentence below the meaning of the modal verb could is under
logical (or emphatic) stress which may be marked (pointed out)
accordingly in Ukrainian:
/ could know it without your telling me. (B. Shaw) Я міг довідатись про це і без тебе.
The same couldin the isolated sentence may also be treated as a form of the subjunctive mood, marked by the participle б/би: Я довідався б/міг би довідатись про це і без твоєї допомоги.
«І can't recollect him.» «Я щось не пригадую/не
(Greene) можу його пригадати.»
« Why can't he goto a hospi- « Чому він не може лягти в
tal?» (Christie) шпиталь?/Чому він не лягає
Note. Some English modal meanings of canhave no corresponding equivalents in Ukrainian. Cf.: / can see in this picture. Я бачу на цій картині... І can hear you well. Я добре тебе чую. Сап you see me? Ти мене бачиш ?
f) In some contextual environment the modal meaning of can
may be expressed in Ukrainian through other modal verbs:
«We had an awful time getting «Повинен тобі сказати,
back, I can tell you.» (Ibid.) дорога назад була страшенно
The modal verb can/could followed by the perfect infinitive and
expressing a probable, doubtful, uncertain, incredible, etc. action is usually translated into Ukrainian depending on its contextual meaning. The latter may be expressed: 1) through the past form of the corresponding verb (indicative mood) or 2) through its subjunctive mood form (умовний спосіб). For example:
1) «She can't have neglected «Невже вона всім цим
all that.» (F.King) знехтувала?»
«Вона не могла всім цим знехтувати.»
2) «How could she have been «Як вона могла так
like that?» (Fitzgerald) поводитись/бути такою?»
Nobody could ha ve sa ved him. Ніхто його не врятував би/
(W. Trevor) Навряд чи хто врятував би його.
But he could have lived, this Проте хлопчина той міг би
boy. (Hailey) й жити/міг би й вижити.
Exercise I. Offer appropriate Ukrainian particles or modal adverbs (or both) to convey the phonologically expressed (through emphatic stress or intonation) modality in the English sentences below.
Model: «I did have ideas that way. For a time.» (Hailey) Таки закрадалися спершу такі думки/У мене й справді закралися були спершу такі думки, (modal particle таки; modal particle й plus the modal adverb справді).
1. «Wouldn't you Nke me to read?» she asked. 2. «Wouldn't you Пке some broth?» 3. «I wouldn't know what to do. Honestly.»
«Oh, I am longing to see it,» Iris said. 6. «Sweety, I don't honestly like this very much.» (F.King) 7. «I know you didn't mean to. but you did it (hurt).» (Fitzgerald) 8. «John, it was you who initiated the Joe Black Memorial Award.» (B. Glanville) 9. «I do apologise, Madam. I feel so... I would not have troubled.» (S.Hill) 10. «Now I caught you!» she said. «Now vou can't get awav!» 11. «It (music) seems to be right in them.» 12. «Wait till I tell him I met Walter Williams,» she said. 13. «Why don't you have another concert, some time?» 14. «Well, I'll be there. I'll be there, if I possibly can. You can count on me.» 15. «I just caught myself in time.» (D.Parker) 16. «You think so?» «Why not.» I said. (Hemingway) 17. «I'm not hungry. Dave. I wouldn't lie to you.» (Caldwell)
Exercise II. Identify the modal meaning of can/could, to be able to (physical ability, mental ability, etc.) and translate
the sentences into Ukrainian. *
1. Anyone can be a fisherman in May. (Hemingway) 2. «Can you draw?» 3. «I could wash the floors.» (Dreiser) 4. Suleman-ibn-Daoud could hardly speak for laughing. (Kipling) 5. «You have done everytning you could for me.» (Hemingway) 6. « ... but I can't make head and tail of it.» (Maugham) 7. She couldn't bear the sight of him. (Christie) 8. «I was able to do the commissioner a favour once, and he sends me a Christmas card every year.» (Fitzgerald) 9. Dorian seemed to be able to exercise whenever he wished. (Wilde) 10. Still there are many individuals who have never been able to work. (D.K.Stevenson) 11. A man can do no more than he can. 12. No man can serve two masters. (Proverb) 13. «Can't I go with you, Holden? Can't I?» (Salinger)
It could scarcely be said that he did this in a fatherly spirit. (Dreiser)
And there followed, of course, squeals and gaffaws of delight - so loud that they could be heard for half a mile. (Dreiser) 16. As for Mrs.Gerhardt, one could better imagine than describe her feeling. (Ibid.) 17. For a moment the set of his face could be described in just that fantastic way. (Fitzgerald) 18. He was unable, however, to long keep silence. (Galsworthy) 19. You cannot burn the candle at both ends. (Proverb) 20. «I suppose, Joe, there couldn't be any doubt about that blood test on Mrs. Alexander?» (Hailey) 21. All that could be truly said of him now. (Dreiser) 22. «How could it have mattered then?» 23. How could she have been like that?» (Fitzgerald) 24. «I couldn't have missed that.» 25. «I could have forgiven it if fallen desperately in love with someone and gone off with her.» 26. «That's just why they couldn't have had the key.» 27. «She could have gone back to Strove,» he said irritably. (Maugham) 28. «Oh,» cried Fleur. «You could not have done it.» 29. There could not have been such relentless unforgiveness. (Galsworthy) 30. We could have stayed in Paris or gone elsewhere. (Hemingway)
Exercise III. Choose the most fitting meaning of the two pertained to the modal verb can/could and translate the sentences faithfully into Ukrainian.
1. If we ignore this problem, we can easily find ourselves in an embarrasing situation. (Stevenson) 2. «I don't think I can stand it.» 3. «I'd send you a certain sum of money and you could give it him gradually, as he needed it.» 4. «Even now I can hardly believe it's true.» 5. «I can tell you why he left his wife - from pure selfishness and nothing else whatever.» 6. «Why can't you write yourself?» 7. «I could not hear what he said.» 8. «Why can't he go to a hospital?»
9.1 could not tell how they were getting on. (Maugham) 10. «It's more than he's worth, I know, but it can't be helped now.» (Dreiser) 11. «If it wasn't for the mist, we could see your home across the bay.» 12. Neitner of them can stand the person they're married to. Can they?» (Fitzgerald) 13. He couldn't say the word «dead». (W.Trevor) 14. «You'll have no trouble. I can assure you.» (Christie) 15. «Pardon, but could you tell me if a Mr. or Mrs.Robinson resides here?» (Ibid.)
16. «I couldn't take the chance of letting it be known that there was
doubt.» (Hailey) 17. «I can't bear the look of that horrible muzzle.»
(C.S.Lewis) 18. I could not believe that Strickland had fallen in love
with Blanche Stroeve. (Maugham) 19. I could think of no excuse.
(Christie) 20. «You can't expect me to think it's a very good system.»
(Hemingway) 21. «I couldn't expect you to understand it.» (Maugham)
22. «What's your opinion, Joe?» «It could be a bone tumor?» (Hailey)
Exercise IV. Find appropriate Ukrainian equivalents for the explicitly and implicitly expressed meanings of can/couldin the sentences below and translate the sentences into Ukrainian.
1. Thus, you can keep rubbing the wounds of the day a little sorer even while he is on his knees... (C.S. Lewis) 2. There are lots of fellows who would be delighted to have your chance, I can tell you. (Dreiser) 3. «It can't possibly be Walter.» (Maugham) 4. Vivian could see he was puzzled, not knowing what to make of it. (Hailey) 5. Love cannot be compelled. (Proverb) 6. «You can't wait in the dining-room, Miss.» (Mansfield) 7. She could not help giving ear to the sounds surrounding her. (Dreiser) 8. «I wish I could see him.» (Hemingway) 9. How weakened she was I had not been able to imagine until I saw her at the railway station ... (Buck) 10. You could see they were being careful as hell not to drink up the minimum too fast. (Salinger) 11. «Your sister? I can't believe it.» (Greene) 12. If we ignore this problem, we can easily find ourselves in an embarrassing situation. (D.K.Stevenson) 13. «I'm sorry, Granger. I wish I could help.» (Greene). 14. Can it really be true, then, that a non-commercial, non-profit public network is the largest. (D.K.Stevenson) 15. « ... you can't expect me to «believe a word you say.» (Galsworthy) 16. «I can't bear it.» (Christie)
17. She used to be able to understand. (Fitzgerald) 18. «We had an
awful time getting back, I can tell you.» (Fitzgerald) 19. «Oh. If only I
could return back to my flower basket.» (B.Shaw) 20. «I cannot have
you call on me here.» (Dreiser) 21. «I can't say anytning in this house,
old sport.» (Fitzgerald) 22. «You can't talk to me like that.» (Ibid.)
23. «You can't live on air, you know.» (Christie) 24. Love and cough
cannot be hid. (Proverb) 25. «...compare her with that poor Mrs.
Osborne who could not say boo to a goose.» (W.Thackeray) 26. A fog cannot be dispelled with a fan. (Proverbs) 27. He was not old, he could not have been more than forty. (Galsworthy)
2. The modal verb may/might with its lexical equivalents to be permitted I to be allowedhas also some peculiarites of use and expression of meaning. The latter predetermines the use of its Ukrainian lexical equivalents. Thus, when the modal verb may/might expresses permission it is usually translated into Ukrainian as the stative можна. For example:
a) «Now may Ідо?» (Christie) «To що, можна мені йти?»
This meaning of may, as can be seen below, coincides with the meaning of the modal verb can in the indefinite personal or impersonal sentences as in One can count it/It could be counted on the fingers of one hand- це можна(можна було) порахувати на пальцях однієї руки.
b) The meanings of permission expressed by the modal verb
may/might can equally be conveyed by the Ukrainian verbs
дозволяти, не заперечувати:
«May I speak now? « Тепер дозволяєте/можна
(Maugham) мені говорити?»
«May I offer you some fruit?» «Можна запропонувати
(E.Bates) вам/Не заперечуватимете
c) When the verb may/might expresses possibility (coinciding
with the verb can/could) or probability, assumption, uncertainty,
admonition, advice, etc., it is usually translated into Ukrainian with
the help of the polysemantic verb могти.
This verb is therefore homonymous in its meaning incorporating in Ukrainian the meanings of can and may wnich can be seen from the following sentence:
«I think I may remind him of а «Я могтиму/матиму змогу.
d) When expressing assumption, probability, presumability, wish, advice, etc., the verb may and its past (or subjunctive) form might often acquires some additional modal meaning which is mostly rendered into Ukrainian with the help of different modal particles. The most frequently employed of them are б, ще/ще й, хай, etc.
«Let's wait a little more, she «Зачекаймо трохи, вона ще
Bass said we might get some
of the laundry of the men at the
hotel to do. (Dreiser)
« We shall never be married.» «Some time - we might,» said
Dorothea in a trembling voice.
might return in a couple of min- може (може ще й) прийде за
Бас каже, що ми могли б брати в пожителів готелю білизну прати (для прання). «Ми ніколи не одружимось.» «А може колись і одружимось,» відповіла Доротея тремтливим голосом.
є) When expressing wish, the subjunctive meaning of may is conveyed in Ukrainian either with the help of the particles хай or щоб, initiating the sentences:
Council. (Charter of the United Na- Безпеки. (Статут Організації
tions) Об'єднаних Націй).
h) The modal verb may/might followed by a perfect infinitive often expresses supposition, desire, uncertainty, probability, etc., of actions which might not have been carried out. When isolated from a contextual environment, the construction of may/might with the perfect infinitive may be treated as polysemantic and consequently offered different interpretatations in Ukrainian. Thus, the sentence «She may ha ve forgotten, you know; or got the evening mixed.» (Galsworthy) may have the following five faithful (from the translator's point of view) interpretetions/variants:
«Знаєте, вона мабуть забула чи сплутала вечір.»
«Вона певне забула або сплутала вечір.»
«Можливо, вона забула чи сплутала вечір.»
«Цілком імовірно, що вона забула чи сплутала вечір.»
«Знаєте, а може вона забула чи сплутала вечір.»
і) There appears still more uncertainty while conveying the meaning of may/mightwAh the negated perfect infinitive as in the sentence «The aircraft might not have been downed in the action.» (USA Today) The lexical ambiguity of the construction can be seen from the following possible variants of its interpretation in Ukrainian:
Літак може й не збито в тім бою.
Літак мабуть не збито в тім бою.
Цілком імовірно, що літак не був збитий у тому бою.
Навряд чи літак був збитий у тому бою.
Може літака й не збили в тому бою.
These meanings of may/might are naturally realized through the infinitive forming the content core of the modal predicate in the sentence.
In many sentences the modal verb mightadds a subjunctive meaning to the predicate, which it is a part of, as in the following example:
Mrs.Gerhardt thought of all the Дженні Ґергардт перебрала
places to which she might apply, й усі інші місця, де можна було
(Dreiser) б спитати про роботу.