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part can be fully displayed in the word-combinations like: to part the fighting cocks, to part company with somebody, to part one's hair, to take part in something, the sixth part of the melon, to have a small part in the event, etc.

Sometimes it may be difficult to identify without larger context the proper meaning even of such a simple polysemantic word as your. which can be in Ukrainian either ваш, ваша, ваші/твій, твоя, твоє, твоїог свій, своя, своє, свої respectively. The proper mean-

ing of many other polysemantic wordstan be realized already at word-combination level. This can be seen, for example, from the translation of the verbs to break and to come in the following sentences:



He shouldn't be surprised if Він не здивувався б, коли б

they began to break the windows, вони почали бити вікна. (Galsworthy)

Bossiney broke the silence. Боссіні порушив мовчанку.

(Ibid.)

If Irene broke such laws what Якщо Айрін порушила такі

does it matter? (Ibid.) закони, то що це означає?

When the evening came Car- Коли настав вечір, Керрі

rie hurried eagerly away, поспішила хутенько зник­
ай reiser) нути.


«But don't come near thewa- «Але не підходь близько/не

ter, or else you may be attacked наближайся до води, бо на
by sharks. (J.AIdridge) тебе можуть напасти акули.»

Stilll other meanings of these and other verbs can be realized and consequently faithfully rendered into the target language only at sentence level as in the following examples: The first prize came to me. and the 2nd and the 3rd went to students of the Stanford and Berkely Universities. (J. London) Перша премія дісталась мені, а другу й третю одержали студенти Стенфордського і Берклійського університетів. But being very lonely I read everything that came my way. (Ibid.) Але будучи самотнім/нудьгуючи на самоті, я читав усе, що потрапляло мені до рук.

The verb come has some quite different realizations in set/idi­omatic expressions, cf.: to come under one's eye/notice -привернути до себе увагу; to come under one's thumb -викликати підозру; to come under the yoke - примиритися з поразкою (вгнути голову); to come unstuck- провалитися, піти прахом; соте what may- що буде, те буде; to come Yorkshire over one- обдурити, обманути когось.

Some meanings of polysemantic verbs and other parts of speech are not quite easy to identify even at sentence level, as can be seen from the examples below:



«Shall I take you round the «Може, сер, я пошлю кухаря

house, sir, while I send the cook повідомити його про це. доки я to break it to him ?» (Galsworthy) показуватиму вам будинок?»


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Translation of polysemantic words may often require a deep insight into content of a part or of the whole passage/text comprising some sentences. This can be partly seen from the meanings of the nouns sfuffand run in the sentences below:

Since it is always the concrete context that predetermines the real meaning of a polysemantic word, the translator has to study first of all the original passage/text thoroughly and only then suggest an equivalent which would fit in for the translation:
Christine made a fourth at the table. (Cronin)

... it it had not been for my wife having a little money of her own, I couldn 't ha ve carried on as I have done. (J.Priestley)

«But isn't there time before your train to get all your stuff to­gether?» (M. Wilson)

All that kind of antiwar talk you hear nowadays from your fellows is the worst kind of subversive stuff. (Ibid.)

Now, of course, there was as much business in machine tools at least as there had been in 1929, what with this European stuff going on. (M. Wilson)

But what happens when he gets to the heavy stuff? And it's the heavy stuff we're interested. (Ibid.)

«Oh, stuff it up your nose!» one of the companions said. (D.Carter)

«Then I'll finish up the grids and get ready for the run just as I was going to do.» (Ibid.)

«... I am going to give young Dr. Anthony Haviland the run of his goddamn life.» (Ibid.)

Крістін була четвертою за столом.

... коли б не якась копійка у моєї дружини, я не міг би стільки терти лямку (не протяг би, не витримав би так довго).

«Та невже у тебе не буде часу до відходу поїзда зібрати всі свої манатки/речі

Усі ці патякання проти війни, які чуєш серед молоді, -та це ж найгіршого штибу підривна діяльність.

Зараз, звичайно, роботи вистачає, на станки попит не менший, ніж 1929 року, адже он які події розгортаються в Европі.

Ну а як воно покаже себе на важкому станку? Адже нас саме важкі станки цікавлять.

«Заткни пельку/замовкни!» -гримнув один із тієї компанії.

«Тоді я закінчу з захисними сітками і приготую їх до досліду, який я саме й мав намір проводити...»

«... Я цьому молодому докторові Ентоні Гевіленду дам такої нагінки, що він усе життя пам'ятатиме.»

Lately, we've had a run of ' Останнім часом ми
shocking bad luck at the Depart- отримали кілька відмов у
ment. (Cronin) міністерстві.


Their stores were already rurt У них уже закінчувалися

ning low. (Stevenson) (завершувалися) запаси

продуктів.

«They seem to be running «Вони, здається, готують

wild». (J.AIdridge) бунт» (щоб захопити владу).

It would be wrong to assume that only polysemantic notionals can realize their actual meanings at the level of word-combinations and sentences. Some meanings of functionals can also be identified only at the level of sentences or external word-groups. Among these may be even the meanings of conjunctions as, for example, that of and in the following sentence: The poem was long and he could not learn it by heart. Here and may have either the meaning of the co-ordinate conjunction / or the implicit meaning of the subordinate conjuction оскільки/тому. (Why could he not learn the poem by heart? - Because it was long.) - Оскільки/тому що вірш був великий, він його не вивчив напам'ять.

Similarly with some other functionals whose implicit meanings, functions and sometimes even their logico-grammatical nature can be clearly established only at the level of word-groups or sentences. This becomes clearly evident from the following sentences in which the lexical and logico-grammatical nature of the word but is most explic­itly realized:

«He is bul a boy!» «Та ж він ще хлопчина/

(R.AIdington) дитина!»

All of us but a few have come Ми всі, за винятком/крім

to this conclusion. (G.Greene) небагатьох, прийшли до

цього висновку.

But for his open eyes, he might Якби очі не були

have been asleep. (Glasworthy) розплющені, можна було

подумати, що він спить. The contextual environment of but, therefore, predetermines the lexico-grammatical nature of the word (and not only of this word), which may be adverb (We can not but try. - Нам залишається тільки ще раз спробувати) or conjunction (Never a week passes but he comes. - He минає і тижня, щоб він не навідався.)

The word but is also used in different functions in idiomatic expressions. Cf.: «But me no buts, sir, interrupts the diddler, apparently in a very high dungeon.» (E.Poe) - «а ти мені не




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«алекай» (не відхрещуйся), - грубо обірвав його голос причепи ніби/мов із глибокої темниці. The last but one -передостанній, but for- якби не/коли б не. but for your help we should not have finished in time - якби не твоя допомога, ми не закінчили б роботу вчасно; but then крім того: London is a busy place, but then it is also the place where you get fhe best entertainment. (CADE) Лондон - місто великої ділової активності, а крім того ще й місце, де можна найкраще порозважатися.

The choice of a definite meaning out of some inherent in the semantic structure of an English language unit can also depend upon the style of the matter under translation. For example, the idiomatic expression to loose one's reason and its synonyms to loose one's mind, to go out of one's head, to go insane are confined in their use to literary speech styles, while to go mad or to go crazy are used in colloquial and low colloquial speech styles, as a rule.

Similar stylistic restrictions are observed with the use of Ukrai­nian equivalents and analogies of this idiomatic expression too. Cf.:

literary/neutral style: зійти з розуму/рішитися розуму, з'їхати з глузду.

colloquial/low colloquial: блекоти/чемериці наїстися, здуріти, сказитися.

No need to prove that the lexical meaning of each of these variants, even when taken out of context, already predetermines at the same time the speech style, in which it can and should be used in the target language.

A considerable number of other sense units, however, which are endowed with particular emotive, stylistic or extralingual mean­ings, can not exaustively explicate these characteristics at the level of a word-group or even sentence, but only at the level of passage/ text. This becomes especially evident when translating belles-lettres/ publicistic and some other styles texts.1

Conveying the Meanings of Language Units at Passage/Text Level

The text as a term is in the true sense of the word a segment of written/oral speech or a whole work consisting of grammatically and

logically arranged language units fofming with their meanings its gen­eral content. Text as a speech unit may be smaller or larger, but irrespective of its dimension it always remains a macrostructure, which is not an indivisible monolith but a harmonious unity of different lan­guage units. A larger text usually falls into several constituent parts -supra-phrasal units and different types and kinds of sentences. All of them due to their communicative completeness and logical succes­sion1 constitute something of a semantic and structural backbone of any text. These parts together with their various meanings make the general contextual stream of the text, whose content can be fully and faithfully conveyed only when all contents of each block are fully and exaustively expressed. As the blocks/supra-phrasal units are made of sentences, hence, the necessary degree of faithfulness in any trans­lation of texts/passages can be achieved only through faithful transla­tion of all types of their ingredient sentences.

It must be emphasized, however, that it is not only content (the semantic plane), in other words, not only the lexical meanings of various sense units, that have to be fully and faithfully transplanted in the process of translation. No less important is to fully convey apart from many denotative meanings of language units also their connota-tive characteristics, as well as their stylistic and structural peculiari­ties. A faithful translation of supra-phrasal units or passages/text of any speech style, therefore, presents a complex process, which in­volves a full and faithful expression in the target language of all the main constituent parts forming the semantic, structural, stylisitic and other planes of a text. In view of all this it will be expedient to empha­size that all characteristics (nothing to say about the denotative and the connotative meanings of words and the means of expression in general) are identified, as a rule, by way of a thorough analysis of the original text. This analysis inevitably involves apart from the particu­larities of content also the pragmatic toning/orientation, which can be exhaustively established, however, only at deep level structure of the communicative units.

It must also be added that despite the differences in their actu­alization, the planes of a text are impossible to separate from each other, since they are closely interconnected and form the surface and the deep structures complexity of any text. Hence it follows, that the characteristic features of each plane manifest themselves and are fully realized at text level, which can sometimes be restricted, as has




1 See: Nida Є.А. Componentat Analysis of Meaning. - The Hague - Paris: Mouton, 1975. Hoey M. Patterns of Lexis in Text. - Oxford: Ox.University Press, 1991.

1 See: Москальская О.И. Грамматика текста. -М.: Вьісшая школа, 1981, р.14.


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been said, to a supersyntactic unit/paragraph reflecting its main struc­tural, stylistic, pragmatic and other peculiarities. These peculiarities should be rendered in the faithful variant of the target language text/ passage as well, though usually by other than in the target language means of expression.

But whatever the divergences in the means of expression of the source language and of the target language, and irrespective of the fact that far from all the characteristic features of any text are fully reflected in its main componental parts, the translation of a text can be succefully performed only on the basis of its constituent sentences. This is because all syntactic level units are endowed with predication and modality, they have mostly a stuctural and sense completion, they are stylistically and pragmatically in full conformity with the whole text. In view of all this only the sentence can fully meet the require­ments laid before a unit of translation, when the object assigned to translation is a text which usually consists of different types and kinds of sentences joined in supra-syntactic structures.

Since a faithful translation of any passage/text is performed sentence after sentence, their ideas/thoughts, the main structural, stylistic, genre and pragmatic characteristics are mostly conveyed in a consecutive succession too. Their constituent words, word-groups and set expressions/idioms functioning as different parts of the sen­tence or forming constituent elements of the latter (or even being in­dependent elements in the sentence) are all first translated as single units. In other words, prior to translating the sentence as a whole (provided it is not a one-member sentence, like Winter. Bitter frost. Evening time), its parts and functionally independent elements are to be translated as separate sense units. E.g.:

All day we had been sitting in Цілісінький день ми просиділи
the piano box waiting for the rain в ящикові з-під піаніно, чекаючи,
to stop. (Е. Caldwell) доки перестане дощ.

As can easily be ascertained, only through translation of the component parts 1) All day, 2) we had been sitting, 3) in the piano box, 4) waiting, 5) for the rain to stop could the translation of the sentence be fully and faithfully accomplished.

Similarly in the following simple two-member sentence:
There was an old two-storey Того року на ФілдінґАве-

yellow house on Fielding A venue ню ще стояв старий двопо-
thatyear. (W.Saroyan) верховий жовтий будинок.

This sentence too could be translated faithfully into Ukrainian only after its component parts, which also function as parts of the sentence, were translated one after another, though not necessarily in absolutely the same, as in the source language, succession. Cf.: 1) that year, 2) on Fielding Avenue, 3) was, 4) an old two-storey yel­low house. There is no need to adduce any further proofs in support of the existence of a preliminary stage of translation preceding the final one, i.e., complete and faithful translation of the whole communica­tive sense unit. One must acknowledge, therefore, the existence of translation at all main language levels represented by the correspond­ing sense units. Consequently, one can speak of the existence of some language units having their separate levels of translation. This was already exemplified more than once on the foregoing pages and it will be shown in the process of translating several supersyntactic level units/paragraphs a little further. And yet a language unit in which all possible meanings pertained to other language units, which are hier­archically lower in rank than the sentence and thus function as its componental parts, are fully realized at the level of the communicative unit or text as a whole. There will be more than one chance to ascer­tain in that in the process of the commented translation of an excerpt from D.Parker's short story Arrangement in Black and White below. Some other excerts representing different language styles and as­signed for independent translation will also testify to the pointed above statements.

The selected passage to be analysed belongs to the belles-lettres style and consequently abounds in various features character­istic of it1. Besides it represents a dialogue with many colloquialisms peculiar of spoken American English. The authoress employed many other stylistic means to make the narration lively and the develop­ment of the plot dynamic and interesting. The story is a masterly piece of psychological motivation of each character's behavior and speech part. The text abounds in many shortened and elliptical sen­tences and other stylistic means which are used to create some prag­matic subtext which the translator has to comprehend and then fully convey with the help of some functionally relevant stylistic, syntactic and lexical/semantic means of the Ukrainian target language.

Before starting the commented translation of the text it is expe­dient to repeatedly make mention of the obligatory stages that should

' See: Коптілов В.В. Теорія і практика перекладу. - К.: Вища шк. Вид-во при Київ, ун-ті, 1982.-166с.


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precede the very process of translation. The first of them is to read through the passage/work selected for translation and to analyse it. All attention in the course of this analysis should be paid to picking out the language units whose denotative or connotative meanings present some difficulties for translating. After this all attention must be paid to choosing in dictionaries/reference books the possible se­mantic, structural and stylistic variants for the language units or signs as they are sometimes called1, which present difficulties for translat­ing. The second stage implies a regular selection from the chosen variants, which are usually more than one, the most fitting into the given sentence/passage semantic, functional or stylistic equivalents and substitutes. Only when this preparatory work is completed, the translation proper can be started.

It must also be noted that the peculiar sentence structures, the tropes, the prosodic and other means in belles-lettres texts serve the aim of creating the necessary impact on the reader/listener. That is why the regular preparatory work on the text selected for translation always takes some time, the latter being often predetermined not only by the skill and theoretical grounding of the translator but by some other factors as well. These include the ease (or otherwise) of the author's style, the abundance or absence of difficult for translation linguistic phenomena in his work as neologisms, archaisms, dialectal material or any other obscure places created by some historic events or customs, culturally biased national notions and the like. Because of this the preparatory time needed for a translation proper to begin may vary from text to text. The main methods by which the «resis­tance» of the source language text may be overcome in translation (with particular attention to selecting the means of expression) will be shown further on the pages to come.



And now in accordance with the requirements of the first stage in the preparatory work for translation, read and thoroughly analyse the passage below paying attention to difficult or obscure (if any) places you come across in each separate sentence. Put the picked out sense units down and offer one or some suitable lexical/semantic equiva­lents for each of them. See to it that they also suit in the speech style of the corresponding sentences and in the excerpt of this D.Parker's story as a whole.

D.Parker ARRANGEMENT IN BLACK AND WHITE (An Excerpt)

  1. The woman with the pink velvet poppies turned round the assisted gold of her hair1, traversed the crowded room at an interest­ing gait combining a skip with a sidle, and clutched the lean arm of her host.

  2. «Now I got you!» she said. «Now you can't get away!»

  3. «Why, hello,» said her host. «Well. How are you?»

  4. «Oh, I'm finely,» she said. «Just simply finely. Listen. I want you to do me the most terrible favor. Will you? Will you please? Pretty please?»

  5. «What is it?» said her host.

  6. «Listen,» she said. «I want to meet Walter Williams. Hon­estly, I'm just simply crazy about that man. Oh, when he sings! When he sings those spirituals2. Well, I said to Burton, «It's a good thing for you Walter Williams is colored,» I said, «or you'd have lots of reason to be jealous.» I'd really love to meet him. I'd like to tell him I've heard him sing. Will you be an angel and introduce me to him?»

  7. «Why, certainly,» said her host. «I thought you'd met him. The party's for him. Where is he, anyway?»

  8. «He's over there by the bookcase,» she said. «Let's wait till those people get through talking to him. Well, I think you're simply marvellous, giving this perfectly marvellous party for him and having him meet all those white people, and all. Isn't he terribly grateful?»

  9. «I hope not,» said her host.




  1. «I think it's really terribly nice,» she said. «I do. I don't see why on earth it isn't perfectly all right to meet colored people. I haven't any feeling about it at all - not one single bit. Burton, - oh, he's just the other way. Well, you know, he comes from Virginia, and you know how they are.»

  2. «Did he come tonight?» said her host.

  3. «No, he couldn't,» she said. «I'm a regular grass widow tonight. I told him when I left, There's no telling what I'll do, I said. He was just so tired out, he couldn't move. Isn't it a shame?»

  4. «Ah,» said her host.

  5. «Wait till I tell him I met Walter Williams!» she said. «He'll just about die. Oh, we have more arguments about colored people.


1 For further information on the meaning of various language signs see:KoMMccapoB B.H. Слово о переводе. - M.: Междунар. отношения, 1973. - р.213

1 the assisted gold of her hair - her hair had been dyed gold.

2 spirituals - Negro songs, religious in essence, like folk ballades.


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I talk to him like I don't know what, I get so excited. «Oh, don't be so silly,» I say. But I must say for Burton, he's heaps broader-minded than lots of these Southerners. He's really awfully fond of colored people. Well, he says himself, he wouldn't have white servants. And you know, he had this old colored nurse, this regular old nigger mammy and he just simply loves her. Why, every time he goes home, he goes out in the kitchen to see her. He does, really, to this day. All he says is, he says, he hasn't got a word to say against colored people as long as they keep their place. He's always doing things for them -giving them clothes and I don't know what all. The only thing he says, he says he wouldn't sit down at the table with one for a million dollars. «Oh,» I say to him, «you make me sick, talking like that. I'm just terrible to him. Aren't I terrible?»

  1. «Oh, no, no, no,» said her host. «No, no.»

  2. «I am», she said. «I know I am. Poor Burton! Now, me, I don't feel that way at all. I haven't the slightest feeling about colored people. Why, I'm just crazy about some of them. They're just like children -just as easy-going, and always singing and laughing and everything. Aren't they the happiest things you ever saw in your life? Honestly, it makes me laugh just to hear them. Oh, I like them. I really do.»

Note. As could be ascertained, the excerpt contains several features characterestic of the belles-lettres style. This is also proved by some ways of expression and by syntactic peculiarities of speech pertained only to present-day colloquial English of the USA. The translator has to recreate and convey faithfully the content side, the style, the artis­tic and syntactic peculiarities, and the pragmatic intention/the subtext only of D.Parker's highly artistic story. This can be disclosed through a complex analysis of the main planes of the excerpt. Such an expli­catory analysis of the afore-cited sentences is also performed on the forthcoming pages.

Lexico-Semantic, Stylistic and Structural Analysis of Language Units/Sense Units of the Excerpt

The analysis of this excerpt, like any complex analysis of a text, should be started from the title, which is metaphorical by nature (Arrangement in Black and White). Here is a case when the real mean­ing of the title can be established only after a thorough semantic and stylistic analysis of the passage. Apart from this, some extralingual factors, as the once strained racial relationship between the whites and blacks in the USA, should be taken into account. And yet the title, as becomes clear from its component parts (Arrangement, be­tween, Black, White) already discloses the main idea of the excerpt. At any rate it hints to the intention of the white woman character to get acquainted with a well-known Negro singer, performer of spiritu­als. This gives the clue to some suggestions conceiving the meaning of the title, which may have the following versions in Ukrainian: 1. «Влаштування зустрічі білої з чорним», 2. «Зустріч білої з негром-співаком», 3. «Знайомство білої з кольоровим співаком».

None of these suggested titles, however, is felicitous enough to be accepted as final, since neither of them fully expresses the main idea of the excerpt and the story as a whole. Each of the suggested titles fails to express the falsehood of the woman character who is not simply a white, but a racist white. Taking this negative feature of the character into consideration, one can offer some additional Ukrainian versions for the title, which might be more expressive and closer to the original sense: 1. «Біла на концерті чорного співака»; 2. «Біла на концерті кольорового співака»; 3. «Відвідини концерту кольорового співака білою «поклонницею» таланту»; 4. «Біла «поклонниця таланту» кольорового співака».

Out of these four offered versions only the last appears to be close to the content of the story and intention of the authoress. It expresses to some extent the falsehood and the double-dealing con­duct of the woman character, which is partly reflected in the title. It also hints to the hidden negative features of the main character of the story, though even this Ukrainian version does not fully express the meaning of the original title. Nevertheless, it may be the beginning to the solution of this far from easy question and serve as a basis for other versions, which may be closer to the concept of D.Parker, who has given a most vivid portrayal of a regular mentally and psychologi-


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cally split character who proclaims her principle of respect to the equal­ity of different races and acts, just on the contrary. This striking fea­ture in the psychological state and behavior of the female character gives grounds for suggesting some more Ukrainian versions of the title, some of which may be really final: 1. «Поклонниця» таланту кольорового митця», 2. «Біла «поклонниця» таланту чорного співака», 3. «Вдавана поклонниця таланту», and even a single word version «Хамелеон».

The most fitting in comparison with the preceding four suggested titles may be considered the last two of these offered versions, one of which may be chosen (with some transformation) as absolutely ac­ceptable in Ukrainian: «Вдавана поклонниця таланту» or «Палка «прихильниця» таланту».

The lengthy contemplation upon the title of the excerpt/story testifies to the difficulties facing the translator of belles-lettres, which may sometimes become insurmountable. In view of this, some losses, as a result of the great «resistance» of the original text, must be condoned (виправдані). Despite the difficulties, the translator should never desist from the efforts to select the most fitting target language variants for any language unit/sense unit of the source language.

It must be emphasized that the process of selecting the se­mantic and structural equivalents for certain sense units in the target language requires not only profound knowledge of the source language, but also, and not to a smaller degree, that of his native tongue. Hence, of paramount importance is the translator's skill in selecting among synonymous sense units of the source language the only suitable versions in the target language, as will be observed further, when analysing separate blocks of sentences from the excerpt. This aim is achieved via a thorough lexico-semantic, grammatical/structural and stylistic analysis of sense units during the process of translating each single sentence of the excerpt/passage below. It may also be inter­esting, and not only for an inexperienced translator, to follow the analy­sis beginning with the structure of the first primary predication word-group, which reads as follows: The woman with the pink velvet pop­pies turned round the assisted gold of her hair... The predicate turned round'may be erroneously understood by the student as вінок навколо пофарбованих у золотавий колір кіс/волосся, which would be ab­solutely wrong, since turned here means повернула голову з пофарбованим у золотавий колір волоссям. A proof to this is the

second homogeneous predicate traversed'(the crowded room) with an interesting gate combining a skip with a sidle. The Ukrainian versions/ equivalents of this participial word-group may be: 1. енергійно боком проштовхалась через переповнену залу, 2. прожогом, бочкуючи, проштовхалась... These two variants are possible due to the sense of the word-group (combining) a skip with a sidle (in a word-for-word translation «боком з підскоком»). Equally of interest may also be the last homogeneous predicate with its conclusion clutched the lean hand of her host, which should be transformed through addition into the following sentence: /, наблизившись до господаря, схопила його за худорляву руку.

The dialogue between the woman character and her host is of interest both from the structural/syntactic, stylistic and semantic points of view. All these dialogues are both abrupt, elliptical, and sentence-type, presenting in some places regular monologues. Their peculiar features, naturally, must also be maintained in Ukrainian. The highly emotional nature of speech presented in the dialogues of the woman character, her extensive use of subjective and objective modality of­ten requires the employment of such means of expressing modality in Ukrainian as modal particles. This can be observed practically in most addresses of the woman, as in the following dialogues:



«Now I got you!» she said. «Ось ви і попалися мені!»

«Now you can't get away!» вигукнула вона. «Тепер вам не

втекти!»

"Why, hello,» said her host. «А, вітаю,»-озвавсягосподар.

«Well. How are you ?» «Ну. як ся маємо/як справи?»

Apart from the use of the expressive modal particles (ось, а, ну) the highly emotional speech of the woman character abounds in wrong forms of some words. Cf.:

«Oh, I'm finely.» she said. «О, в мене все красненько

«Just simply finely. Listen. I want відповіла вона. «Просто-таки


you to do me the most terrible красненько. Послухайте, я хочу,
favor. Will you? Will you please? щоб ви мені зробили страшенну
Pretty please?» послугу. Зробите? Будь ласка,

зробите? Дуже вас прошу!»

The wrong use of finely instead of the correct form fine is not easy to translate into Ukrainian, where there is no corresponding cor-


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rupted form of this adverb. Hence, the stylistically possible wrong employment of the adverb красненько with the aim of compensating the English corruption in Ukrainian translation.

Certainly of some interest, but without any difficulty for trans­lators, may be the oxymoron the most terrible favorwhich should be in Ukrainian simply страшенна послуга or страшенно велика послуга. Of interest is also the fifth sentence («What is it?»), which may have some versions, though not the word-for-word version «Що це?» or «Що це таке?» as the host meant some con­crete idea of the noun «the favor». Correspondingly, the interrogative sentence may have one of the following four faithful variants: 1. «А яку (послугу)?»; 2. «А саме?»; З. «Що за послугу?»; 4.«Тобто?».

In the sixth block of sentences, certainly of interest from the point of view of translation, may be some word-groups and sentences, even the simple and constantly used concluding words «he said/she said» after the direct speech. These several times repeated English sentences, naturally, can not (for stylistic reasons) be translated word-for-word as «він сказав/вона сказала». Acceptable may be, depend­ing on the context, the following versions: поцікавився він/вона, запитав він/вона, звернулася вона/він, вставила вона/він and sometimes an omisionof this tag sentence altogether.

Certainly of some difficulty in the sixth sentence may be the verb meet in the utterance / want to meet Walter Williams, where it has the contextual meaning of познайомитися; hence, the Ukrai­nian version must be Я хочу познайомитися з Волтером Вільямсом and not Я хочу зустрітися з Волтером Вільямсом.

No less interesting, though far from easy to render, are some other sense units in sentence 6 in the woman's dialogue. Among them is the sentence «Honestly, I'm just simply crazy about that man» in which there are some stumbling blocks worth being analysed. For example, «honestly» may have some faithful variants in Ukrainian: «чесно», «слово честі», «їй-богу», «правду кажу». Any of the first three versions may be used in this Ukrainian translation. As to the part of the sentence «I'm just simply crazy» (about that man), it may have two variants in this sentence: 1. «Я в нестямі від цієї людини» (and not- від цього чоловіка, which may have some other meaning) or 2. «Я просто божеволію від захоплення цим співаком." No di­rect (word-for-word) translation can be suggested for the sentence

«Oh, when he sings», which may have two faithful variants: 1. «О, як він співає» and 2. «О, як він тільки співає» (with the use of the emphatic particle тільки).

Some difficulty may arise when translating the utterance «Well, I said to Burton, when I left, it's a good thing for you Walter Williams is coloured» I said, «or you'd ha ve lots or reasons to be jealous.» Its faithful version in Ukrainian can be achieved only through a deep in­quiry into the content and style of the utterance. Probably the most difficult is to translate the repeated utterance «I said», which is a kind of an inserted sentence often used in narration in Ukrainian too, but only in present form of a definite personal sentence (in reported speech). Its form is «кажу» (cf.: А я оце кажу, А я оце сиджу та й думаю, etc). Hence, the only correct/faithful Ukrainian translation of this block of sentences may be as follows: « Ну/то ж я сказала Бертону, як ішла з дому: добре, кажу, що цей Волтер Вільямс кольоровий, а то в тебе було б багато підстав для ревнощів/ревнувати.»

Two more utterances of the block are not easy from the point of view of translation either: 1. «I'd really love to tell him» which can be translated as «Я б дуже хотіла сказати» or «Я б обов'язково сказала йому» and 2. «І heard him sing» which can not mean «Я чула, як він співав», which is of no importance for the host or anybody, since to hear anybody sing is no great privilege whatsoever. Only her having attended some of the singer's concerts could be qualified in certain periods of the U.S. history as a bold deed. Because of this the sen­tence should be translated as follows: «Я б йому сказала, що була на його концерті/відвідувала його концерт.» In this way the woman could show herself in the eyes of the guest as a bold, progressive and devoted to arts person.

The concluding utterance in block six of sentences presents some interest as well having practically two neutral, i.e., semantically equivalent for the context variants: «Будьте ж настільки ласкаві; будьте ж ангелом Божим... і представте мене йому/познайомте мене з ним.» The answer of the host (sentence 7) is pretty clear, but it requires a proper expression in Ukrainian where «Why, certainly» may be translated faithfully in some ways: 1. «Це можна, звичайно», 2. «Будь ласка, це можна» or even 3. «А чому ж, можна»/ «Звичайно ж», 4. «Обов'язково познайомлю».

The third utterance of this block of sentences «The party's for him») may have at least two versions as well: 1. «Адже ця вечірка -


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в його честь»; 2. «Адже цей вечір влаштовано/влаштований виключно для нього»; 3. «Адже це його вечір».

In the eighth block of sentences of interest may be utterance 3: «Well, I think you're simply marvellous, giving this perfectly mar­vellous party for him and having him meet all those white people, and all.» In this utterance transformations are needed in some places, the first being that of the word-group «simply marvellous», which can not be translated as «просто чудовий», but only as a substan­tival word-group «ви просто чудо» or still more accurately «ви просто молодець/просто-таки молодець.» The participial construction/ word-group «giving this perfectly marvellous party for him» can also be translated in two ways: 1. влаштовуючи цей чудовий вечір для нього or 2. що влаштували цей/такий чудовий вечір/вечірку для нього.

Some difficulty may present the translation of the often used by the woman empty phrase «and all», which corresponds not to our «i все», but to «і взагалі» or «та й взагалі».

Certainly the most difficult may be the translation of the last utterance of the woman in the eighth block of sentences «Isn't he terribly grateful?» and the answer to it (sentence 9) «I hope not,» said her host.

When translated the woman's question word-for-word as «Він вам напевне страшенно вдячний?» and the host's answer as «Сподіваюся - ні,» the sense of the utterances would be completely perverted, i.e., wrong. This is because the woman made her empha­sis on the adverb «terribly» (grateful). Consequently, the Ukrainian equivalent must be «Він має бути вам страшенно-таки вдячним, правда ж?» The host's answer «/ hope not» as a reaction to the emphatically stressed adverb must not be translated word-for-word either as «Сподіваюсь, ні» but as «Думаю, нема за що (бути аж страшенно) вдячним». This answer called forth the protesting reac­tion of the woman character who did not quite agree with the host by saying «I think it's really terribly nice - I do», which corresponds to the Ukrainian «А я вважаю, що все справді страшенно гарно... Певна/переконана на всі сто (відсотків)». The concluding sentence, as had been said already, is merely an empty phrase, often used by the woman to substantiate her assuredness.

Block 10 of the woman's utterances contains some sense units which should be analysed semantically and stylistically with the aim

of finding faithful Ukrainian versionsTorthem. These utterances and word-groups are: 1. «Why on earth it isn't perfectly all right» чому це в біса погано/що в тому в біса/чорта поганого, щоб знайомитися з кольоровим. Here even a broader transformation is possible: хто щось може мати проти/заперечити проти знайомства з кольоровим; 2.1 haven't any feeling about it at all - у мене взагалі немає нічого проти цього or: у мене немає жодних упереджень проти цього, or even: я це вважаю нормальним. It goes without saying that only one of these synonymous versions is to be used. No less interesting from the struc­tural/stylistic and semantic points of view are other utterances that follow. For example, utterance 11: «Did he come to-night?» which may have some faithful realizations: 1. «А він прийшов сьогодні?» 2. «А він тут/теж із вами?» 3. «А він теж на вечорі?» Any of these variants may be taken as a faithful Ukrainian version for this sen­tence, though not all of the woman's cunning contemplations are quite easy to render fully and accurately into Ukrainian, as in case of «There's no telling what I'll do.» Only a thorough analysis of the whole story helps comprehend what the woman character meant by saying so. It becomes clear from the deeper analysis of the text, what she wanted to say by that (she was eager to shake hands with the coloured singer). The Ukrainian variants of this utterance, consequently, may be only the following: 1. «Ти і не здогадуєшся/і гадки не маєш, що я надумалася зробити»; 2. ««Ти і гадки не маєш, на який крок я зважилася»; 3. «Ти собі навіть не уявляєш, що я сьогодні втну». 4. Ти навіть додуматися не здатний, на який неймовірний крок я наважилася сьогодні піти». Needless to emphasize, that any of these versions may well fit in the Ukrainian translation, though only one and no more can be used.

Some colloquial style utterances of the woman character may cause even difficulty for the translator, as it is with one utterance in block 12, where it contains a somewhat obscure/not quite transpar­ent lexical meaning of the verb «move». Cf.: «He was so tired out, he couldn't move.» A thorough semantic analysis of the context proves that the verb's semantics was not in any way connected with the state of Burton's physical ability. What the verb «move» really means in this context is that Burton did not react in any way to what his wife said to him after having decided to make a very courageous (in her judgement) «step», i.e., shake hands with the well-known coloured singer, whom she, as a half-racist, in reality, despises. Hence, taking




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into consideration the lingual and extralingual factors, the only cor­rect/faithful translation of the utterance and its tag question («Isn't it a shame?») should have the following Ukrainian version: «Він був такий стомлений, що навіть не (від)реагував на мої слова.» The tag-ques­tion may have respectively one of the following three versions: 1. «Сором та й годі, чи не так?» or 2. «Аж сором, може ні/не так?» or 3. «Просто ганьба, скажете - ні?»

Neither can there be only one single solution to the possible translation of the host's laconic and clearly evasive answer «Ah» (sen­tence 13) to the above-cited tag-question. His «Ah» may be inter­preted as a neutral answer, not sympathising with the judgement of the woman. Consequently, the Ukrainian variants of it may be simply «A...» or «гм», «хм», etc. It is clear from the context, that the host did not support but sooner rejected that woman's «accusation» of her husband's lack of attention.

The fourteenth block of utterances, which is a regular long mono­logue of the woman character contains some interesting ways of ex­pression, emphatic colloquial phrases and structures worth a more or less thorough analysis as well. Among them is already the first sen­tence emphatically uttered by the woman: «Wait till I tell him I met Walter Williams!», which contains wishful modality and is to be ex­pressed with the help of some Ukrainian modal particles. The most fitting in this utterance will be хай/нехай-но: «Чекайте-но, хай я скажу йому, що познайомилася з Волтером Вільямсом!» or «Чекайте, хай-ноя скажу йому...»

The following utterance 'He'll just about die» presents no diffi­culty for translators due to its transient meaning, which enables to suggest some equivalent versions in Ukrainian: 1. «Він упаде на місці»; 2. «Він цього не переживе»; 3. «Він просто лусне (від сміху)». All these three variants are synonymous and fit well in the context. Consequently, each of them may be used in Ukrainian. The next utterance («Oh, we have more arguments about colored people») contains a grammatical and logical error in the use of the indefinite pronoun/adjective more instead of many repeatedly testifying to the woman's low (if any) education and her very low cultural level.

Probably one of the most interesting structural transformations must be performed to achieve faithfulness in translation in two utter­ances that follow the previous one. Neither of the two, when trans­planted, as they are placed in the original passage, would well fit

semantically into a good Ukrainian literary version. Cf.: «I talk to him like I don't know what. I get so excited». 1. «Я розмовляю з ним, як не знаю хто». 2. «Я так збуджуюсь». When translated, however, beginning with the second utterance, with the substitution of some words for a more common Ukrainian way of saying, the target lan­guage literary variant becomes more natural and more expressive, and thus more acceptable to Ukrainian colloquial speech style:



  1. «I talk to him like I don't know what. 2.1 get so excited.» Hence, it must be transposed into:

  2. «Я як розійдуся/розпалюся, 1. то такого йому наговорю, що й сама не знаю, що».

This kind of transformation through the change of placement in the row of utterances makes the Ukrainian version more logically and stylistically grounded, because the woman, as anybody else in her place, got excited first and only then talked to him (Burton) «like no­body knows what». In view of this, her very mild reproach, instead of the naturally expected strong words of accusation or indignation, is much milder and weaker, and contrary to that, which might have been expected: «Oh, don't be so silly». These words disclose the double-dealing conduct of this woman character, who only wanted to camou­flage her false inside. This can also be clearly seen from the Ukrai­nian variant of the utterance: «О, не говори нісенітниць,» - кажу я ^ йому. These words, of course, are far from expressing any threat or strong reproach, as the woman character pretended.

Other utterances of this block containing peculiar features, which are important to know and still more to translate for a student and future translators, are as follows:



  1. «he's heaps broader-minded» (hyperbolized), which will be more expressive and more faithful when translated antonymically as «він не такий обмежений»;

  2. «Southerners» can be translated faithfully only in a descrip­tive way as вихідці/жителі Півдня (південних штатів США);

  3. «this regular old nigger (contemptuosly) mammy» should be translated as його стара нянька-негритоска;

  4. «he just simply loves her» і він не те що, а просто-таки справді любить її;

  5. «he does really to this day» і так до сьогоднішнього дня/ донині.

Always important for the translator is to keep in memory the


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already solved problems concerning the rendition of some peculiari­ties of the source language or of the target language, as in the follow­ing two utterances: 1. «All he says is, he says, he hasn't got a word to say-»; 2. «The only thing he says, he says he wouldn't sit down with one, -» both these italicized colloquial structures have an identical translation: єдине, що він каже, то це каже ...

A very interesting structural transformation has to be performed on two clauses of one sentence, which follows the above-analyzed ones. Namely: «He's always doing things for them - giving them clothes and I don't know what all».

When translated without any change of placement of its clauses, the utterance will be structurally clumsy in Ukrainian: «Він завжди щось робить для них - дає їм одежу і сама не знаю що ще.» By changing the placement of its clauses, the utterance acquires the following form: «І чим він їм тільки не допомагає - і одежею, і сама вже не знаю, чим.» Thus, the transformation through the change of placement of some parts of the sentence makes the utterance sound absolutely Ukrainian (stylistically natural) and semantically trans­parent.

The choice of a lexico-semantic equivalent may sometimes cause trouble even in a seemingly explicit utterance. Cf.: «You make me sick talking like that,» where «sick» is semantically associated with sea-sick. At any rate, this meaning may prompt the hard think­ing student-translator to use the verb нудити, which perfectly substi­tutes the English word-group «make sick» in the utterance above. Hence, the faithful Ukrainian version of it may be only: «Ой, мене вже нудить від твоїх розмов/балачок.»

The beginning translator must be aware of some peculiarities of the source language, which may have no equivalents or even analo­gies for some sense units in the target language. Among these are not necessarily the culturally biased national notions, dialectal, ar­chaic, idiomatic or other elements. These may be simple grammar or phonetic mistakes/corruptions in a text/speech of characters often causing barriers for inexperienced translators, as in the following ques­tion of the woman character: «Aren't I terrible?» (instead of «Am I not terrible?»).

It goes without saying that irregularities of the kind may be observed only in speech of small Ukrainian children and almost never in speech of our grown-ups. That is why the utterance can only be

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translated in a literary (correct) form: 1. «Може я не права?» or 2. «Скажи, я не маю рації?» 3. «Невже я не маю рації?» Any other, even slightly corrupted Ukrainian versions are next to impossible to suggest in this case (like in other cases). As a result, the speech irregularity remains not completely expressed in Ukrainian. The short reply of the host («Oh, no, no, no. No, no».) can also have some interesting versions, which may be suggested by the translator: 1. «Hi, ні, ні. Де там, ні». 2. «Та ні, зовсім ні». 3. «Вважаю, що ні».



It may be even more difficult to select the right/faithful variant for the utterance, in which the woman character objects to her being not «terrible» to her husband and insists on the contrary: «I am», she said. «I know, I am» (i.e. «terrible»). This emphatically pronounced and rather assuring utterance in her own support can not be trans­lated word-for-word as «Я є, я знаю, що я є (така)». The translator here must again resort to a structural transformation of the utterance in Ukrainian in order to make it sound absolutely natural for the read­ers. In this case the device of extension may be useful for «I am,» she said. «I know, I am.» Namely: «І не кажіть (і не перечте)», - випалила вона. «Я знаю, що я жахлива (з ним)». This transformation through extension of the complex sentence in the second part of the utter­ance, as well as the replacement of the verb «am» by «не кажіть/не перечте» makes the whole reply absolutely literary and quite natural for young as well as for old Ukrainian readers.

Similar transformations are necessary in the succeeding highly emotional utterances of the woman character. These utterances, though seemingly simple and easy to comprehend, are not so easy for inex­perienced students to translate. Thus, the first utterance «Poor Bur­ton!» is not simply «Бідний Бертон!» which will not fully express the high emotion of the woman character. Stylistically more fitting here would be «Бідолашний мій Бертон!» or «Бідний, бідний Бертон!» or «Бідний, бідний мій Бертон!» The latter would sound also more Ukrai­nian. The other two emphasized and emotionally pronounced utter­ances of the block that follow (1. «Now me, I don't feel that way at all. 2.1 haven't the slightest feeling about colored people.») are not less expressive. Hence, their Ukrainian versions may be as follows: 1. «Ось хоча б я.» or 2. «Взяти хоча б мене.» 3. «Візьмемо ось/ хоча б мене.» Each of these semantically synonymous versions of the English utterance is emphatically charged, and can be best ex­pressed through the modal particles хоча б plus the corresponding

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intonation. As to the second utterance («I don't feel that way at all»), it can also be translated into Ukrainian by at least one of the following four synonymous substitutes, each of which being equally accept­able: 1. «Я зовсім не така». 2. «Я зовсім не так думаю». 3. «Я абсолютно так не вважаю» or even 4. «У мене зовсім інше ставлення до кольорових».

As could be ascertained, transformation through extension (cf. «Now me» «ось хоча б я, взяти хоча б мене») is often the only way of adjusting the English peculiar expressions (and their expressive­ness) to literary colloquial Ukrainian. Transformations of any kind help avoid literalism (cf. «Now me» is not тепер мене, тепер я), which would be absolutely unacceptable in any literary translation. A word-for-word translation (without any transformations with the aim of «ad­justing» the English language and its peculiar features to the Ukrai­nian literary standards) is therefore an obligatory means in the pro­cess of translation. Because of this and due to the performed trans­formations, the utterance «I haven't the slightest feeling about colored people» also acquires a quite natural Ukrainian version (and sound­ing). When translated word-for-word, it would express an almost op­posite meaning: «Я зовсім не відчуваю/ я не маю найменших відчуттів до кольорових». No need to emphasize that «відчуваю» (feel) does not in any way correspond to the real contextual implicit meaning of this verb, which can be seen from the following Ukrainian translation: «У мене немає ні/навіть найменшої відрази/зневаги до кольорових».

Practically the same, as in the initial utterance of the excerpt, is the meaning of the adjective crazy in the sentence that follows the previous one: «Why, I'm just crazy about some of them», which can have only the following realization in Ukrainian: «Ну я просто в нестямі від декого з них», though «в нестямі» may equally be substituted in this utterance for the semantically equivalent prepositional phrase «y захопленні». The essence of her «craziness», however, is far from real or sencere, which can be seen from the following utterance: «They're just like children -just as easy-going, and always singing and laughing, and everything». This utterance is not easy to translate first of all because of the concluding pronoun «everything», whose contextual meaning, naturally, is not «все» or «і все», or even «і все таке інше», but «собі». Only this pronominal particle semantically completes the authoress' content of this utterance, which will then

have the following wording in Ukrainian: «Ну, та вони ж просто як діти: такі безтурботні і завжди то співають, то сміються собі». The introduction of different Ukrainian particles (ж, та, то, собі) helps fully express the inner/psychological state of the woman character and makes the whole utterance sound as natural and as convincing in Ukrainian, as it is in the source language.

The use of particles helps express optative and grammatical modality in the next utterance («Aren't they the happiest things you ever saw in your life?»), in which the noun «things» may become a lexico-semantic stumbling block. Its contextual meaning here is «істоти» or «створіння». It is not easy to quickly choose the most suitable between these two practically equivalent lexically and stylis­tically variants. Taking into account the woman's falsehood and her doubledealing, any of the two variants may well fit in the context. Cf.: «Хіба ж вони не найщасливіші істоти/створіння, яких вам траплялося будь-коли бачити на світі?» or «To хіба ж вони не найщасливіші створіння, котрих вам траплялося будь-коли бачити на білім світі?» Both these variants, naturally, are fully in line with the philosophy and conduct of the woman character, so brilliantly depicted by the authoress in her story. The choice of the suggested substi­tutes in the utterance may be well justified by the woman's conclud­ing sentence of the excerpt: «Honestly, it makes me laugh just to hear them». Here the adverb «honestly» can scarely be substituted for one Ukrainian adverb «чесно» only. The deep context requires some other substitutions for it, namely «справді»/ «таки справді»/ «геть і правда» and even «їй-богуЯй-же богу». Neither can the verb laugh («they make me laugh») be translated in this excerpt as simply сміятися or still less as реготати. The deeper context prompts a quite different synonym, as the cunning woman considers the coloured people to be «like children», who could entertain the grown-ups like her by their behavoir. This is the main reason why the Ukrainian equiva­lent сміятися can not be used and should be substituted for the only suitable in this utterance synonym тішити. For this reason the verb «hear» can not (and does not) mean «слухати», but only «чути». Hence, the only possible, i.e., faithful translations of this utterance may be as follows: «Слово честі, мене просто тішить, коли я чую їх or «їй-богу, мене просто тішить, коли я їх чую.»

The final two utterances of block 16 present no great difficulty for translation with the exception of the concluding one: «I really do.»




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Here one of the already employed above versions may be helpful (as in «Oh, I like them. I really do.») «О, вони мені подобаються. Справді.»

It must therefore be repeatedly emphasized in conclusion that the right choice of an appropriate target language synonym for a source language sense unit is always predetermined by some factors: a) by its semantics in the context; b) by the stylistic or genre peculiarities of the text; and c) by the texts' pragmatic orientation/toning. Any disregard of these requirements may bring unnecessary distortions into the author's conception (and content).



The student, who has closely followed the above-performed translator's grammatical/structural, semantic and stylistic analysis of the excerpt from D.Parker's brilliant psychological story must have obtained a much clearer idea about the ways and means of achieving faithfulness in written translation. Naturally not all texts require such kind of deep and scrutinized analysis on the part of the translator and not always so much inventiveness as in the belles-lettres texts. Nev­ertheless, the beginning translator must be always on the alert and ready to do everything to overcome the many stumbling blocks that are often hidden even in texts belonging to other than the belles-lettres style. There will be a good chance to ascertain it while working at various texts on the forthcoming pages, which are assigned to se­mantic and stylistic analysis or to written/oral class and home trans­lation. The samples of the analysis must be carefully studied first in order to establish the peculiarities characterizing the publicistic and newspaper style texts. Only in this way can a student acquire the necessary knowledge and skill in translation. Of great help in this can also be the practical use of the principal theoretical rules, which were given in the preceding chapters and which must be followed while working at any type of texts, extended syntactic unit or even at single/ isolated sense units.

SUGGESTED TOPICS FOR SELF-TESTING AND CLASS DISCUSSION

  1. The monosemantic/referential meaning of the source lan­guage units and principles of their faithful translation.

  2. Give examples of hierarchically higher language units which are translated in the target language with the help of language units of lower language level.

  3. Enumerate all possible ways of expressing the meaning of the source language compounds in the target language.

  4. Point out the possible difference between the ways of trans­lating sense units at language level (out of context) and their transla­tion at speech level (when used in a contextual environment).

  5. Identify the role of the source language context in the se­mantic discrimination and faithful translation of sense units missing or having no corresponding lexical equivalents in the English, Ukrai­nian or bilingual dictionaries.

  6. Enumerate all known to you and possible ways of conveying the evaluative and expressive meanings of the source language words/ sense units in the target language.

  7. Name the obligatory steps, which have to be observed before starting a written or oral translation/interpretation of a source language passage/work.




  1. Prove the necessity of linguistic/semantic, historical, cul­tural, etc. inquiries/investigations of the passage/work prior to or in the process of its rendering into the target language.

  2. Argue for or against the need for making a list of synony­mous contextual equivalents/substitutions or difficult/interesting syn­tactic constructions of the target language in the process of translat­ing the source language passage/work.




  1. List and explain the requirements, which are necessary for a faithful expression/translation of stylistically marked elements of the source language passage/work to achieve a high quality translation.

  2. Identify the most common features of the belles-lettres or publicistic/newspaper style texts and name the ways of their faithful expression/rendering in the target language.


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" "1 1 Ill Willi

EXERCISES FOR CLASS AND HOMEWORK

Exercise I. Each block of sentences below contains a polysemantic noun, verb or adjective in bold type. Offer a cor­responding Ukrainian equivalent - word, word-group or sen­tence to substitute them semantically and then translate each block of sentences into Ukrainian.

1. I'm going to put up the notice on Saturday. (S.Maugham) Praed comes in from the inner room putting up his handkerchief which he has been using. (B.Shaw) I mustn't be upset. It will put up my temperature. (D.Defoe) What did it cost to put up those columns. (J.Galsworthy) 2. Lawrence Hadley ran the photographic department. (A. Cronin) In her mind were running scenes of the play. (T. Dreiser) After a few minutes he settled himself at his desk to run through the rest of his mail. (A.Cronin) Although she kept her head down she felt the blood run into her face. (Ibid.) «I happened to run into their Mr. Smith the other day.» (Ibid.) «I thought I'd run down for an hour. Am I a nuisance?» (Ibid.) I decided to give up running for governor. (Mark Twain) The Board is no more run as before (K.Post) 3. Listen, chil­dren, I'm going out. If you finish your work, carry on with exercises I gave you. (P.Abrahams) Only fancy if he has a dear little boy to carry the family on. (J.Galsworthy) Well, all through the circus they did the most astonishing things, and all the time that clown carried on so. (Mark Twain) 4. She realized that hers (life) was not to be a round pleasure. (T. Dreiser) The fact that work of any kind was offered after so rude a round of experience was gratifying. Her imagination trod a very narrow round. It would be an exceedingly gloomy round, living with these people. (Ibid.) 5. «Is that all you're worrying about? About what's on my mind?» (M.Wilson) Here he was with only a casual acquaintance to keep his mind from himself. «No, I've changed my mind, I'm the paragon of husbandry again. She clearly had no idea how outstanding a mind she really had.» (M.Wilson) The thoughtful serious state of mind in which Mary found herself had been unclouded in her by a conversation she had with her father the evening before. (S. Anderson) 6. He forgot the presence of the farmer and his mind racked back over his life as a married man. (Ibid.) 7. «Who's speak­ing?» he asked mildly conscious of error on his part. (T.Dreiser) Some noise was heard, but no one entered the library for the best part of an



hour. (W.Scott) She was

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