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3. Determination, perseverance or promising threat which is often rendered through lexically explicit Ukrainian verbs, express­ing also the future tense at the same time:

«I will examine them (ас- «Я зараз перевірю їх(гроші

counts and money) and settle with й рахунки) і порішу з вами.» you presently.» (B.Shaw)

«І will prosecute you myself.» «Я сам вас судитиму

(Ibid.)

«I will survive. I will escape. І «Я переживу це. я втечу

will not give in.» (Dreiser) звідси, нізащо не здамся.»

4. Willingness, consent (in conditional clauses after follow­


ing the conjunction if):

«If you will tell me all about it «Якщо ти захочеш мені роз-in a chatty way, I can communi- повісти про це щиро, я перекажу cateittoLadyRoxdale". (В. Shaw) тоді все леді Роксдейл.»

The meaning of the modal verb mil (will tell) in the sentence above may also be expressed in Ukrainian through a logical or emphatic stress laid upon the notional verb (predicate): Якщо ти розкриєш/розповіси все чисто, то я тоді перекажу це леді Роксдейл...

As has been pointed out, the modal meaning of the verb will may go parallel with that of its past form would. This is observed when will апб would are used to express the following meanings:

5. Polite request which may be expressed as follows:


«Will you walk into my «Чинезайдеш/зайди-нодо

parlour?» (Dreiser) моєї вітальні?»

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10. Determination or persistence, which is expressed with the help of set constructions like / (he, we) won't/would not. This modal meaning is rendered into Ukrainian by means of the verb дозволяти/не дозволяти, допускати/не допускати as well:

6. Supposition which is usually expressed in Ukrainian with the help of modal words or by means of the subjunctive mood of the predicate verb:
«I want you to do a most terrible favour. Will you? Will you please?» (D.Parker)

« When would you like to come over?» (Galsworthy)

«I expect he will have had his tea.» (Smith)

«This will be the place where they reposed.» (W.Maken)

«Well, this would interest you.» (Fitzgerald)

«Я хочу, щоб ви мені зробили страшенно велику послугу. Зробите? Благаю, зробіть

«Коли б ви хотіли (могли) навідатись/зайти ?»

« Сподіваюся, він уже посні­дає/поп'є чаю.»

«Це напевне/мабуть і є те місце, де вони перепочивали.»

«Це тобі було б иікаво/ Напевне зацікавило б тебе.»

no one will follow you, I'm sure.» (Hudges)

«Ten or eleven», the Sheriff said, «I won't stand for it.» (Saroyan)

Several times Eckerman tried to get away, but Gothe would not let him go.» (Maugham)

хочеш, але я певен, що за тобою ніхто не піде.»

«Десять чи одинадцять років, - сказав шериф, - я все одно не дозволю цього.»

Не раз Екерман намагався піти, але Ґете не відпускав (не погоджувався відпустити) його.



11. Preference choice and other meanings as in the set ex­pressions I'd rather/I would/I'd sooner, which are usually rendered into Ukrainian with or without the help of the subjunctive mood forms plus such adverbs of manner as краще, радніше/ліпше:

С. Will and would are used in many set/idiomatic expressions having both subjunctive and non-subjunctive meaning:


The range of modal meanings, which the modal verbs will and would may express, is not exhausted by those enumerated above.

7. Habitual volitional actions which are conveyed as follows:
After this accident he will Після того нещастя він

lock himself and not show off. став замикатися в собі і не
(Ibid.) показуватись.


In the afternoon he would go out alone and walk for hours. (Galsworthy)

Після полудня він, бувало, йшов із дому і годинами не вертався з прогулянки.

8. Resistance to an action referring to the present or to the future, which is observed only in English. Consequently, it has no corresponding modal expression in Ukrainian. Cf.:



«Help him, please. The door «Допоможіть, будь ласка, йому.

will not unlock.» (Jacobs) ...it (rain) blinded the windscreen and the wiper wouldn't work. (Greene)

Двері ніяк не відмикаються

...дощ заливав лобове скло автомашини, а «двірник» не пра­цював (не хотів працювати).

9. Condition which is equivalent^ expressed in Ukrainian through the subjunctive or conditional mood forms in subordinate clauses of real and unreal condition:



«If he wouldn't mind. I would «Якби він не був проти (не

love to come.» (Maxwell) заперечував), то я б охоче

прийшов
«You may go, if you will, but «Іди собі/можеш іти, якщо


«So we had better go to sup­per,» said Mary. (Joyce)

Mother said she would much rather watch him fish and not try to fish herself. (Leacock)

He will/would never set the Thames on fire. (Proverb)

He will die as he lived. (Ibid.)

He who would catch fish must not mind getting wet. (Ibid.)

He would give a penny for the young fellow's thoughts. (Galsworthy)

« You'd make a saint swear. > (Ibid.)

«Чи не краще б піти на вечерю,» - запропонувала Мері.

Мати сказала, що вона рад­ніше спостерігала б. як він вудить, ніж самій вудити.

Він навряд чи порох вигадає./ Він зірок із неба не знімає.

Горбатого (тільки) могила виправить.

Хочеш рибки - лізь у воду/Ле­жатимеш на печі - не їстимеш калачі.

Він багато дав би. щоб дізнатися, що цей молодик задумав.

«Ти навіть святого ви­ведеш/вивів би з рівноваги.»


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There may be some others, as for example: 12. To express favour, benevolence:

«He wants to know ... if you'll «Він хоче знати ...чи ви не.



invite Daisy to your house some зволите запросити колись на
afternoon ...» (Fitzgerald) обід до себе Дейзі...»

D. Should as a modal verb is very often used both in reference to present and to future (and to express the subjunctive meaning). It conveys a variety of meanings some of which may be close to the meanings of the modal verbs ought to, have to, to be to, must. Thus, the sentence «I'm sorry. I shouldn't have said that.» (Cusack) may be translated, when out of its broader context, as follows:



  1. Пробачте: мені не треба було цього казати/ Пере­прошую: мені не слід було це казати.

  1. Пробачте: мені не слід було цього казати.

  2. Пробачте: я не мав був цього казати.

There may be one more variant of the sentence with the intonational/supersegmental expression of this modal meaning: Жаль/ жалкую, що я це сказав/що це зірвалось у мене з язика.

The most common direct meaning of the modal (non-subjunc­tive orfuture-in-the-pastform) verb shouldIn Ukrainian corresponds to the statives слід, треба, or to the modal word and phrase потрібно/є потреба. These equivalents (depending on the con­textual environment) are also mostly employed in order to express the following meanings of the modal verb should:



1. Obligation/moral obligation, necessity.

"What do you think he should «І що, по-твоєму, йому слід/

do?» (Trevor) треба робити?»

«You should have told me so «Вам слід/треба було ра-

before.» (В. Sha w) ніше сказати мені про це.»

2. Regret, grief, sorrow:

"/ shouldn't have said that.» «Меніне слід/не треба було



(Cusack) цього казати.»

The structure of the Ukrainian sentence here may also be dif­ferent and not correspond to its English original above: Навіщо мені було тільки це казати?/! треба мені було це сказати.



3. Advice/recommendation, admonition:

«You shouldn't have consulted « Тобі не треба/не слід було

те, Esme.» (S.Hill) радитися зі мною, Есме.»

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« You shouldn't talk bitter like «Ти не повинен стільки зла

that, Albert,» Miss Jackson re- виливати, Альберте,» - докір-
proved. (K. С. Prichard) ливо зауважила міс Джексон.

The meaning of the modal verb should in this sentence may also be rendered through the imperative sentence: He виливай стільки зла, Альберте...

4. Supposition/suggestion, which can be expressed in Ukrain­ian with the help of modal words or particles, as in the following sentences:

«Perhaps I should introduce «Може б мені представити

ту friend Cocane to you.» вам мого друга Кокейна?...»/
(B.Shaw) Мабуть, представлю вам мого


друга Кокейна.
«It should be about five now.» «Зараз десь/певне біля


(Cusack) п'ятої.»

The modal verb shouldin the first sentence may also be trans­lated through the particle бодай: Може, бодай представити вам мого друга Кокейна?



5. Doubt, indignation and some other emotions expressed
through the modal verb shouldmay be also rendered with the help of
some Ukrainian particles and the implicit meaning of the sentence:

Sartorius: «I don't know. How «Я не знаю. Та й звідки мені

should I?» (B.Shaw) знати/Та й звідки б я довідався

« Why should I wait?» (Ibid.) «Чому б це мені чекати

6. Surprise, indignation or pleasure (with the indefinite or


perfect infinitive following the modal verb should). These meanings of
the modal verb shouldare mostly rendered in Ukrainian through the
logical emphatic stress, intonation, particles or through some modal
verbs:

«God forbid that I should ever «Воронь Боже мені сказати/

say a good word for you!» щоб я коли-небудь сказав хоч

(LPHartley) одне добре слово за тебе!»

«І don't know why should I «Незнаю, чому це я ще маю

think about him.» (W.Trevor) думати про нього.»

«І shouldn't have done that.» «(Ну) навіщо я це зробив.»

(B.Shaw) (Мені не слід було цього робити.)

The modal verb should m these same sentences above may

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also be understood and conveyed, when taken isolated from the text, in some other ways. For example, in the second sentence (under point 6) the meaning of should may also be expressed in Ukrainian through the modal verb повинен or маю:

«I don't know why should I «He розумію, чому ие я

think about him.» (Trevor) повинен думати про нього.»

The modal verb should in the third (last) sentence above may also be translated with the help of the modal word слід:



«I shouldn't have done that.» «Мені не спід було цього

(B.Shaw) робити.»

7. The modal verb should may also express reproval or pro­test, disappointment, etc., which may be expressed in Ukrainian with the help of the modal words or statives треба, слід, потрібно or with the help of some modal particles. Cf.:

«I don't know why sometimes «He збагну, чому це іноді з

І should be sneered at.» мене треба покепкувати/
(Galsworthy) поглузувати


«She really should have worn «їй справді слід/треба було

the coat.» (Cusack) носити пальто.»

In the last sentence above the meaning of should have worn. when under logical or emphatic stress, may be expressed in Ukrain­ian via the modal words треба/слід and the particles таки, і: їй і справді-таки треба було/слід-таки було носити пальто. Hence, before rendering the meaning of the modal verb should or any other modal verb belonging to those of indistinct or polysemantic contextual meaning, as shall, will, would, the following factors have to be taken into account:



  1. the meaning and nature of the modal verb itself;

  2. the lexical meaning of the infinitive with which this modal verb forms a predicative unit;

  3. the contextual environment of the predicative unit and

  4. the traditional preference/choice of the modal verb in the national/target language.

Consequently, in case of the modal verb should preference may often be given not to its seemingly closer Ukrainian equivalent слід, as it could naturally be expected, but to its stronger modal word/stative треба, (cf. треба йти, треба думати, не треба забувати), which is more common in our language.

TOPICS FOR SELF-TESTING AND CLASS DISCUSSION

  1. Expand on the nature of modality and the main means of expressing it in English and Ukrainian.

  2. Enumerate the modal verbs common in both languages and define their possible lexical and contextual equivalents in English and Ukrainian.

  3. Comment on the meanings expressed by the construc­tions of the modal verbs can, may, must plus the perfect infinitive.

  4. Enumerate the English modal verbs which have not always direct modal verb equivalents in Ukrainian. In which speech styles are they mostly used?

  5. Identify the cases when the modal verbs must and may/ might express assumption, presumability, probability, suggestion, etc. and give their semantic equivalents in Ukrainian.

  6. Differentiate the modal verbs ought to and should in Eng­lish and their semantic equivalents in Ukrainian.

  7. Differentiate the modal verbs need and dare/daresay, their double nature and ways of expressing their meaning in Ukrainian.

  8. Explain the peculiar nature of the modal verbs shall, will and would in English and ways and means of expressing their func­tions and lexical meanings in Ukrainian.

EXERCISES FOR CLASS AND HOMEWORK

Exercise I. Identify the meanings of the modal verb shall and translate the following sentences containing it into Ukrain­ian:

A. 1. «Shall we all go in my car?» suggested Gatsby. 2. '"Well, shall I help myself?» Tom demanded. (Fitzgerald) 3. «Shall I ask the man here to cut you with his rope?» (Kipling) 4. «They shall be called the Malazy - the lazy people.» 5. By their fruits ye shall know them. (Saying) 6. If the blind leads the blind, both shall fall into the ditch. (Saying) 7. «Father», she cried, «father, are you ill? Shall I ring?» (Leacock) 8. «Since you have acted so handsomely, you shall have no cause to complain of me: you shall entertain as much as you please.» (B.Shaw) 9. «Shall I tell you about it?» (M.Spark) 10. «I'll take care that you shall be well off when I'm gone.» (Ibid.) 11. «Shall we go away?» (B.Shaw) 12. "You certainly shall not go till you have




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told me all," I said. (Bronte) 13. «Shall we take anything to drink?» (Fitzgerald) 14. «Shall I give you some coffee?» (Galsworthy) 15. «I will sing the Baby a song that shall keep him asleep for an hour.» 16. «I will throw these five things at you, wherever I see you, and so shall all proper Men do after me.» 17. «Hence, forward I will go out seven times a day and the waters shall never be still." (Kipling) 18. "It won't take you long, and then you shall have your tea." (du Maurier)

B. Translate the articles of The Charter of the United Na­tions below. State the way in which the meaning of the modal verb shall is to be expressed in Ukrainian.

Article 9.1. Each Member shall have no more than five repre­sentatives in the General Assembly. Each Member of the General Assembly shall have one vote. 2. Decisions of the General Assembly on important questions shall be made by a two-thirds majority of the members present and voting. Article 21. The General Assembly shall adopt its own rules of procedure. It shall elect its President for each session. Article 22. The General Assembly may establish such subsidiary organs as it deems necessary for the performance of its functions.

Competence of the Court

Article 32.1. Each member of the Court shall receive an annual salary. 2. The President shall receive a special annual allowance. 3. The Vice-President shall receive a special allowance for every day on which he acts as President. 4. The salary of the Registrar shall be fixed by the General Assembly on the proposal of the Court. 5. The official languages of the Court shall be French and English.

Article 34. 1. Only states may be parties in cases before the Court.

Article 15.1. The General Assembly shall receive and consider annual and special reports from the Security Council; these reports shall include an account of the measures that the Security Council has decided upon or taken to maintain international peace and security. 2. The General Assembly shall receive and consider reports from the other organs of the United Nations.

Article 16. The General Assembly shall perform such functions with respect to the international trusteeship system as are assigned to it in Chapters XII and XIII, including the approval of the trusteeship agreements for areas not designated as strategic.

Article 17. 1. The General Assembly shall consider and ap­prove the budget of the Organization. 2. The expenses of the Organi-

zation shall be borne by the Members as apportioned by the General Assembly. 3. The General Assembly shall consider and approve any financial and budgetary arrangements with specialized agencies referred to in Article 57 and shall examine the administrative budgets of such specialized agencies with a view to making recommendations to the agencies concerned.



C. Translate the following articles from the Ukrainian Con­stitution into English. Be careful to express the modality of each article.

РОЗДІЛ II КОНСТИТУЦІЇ УКРАЇНИ ПРАВА, СВОБОДИ ТА ОБОВ'ЯЗКИ ЛЮДИНИ І ГРОМАДЯНИНА

Стаття 21: Усі люди є вільні і рівні у своїй гідності та правах. Права і свободи людини є невідчужуваними та непорушними.

Стаття 22: Права і свободи людини і громадянина, закріплені цією Конституцією, не є вичерпними.

Конституційні права і свободи гарантуються і не можуть бути скасовані.

При прийнятті нових законів або внесенні змін до чинних законів не допускається звуження змісту та обсягу існуючих прав та свобод.

Стаття 23: Кожна людина має право на вільний розвиток своєї особистості, якщо при цьому не порушуються права і свободи інших людей, та має обов'язки перед суспільством, в якому забезпечується вільний і всебічний розвиток її особистості.

Стаття 24: Громадяни мають рівні конституційні права і свободи та є рівними перед законом.

Не може бути привілеїв чи обмежень за ознаками раси, кольору шкіри, політичних, релігійних та інших переконань, статі, етнічного та соціального походження, майнового стану, місця проживання, за мовними чи іншими ознаками.

Рівність прав жінки і чоловіка забезпечується: наданням жінкам рівних з чоловіками можливостей у громадсько-політичній і культурній діяльності, у здобутті освіти і професійній підготовці, у праці та винагороді за неї; спеціальними заходами щодо охорони праці і здоров'я жінок, встановлення пенсійних пільг; створення умов, які дають жінкам можливість поєднувати працю з материнством; правовим захистом, матеріальною і моральною підтримкою материнства і дитинства, включаючи надання оплачуваних відпусток та інших пільг вагітним жінкам і матерям.

Стаття 25: Громадянин України не може бути позбавлений




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громадянства і права змінити громадянство.

Громадянин України не може бути вигнаний за межі України або виданий іншій державі.

Україна гарантує піклування та захист своїм громадянам, які перебувають за її межами.



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