Exercise II. Identify the meanings expressed by the modal verb will in the sentences below and translate them into Ukrainian.
A. 1. « - we will now seriously devote ourselves to a little high tension.» 2. «Now I know you're tortoise. You thought I wouldn't. Now I will.» 3. «I've never seen a Jaguar ... An' I 'spose I never will.» 4. «...butwe, О Best Beloved, will call him Tegumai.» 5. «We will still call her Taffi.» 6. «I will go away and get help for him from his tribe.» 7. «I will make a Magic and I will play your play.» 8.1 will go up and look and say: «I will guard your cave.» 9. «I will come, I will be your servant for the sake of the wonderful grass.» 10. «I will do so», said the Woman - «but I will not thank you for it». 11. «I will ever be grateful to you». «Now we will make our bargain». 12. «I will hunt you till I catch you. I will bite you. I will be kind to the Baby while I am in the Cave». (Kipling) 13. None are so blind as those who will not see. (Saying) 14. As you sow, so will you reap. (Saying) 15. «Say, will you do me a favour?» « Will I?» 15. «I will prove that he lied.» (Kipling)
«I will now read you a little tale that I wrote last night.» (M.Twain)
«I will never marry without my father's warrant,» she added. (Leacock) 18. «Will you be going to the dance tonight?» he asked. (Macken) 19. «Get this prescription made up and come and see me». «Thanks, Doc, I will». (Maugham) 20. «But I think I will say no, if you don't mind.» 21. «I am an Englishman, and I will suffer no priest to interfere in my business.» 22. «They're crazy. The Sheriff won't let them.» (Saroyan) 23. «I am perfectly willing to wait.» 24. «I will go out of the room if you do.» 25. «Then I will not marry him. I will not go abroad.» (B.Shaw) 26. Tomorrow I will be a man, For Tomorrow I shall fight, And Tomorrow I will die. (Olga Oddes) 27. «I will, Leister, I will,» she exclaimed, «I will tell you everything when I come back.» (Dreiser). 28. «We will let him go to school next year if we can.» (Ibid)
B. Read carefully the Release Form below. Identify the meaning of the modal verb will in it and translate the document into Ukrainian.
TERMS OF AGREEMENT IN THEJUNITED STATES DURING THE INTERNATIONAL LEADERSHIP CONFERENCE
I agree that during this trip I will not smoke cigarettes nor use alcohol or drugs. I will not visit relatives and friends living in the United States, nor arrange or participate in private or public business or activities unrelated to the program of the International Leadership Conference. I will not engage in any promiscuous relationships or dating relationships during my entire stay in the United States. I will follow the program as scheduled and I will return to Ukraine on the scheduled date of departure. I will take full personal and legal responsibility for all my actions while in the United States.
C. Find an appropriate equivalent for each modal verb in the articles from the contract below and translate them faithfully into Ukrainian.
Article 10. COMPANY FUNDS
10.1. Company shall set up a capital fund, a reserve fund and such other funds that are required by the effective Ukrainian law or stipulated by the Company's Statutes, or considered necessary by a decision of the Participants Meeting.
ARTICLE 11. CAPITAL FUND
The Participants shall set up a capital fund of the Company to the value of [?] Hryvnias, which sum according to the currency exchange rate established by the National Bank of Ukraine at the date of this Agreement (1 Deutsche Mark [?] Hryvnias).
The Participants' contributions to the capital fund of the Company may consist of monetary means in Ukrainian and foreign currency, buildings, erections, equipment and other material valuables, securities, rights to use land, water and other natural resources, as well as other proprietary rights, including rights to intellectual property.
11.3.1. The Ukrainian Participant shall contribute to the capital fund of the Company monetary means in Ukrainian currency, [material valuables and proprietary rights] to the aggregate value of [?] Hryvnias, which sum according to the currency exchange rate established by the National Bank of Ukraine at the date of this Agreement equals to [?] 1 Deutsche Mark, and his share shall constitute [?%] of the Company's capital fund, including:
22.214.171.124. Monetary means in Ukrainian currency in the amount of [?] Hryvnias, which sum according to the currency exchange rate established by the National Bank of Ukraine at the date of this Agreement equals to [?] Deutsche Marks.
15.5. A Participant's share, after he has made his contribution to the capital fund in full, may be acquired by the Company itself. In such a case the Company must transfer the share, if so acquired, to other Participants or to third parties in no later than 1 year of the date of acquisition. Within that period distribution of Company's profits, determination of quorum and voting at the Meeting of Participants shall be made without regard to the share acquired by the Company.
ARTICLE 16. SUCCESSORS (HEIRS) OF A PARTICIPANT
In case of reorganization or liquidation of a Participant (a legal entity) or death of a Participant (natural person) their successors (heirs) shall have the priority right to join the Company.
In case the successors (the heir) refuses to join the Company or the Company objects to his admission to the Company, such a successor (the heir) shall be given in cash or in any kind a part of all of the Company's property, owing to the reorganized or liquidated entity (died person), evaluated as on the date of reorganization or liquidation or death of the respective Participant. In such a case the Company's capital fund shall be decreased.
ARTICLE 18. GOVERNING BODIES
The Company's governing bodies shall be: Meeting of Participants; Director; Auditing Committee.
The Meeting of Participants shall be the highest governing body of the Company. Each Participant shall have at the Meeting the number of votes proportionate to his share in the Company's capital fund.
The Director shall be the one person executive body of the Company and shall manage the Company's current activity. The Director shall be appointed by a decision of the Meeting of Participants.
The Auditing Committee shall be the body for maintaining control over activities of the executive body. Members of the Auditing Committee shall be appointed by a decision of the Meeting of Participants.
18.5. Powers, responsibilities and procedures of functioning of
the Meeting of Participants, the Director and the Auditing Committee
shall be determined by the company's Statutes and the effective law
Exercise III. Identify the meaning of the verb would in the sentences below and then translate the sentences into Ukrainian.
1. «Would you rather put it off for a few days?» I asked. 2. «Well, this would interest you. It wouldn't take much of your time.»
You wouldn't have to do any business with the Nolfsheim. (B.Shaw)
«I wouldn't look like Giraffe not for even so.» 5. «How would you like to spank somebody?» 6. «I wouldn't drink that water because I'd know you said it was bad». 7. «I wouldn't look like Zebra», said the Leopard.
«Then great Mr. Lloyds would come with a wire and drag him home».
"But Balkis talked to a butterfly as a man would talk to a man». (Kipling) 10. «I would willingly offer up my political life on the altar of my dear state's wheel and I would be glad and grateful to do it». 11. «Would you ever imagine what is a human volcano?» «I would not». (M.Twain) 12. «You'd like some tea, would you?» (B.Shaw) 13. Without hope the heart would break. (Saying) 14. «I don't know about things like that. I wouldn't know what to do». 15. «I would remember it only as a day that was rather funny». (Trevor) 16. «Reporters came, television and all, but I wouldn't see them». (D.Garnett) 17. «William... William...» he would have to look back to find the surname. (L.P.Hartley) 18. «I wouldn't have her now, not if she asked me on her bended knee». (W.W.Jackobs)
«I don't talk about such things: whatever would they think of us».
«She is not like my mother; the same treatment wouldn't do for both cases». 21. «So that was why he would not touch the money». (B.Shaw) 22. «The honour would be entirely Gatsby's... if you would attend his «little party» that night». (Fitzgerald) 23. «When would you like them to come over?» (Galsworthy)
Exercise IV. Identify the meaning of the verb should in the sentences below and then translate the sentences into Ukrainian.
1. You shouldn't look a gift horse in the mouth. (Saying) 2. People who live in glass houses should not throw stones. 3. «Why should she not (see her)?» (B.Shaw) 4. He knew what he should do.
5. He should get down soon on to the white road. (Macken) 6. «I do
not know what we should do without the pulpit.» (M.Twain) 7. «I should
very much like to see it done.» 8. «Why should I not go too?»
9. «How would you like to spank somebody - but I should not like it at
all.» 10. «I should like it very much indeed.» 11. «I should call it Arma
dillo... and I should leave it alone.» (Kipling) 12. «You should be more
careful.» (J.London) 13. «You should go to a healthy spot.» (M. Spark)
11. «Well, for God's sake, get him attended to, Margo.» «You think I
should?» (Trevor) 15. «Why shouldn't you pass (the examination)
then?» (D.Lessing) 16. «People should know their place and stick to
it.» 17. «You should be saying these things to him.» 18. «Are you
sorry you didn't do it?» «I should have been a perfect fool if I had.»
(Maugham) 19. «That's what you should have done.» 20. «Why
shouldn't you marry me?» 21. «Why should I have done it?» 22. «There
shouldn't be better opportunities for women». (B.Shaw) 23. «You should go back and finish grammar school.» (London) 24. «I don't see why we shouldn't get on very well together.» (B.Shaw) 25. «I shouldn't be sorry if you thought ill of me.» (Maugham) 26. «Well, we'd better telephone for an axe.» 27. «You'd better try and sit quiet till morning.» (Fitzgerald) 28. «I think we'd better draw a picture of them.» 29. «You'd better get off there,» Charlie said. (D.Lessing) 30. «May be I'd better sell it somewhere else.» (Macken)
D. Ways Of Conveying the Meanings of Subjective Modality
The relation of content to reality expressed by subjective modality is viewed upon as hypothetical. The speaker considers the event or action mentioned as assumptive or suggestive (desirable, possible, impossible, doubtful, certain /uncertain, etc.), i.e., as likely or unlikely to take place. That is why this type of modality is often referred to as «subjective modality». It is expressed in English and Ukrainian with the help of common means: a) modal words, modal expressions or sentences; b) with the help of parenthetic words/expressions or parenthetic sentences; c) with the help of modal particles. The latter are a characteristic feature of the Ukrainian language where this feature acquires definitely semantic characteristics.
English modals, as they are often referred to, have usually direct semantic and even structural equivalents in Ukrainian. Among these notional language units, which mostly function as syntactically independent elements in English and Ukrainian sentences, there can be singled out at least two clearly distinguishable groups: a) modals correlating with hypothetic or indirect modality and b) modals expressing a clearly evaluative or subjective functions. The former include modal words/expressions or parenthetical elements in the sentence expressing supposition, assumption, presumability, etc. (cf. maybe, possibly, presumably, it is likely/most likely, it seems, etc.). These and other modals of the type present the attitude of the speaker to an event/action as hypothetical, as likely to take(or as having taken place, etc.). These modals have mostly direct equivalents in both languages:
"Maybe you got some friend Може у тебе є який друг,
that you can telephone for через котрого ти міг би дещо
George?" (Fitzgerald) переказати дляДжорджа ?»
It was probably the first time Це було мабуть/либонь чи
in his adult life that he had ever не вперше за все його доросле
cried. (J.Cheever) життя, що він сплакнув.
Semantically close to the above-cited are English modal words and expressions whose meaning is predetermined by the contextual environment. These modals have often a hypothetical meaning, which may correspond to that of some Ukrainian modal particles or parenthetical adverbs/phrases. They include: perhaps, evidently, scarcely, no/little possibility, etc. Their Ukrainian hypothetical modal equivalents in sentences may be: певно, напевно, напевно-таки, десь-то, навряд/навряд чи, справді/насправді. For example:
"Perhaps, you've seen herpor- "Певно ви бачили її
trait in the papers." (C. Doyle) фотографію в газетах."
Jesus Christ is actually a IcycXpucmoc-ue насправді
name and a title. (J.McDowell) ім'я (Ісус) і титул (Христос).
A separate large group constitute modal words/expressions and parenthetical words/phrases or sentences expressing general assessment of a statement. These lexical units clearly point to the subjective evaluation of the action or event by the speaker. The modals of this group include the following:
certainly, of course, surely, definitely, really, in fact, indeed, naturally, no doubt, without doubt, it is natural, etc. Their Ukrainian equivalents are: безперечно, безумовно, без сумніву/ немає сумніву, зрозуміло, певна річ, правду сказати, природно, як відомо, як кажуть and others. For example:
"Well, he certainly must have "Він, безперечно, мусив був
strained himself to get this прикласти великих зусиль, managerie together."(Fitzgerald) щоб прибрати до рук увесь
"Surely he is mad..." (Wilde) "Він [справді з глуздуз'їхав...'"
'This was no doubt due to his 'Це сталось, безумовно,
cowardly behaviour in the after- через його боягузливу
noon." (J. Collier) поведінку по обіді."
Subjective modality may also be rendered in both languages via elliptical sentences:
Was it because he was afraid Може це було тому, що він
of being lost in a bigger city? боявся загубитись у великому
Scarcely. (Hailey) місті? Навряд.
The above-mentioned and other means and ways of expressing subjective modality can also be observed in several sentences of
the exercise below.
Exercise I. Identify the meanings (assumption, general assessment, assuredness, doubt, probability, supposition, etc.) expressed by the underlined modals below. Find equivalent Ukrainian modals or other semantic equivalents (e.g., particles) and translate the sentences. Model: "It was really a terrible break." (Salinger) "Це й справді був жахливий випад." or: "Це справді-таки була жахлива безтактність."
1. Latin America, in fact, is a veritable laboratory of anti-corruption experiments. 2. Perhaps, in the end, the only universal cure for corruption is to quietnature democracy. (Newsweek) 3. «Maybe they won't come? Maybe it was all a lie?» «Maybe.» (Steinbeck)
«Oh, I feel some concern for my future all right. Sure. Sure. I do.»
«I thought about it for a minute». «But not too much, I guess.» (Salinger) 6. She was apparently indifferent to her two daughters... (Fitzgerald) 7. The young fellow was obviously anxious to be well with him. (J.Cary) 8. «Really.» she thought, «I should come out more often, really it is very pleasant here in summer...» 9. «The sand isn't so soft here.» «Of course, of course.» 10. She was very quiet for some moments, as if, perhaps, shy of being alone with him. (Bates) 11. «Yes, indeed, he's such a good watch-dog.» 12. «You did not approve of paying such a sum, naturally.» 13. «i wanted to bring the crab.» «All right, darling, all right.» 14. «I think I got a good picture of Heidi ,» «Indeed. Indeed.» (Bcites) 15. «And toddy, most fortunstely, is a Thursday.» 16. «After all, three hundred pounds is three hundred pounds.» «Certainly it is.» 17. «Unfortunately, when you opened it contained only blank sheets of paper.» 18. The builders' letter he kept to the last. Some bill, probably. 19. «I couldn't care less, frankly.» 20. «They can't possibly do it any more than they can prove, it won you.» (Hailey) 21. «No doubt, if you were a good detective, you'd be able to make it much clearer to me than it is.» (Salinger) 22. «An unpleasant and dangerous looking young man», he thought, «and not impossibly a murderer.» (Christie)
E. Grammatical Modality and Means of Expressing It
Grammatical or syntactic modality is of common nature in English and Ukrainian as well. It expresses actions viewed upon as real, unreal, optative, hypothetic, conditional, incentive, interrogative, etc. The principal means of expressing such actions are mood forms of the verb (indicative, imperative and subjunctive). These mood forms are realized respectively in declarative, interrogative and negative sen-
tences of wishful, hypothetical or conditional modality.1 As conveying the meanings, which are pertained to different verb forms in the indicative and partly in the imperative mood does not present any difficulty for our students, it is expedient to pay attention, at least shortly, to the means of expression and rendering in English and Ukrainian of optative or wishful (бажальна), incentive (спонукальна) and subjunctive (умовна) modality.
1. Ways of Expressing the Meanings of Optative Modality
Optative (бажальна) modality in English and Ukrainian serves to express the wish of the speaker to establish the correspondence of content of the utterance to reality. The main ways and means of expressing this type of modality in English are syntactic. They include characteristic sentence structures, the use of auxiliary and modal verbs (to be, were, should, could, let, would,etc.), the ascending or descending utterance intonation. In Ukrainian apart from the modal verbs and intonation (prosodic means) some specifying modal particles are widely used. The most common of them are б/би, аби, щоб/щоби, коб/и/, бодай, десь, либонь, хай, хоч, хоч би, чи не, коли б, якби and others Cf:
«Я її либонь побачу.» «І might see her there.»
«Чи не краще вийти на- «Would it not be better to meet
зустріч?» (М.Коцюбинський) them halfway?»
Optative modality is used in both languages in simple and composite sentences:
If only it could always be От якби завжди була весна.
spring. (Galsworthy) /От коли б завжди була весна/.
То express wish with implied regret or unreal wish the stative жальor шкодаmay be used in Ukrainian:
«I wish I had met him when he «Шкода, що я не зустріла
was younger.» (Greene) його, коли він був молодшим.»
1 See more about grammatical/syntactical modality in: Сучасна українська літературна мова. Синтаксис. За ред І.К. Білодіда. - К.: Наукова думка, 1972, р. 125-137.
«I wish I could gather knowledge as carelessly...» (Maugham)
tural transformation: «Якби ви тільки змусили його хоч посміхнутись.»
The meaning of optative modality expressing desire is very close to incentive modality expressing non-categorical demand, requestor threat. Optative meanings are usually realized in English via the modal verbs should, would, may/might, could, and the semantically corresponding infinitive, whereas in Ukrainian the particles щоб, бодай. хайand the prosodic means (sentence intonation/stress) are mostly employed here:
2. Incentive (спонукальна) modality is more often expressed in English through the modal verb let. These meanings are usually rendered into Ukrainian with the help of the imperative mood forms of the verbal predicate and the particle хай/нехай: The meaning of the second sentence, for example, may have a fuller expression when it is rendered into Ukrainian antonymically: Хто не заробляє хліба, той не повинен і їсти його./Хто не робить, той не їсть.
Ukrainian incentive sentences introduced by the particle хай/ нехайare usually translated into English with the help of the modal verb let as well:
«Хотів би/міг би я отак безтурботно/ліньки набувати знань...»
Optative modality is very often used to express incentive (спонукальні) meanings which are expressed in English simple and composite sentences with the help of the so-called subjunctive I mood form (synthetic or analytical). In Ukrainian the imperative mood of the verb and the particles хай, бодай, що б are mostly used for the purpose. They express the meaning pertained to the modal verb may in the subjunctive (I) mood as in the following sentences:
«... my gates are open to real «... обійми мої відкриті
life, bring what it may». (B. Sha w) перед життям, хай несе воно
Some optative meanings expressed in Ukrainian through such modal particles as бодай, for example, may not be easy to fully and completely express in English which has no such fine means (Confer the Shevchenkinian «Веселі здалека палати, Бодай ви терном поросли.»).
The Optative meaning of the concluding line was rendered by John Weir with the help of the modal verb may. The mansion, too, from far a way - May nettle choke the cursed place!
Optative modality in both languages may have different forms of expression. Its formal means in Ukrainian include the corresponding mood forms of the verb (predicate) and the particle б/би. The particle identifies some subtypes of the subjunctive mood meanings (the suppositional, the conditional, etc.):
«I would he were a tree or «Хотів би я, щоб він був
flower.» (H. S. Leigh) деревом чи квіткою.» (От якби
«If only you could make him laugh.» (M.Twain)
він був деревом чи квіткою).
«Тільки б ви змогли викликати в дядька посмішку/ Якби тільки ви змогли викликати в дядька посмішку.»
The last sentence, naturally, can be translated without any struc-
«Щоб нікому 'ні 'словечка.» (А.Головко)
«Щоб на 'світанку був 'тут!» (Г.Тютюнник)
God said, "Let Newton be!» and all was light. (A.Pope)
Let him that earns the bread eat it. (Bibl. Saying)
Let each tailor mend his own coat. (Saying)
Нехай стара мати Навчається, як дітей Нових доглядати. (Т Шевченко)
Нехай мати усміхнеться. Заплакана мати. (Т Шевченко)
«But no one should ever know/learn anything about it.»
«But you should (are to) be here at daybreak!»
Бог сказав: «Хай буде Ньютон!» і навкруги розвиднилось.
Нехай той, хто заробляє свій хліб, і споживає його (nop. Хто не працює, той не їсть).
Хай кожен займається своїми справами.
Let the old mother learn How such kind of children... must be cared for by her. (Transl. ByJ.Weir)
Let once more our mother smile. Our tear-ridden mother. (Ibid.)
in simple and composite sentences have in Ukrainian their morphological and semantic equivalents. Constantly distinguishing among them is that same particle б/биor the conjunction якби, which help to render the meanings of the suppositional and the conditional mood forms into Ukrainian. The use of the modal particle or the conjunction is predetermined by the meaning of the Ukrainian verb and not by the mood or tense form of its English lexical equivalent, which may express actions referring both to present and to future as in the following sentences:
Similarly rendered are also meanings expressed by the subjunctive II and conditional mood forms of the verb, which may refer to present, past or future. These forms of the verbal predicate have their corresponding paradigmatic equivalents in Ukrainian. Cf.:
The clauses which express the subjunctive meanings in English and Ukrainian may have no introductory/connecting conjunction if (якби, коли б):
The past subjunctive II (had been prowling) and the past conditional mood paradigm (would have been seen) have in these sentences their corresponding verb forms in Ukrainian. These subjunctive
Incentive modality may also be expressed in Ukrainian with the help of other modal particles. One of the often used for this purpose is ж/же, the meaning of which is usually expressed in English through the modal verb let and the corresponding intonation:
Походимо ж. моязоре. Oh let us wander still, my fate...
(Т.Г.Шевченко) (Transl. by J. Weir).
English incentive meanings can also be expressed through the combination of the particle longwith the modal verb may, which together with the corresponding intonation of the sentence express the meaning close to the Ukrainian exclamatory sentences with the particle хайor the particles хай же: Long live and prosper our Motherland! May our Motherland live long! Хай/хай же живе і квітне наша Батьківщина!
3. The means of expression as well as those of rendering sub
junctive modality are mostly common with those employed to ex
press optative modality. They are in English the modal verbs could.
should, would, mightor the expressions would rather, would
sooner. For example: / would rather cometomorrow than today.
He would sooner resignthan take part in such dishonest business
deals. (Kerr) These modal verbs are also used to express the corre
sponding subjunctive meanings in Ukrainian simple and composite
«Пішов би в огонь і воду.» «Не would go through thick
(Гончар) and thin/through many trials.»
«Вам би милосердною «You would perfectly sujt for
сестрою бути. (Ibid) a hospital nurse.»
4. The expression of subjunctive modality in the composite sen
tence of the two languages does not differ from that in their simple
sentences. Allomorphism, i.e., divergence is observed only in the al
ready mentioned formal expression of incentive meanings with the
help of the so-called subjunctive I mood; the latter does not correlate
with its Ukrainian grammatical and partly semantic expression. For
example: It is necessary that you (should) come a couple of days
before the others. (Kerr) Необхідно/треба, щоб ти приїхав за кілька
днів раніше від інших.
The subjunctive I form should comeor simply come(It is necessary that you come) used for any person in singular or plural has in Ukrainian the only equivalent verb form in the indicative mood (приїхав).
Other English synthetic and analytical subjunctive mood forms
It would be madness to start in management unless one had at least three plays. (Maugham)
«Should Carry come, ask her to wait."(Dreiser)
«But if they had been sent by my people to take me away, then I should not hide." (O'Dell)
«If he had any sense, he'dshut his eyes.» (Maugham)
«Were I less attached to you, I might pretend to gloss it over.» (Cronin)
«... had any stranger been prowlinground the house, he would have been seen by the servant or the keepers.» (Wilde)
Було б просто божевіллям братись за організацію трупи, доки нема/не маєш хоча б трьох п'єс.
«На випадок, якби прийшла Керрі, попросіть її зачекати.»
Але якби вони були послані нашими, щоб забрати мене, то не треба було б мені ховатись.»
«Коли б він був розумнішим. він би заплющив на це очі.»
«Був би я менш прихильним до вас, я б може й прикрасив ие./Будь я не так прихильний»
«...никав би був хтось сторонній попід будинком, його був би помітив слуга чи то сторожі.»
mood forms under the pressure of centuries long domination of Russian in Ukraine are mostly substituted for simple past verb forms. Being lexically equivalent and structurally much like their English paradigms, these Ukrainian subjunctive mood forms present an excellent morphological means of expression and must not be neglected when rendering such type of meanings into Ukrainian.