71 with the best works of Western and Eastern belles-lettres. Their list is short and includes M.Ryl'skyi (he translated Polish, French and Russian poetry), M.lvanov (English and French prose works), Y.Korets'kyi (Byron, Shakespeare, Schiller, Dickens, Mayakovs'kiy), LPervomais'kyi (German poets) and the mediocre versifier M.Zisman (Gothe, Schiller, Lermontov).
TRANSLATION AND TRANSLATORS IN POST-WAR
UKRAINE. THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE
PRINCIPLES OF FAITHFUL TRANSLATION
The Second World War and the German occupation of Ukraine had for three years completely stopped any belles-lettres translation in the country. Hence, all work had to begin anew in 1944-1945 with the establishing of the publishing houses and republishing of some translations, which were completed before the war. Only in late 1940's the first newly translated foreign belles-lettres works began to appear in Ukrainian, though their number was very small. Therefore, the years 1944-1950 constitute a transitional period in the history of Soviet Ukrainian translation. Only in early 1950's, and especially after Stalin's death in 1953, the first signs of revival in belles-lettres translation began to be really felt. It became finally a reality only during Khrushchov's «thaw» and after the return from the concentration camps of some outstanding translators. This coincided with the peak in the literary activity of Ukraine's most versatile translator Mykola Lukash. The condemnation of Stalin's cult of personality in late 1950's loosened for a short time the ideological grip on Ukrainian intelligentsia. As a result, there appeared a war-hardened generation of talented and patriotically minded editors and translators, who graduated after the war from philological faculties of universities and institutes. It was during those years that several new editorial departments for translating works from foreign languages were opened at some major publishing houses. It was then that the question of quality of the translated belles-lettres works seriously and officially arose. As a consequence, in 1956 Oleksa Kundzich published his critical articles on the state of literary translation in Ukraine, in which he put forward a categorical demand to reject literalism and improve the artistic level of translation. In 1958, after a twenty-four years hiatus the translators' Vsesvitjournal came to life again. Thus, during the late 1950's and early 1960's, when the natural revival of artistic translation and its scientific criticism
had almost taken root, the third period in Ukraine's history of Iftnslation began. It was soon marked in the mid 1960's, however, with new persecutions and reprisals against such prominent transla-iinsasH.Kochur, M.Lukash,I.Switlychnyi,V.Marchenko,I.Yushchuk, A.Perepadya, R.Dotsenko, O.Terekh and others, who were in the u. myuard of the Sixties Movement. They came under longer and heavy fire of the Communist ideologists. This last wave of Soviet persecutions and reprisals against Ukrainian intellectuals slowed down only in the IN irlod of Gorbachov's restructuring (Perestroika) during 1985-1989. The third period in Soviet Ukrainian translation was also marked by the common understanding of the need for higher standard of artistic requirements, which were finally put before all translators of belles-iHtios by noted literary critics in the late 1950's and early 1960's. It was then that many regular samples of faithfully translated works of great foreign literary masters were published. This inspired the succeeding generation of post-war translators to follow the fine example of Ryl'skyi, Lukash, Mysyk, Tereshchenko, Borys Ten, and others. The older generation of translators, who were active already during the late 1920's and early 1930's and who produced highly faithful translations, were represented by some masters of the pen. First place among them belongs to Maksym Ryl'skyi (1895-1964), the patriarch <>l the twentieth century Ukrainian translation, who has created highly skilled poetic versifications from Polish (A.Mickiewicz's, Yu.Slowacki's and Yu.Tuwim's major works) and Russian (works of Pushkin, Lermontov, Fet, Blok, Voloshyn). But undoubtfully the greatest number of smaller and larger poetic works were translated from French: J.PMolliere's Tartuffe, The Marriage of Figaroby P.Beaumarchais, as well as Sidby P.Corneille, Fedra by J.Racine, The Misanthrope and I he Poetic Arts by N.Boileau, the Virgin of Orleans by F- M.Voltaire, and also several smaller poems of V.Hugo, A.de Musset, T.Gautier, J.Heredia, P.Verlaine, M.Maeterlinck, and others. Ryl'skyi has also translated some English poets (Shakespeare). Among the first-rate masters of the pen is also Valerian Pidmohyl'nyi (1901-1938), a prominent Ukrainian prose writer and translator who found his martyr's death together with M.Zerov, M.Drai-Khmara, L.Kurbas and hundreds of other Stalinist GULAG victims in Sandarmokh in late October or oarly November 1937. He succeeded in recreating several masterpieces of French belles-lettres, among them being The Prison by P. Amp, Candidby D.Diderot, Letters from the Windmillby A.Daudet, Colomba by PMerimee, works by J.Verne and J.Romanis. During 1927-1930 he prepared and edited Balzac's and E.Zola's (18 volumes) as well as
7Я G.de Maupassant's 10 volume works. He also translated H.Flaubert's Madame Bovaryand V.Hugo's Ninety-Three (1928), Jargal(\ 928), The Man Who Laughs (1930) and Les Miserables (1930).
As a translator, V.Pidmohyl'nyi excelled in his artistically unsurpassed skill for conveying the individual peculiarities of style and characteristics of each prose masterpiece of foreign writers. His translations are close to the originals, utilizing an equally rich Ukrainian lexicon, reflecting the versatility of stylistic devices and the individual author's means of expression.
Exceptionally masterful versifications from Western and Eastern belles-lettres were performed by one more veteran translator and Soviet concentration camp inmate, Vasyl' Mysyk (1907-1983). His translation output comprises one half of R.Burns' poems, which rank among the best versifications of the Scottish bard in all Slavic languages. Besides, Mysyk left behind extraordinary translations of some works by Shakespeare, Byron, Milton, Shelley, Keats, Longfellow. Moreover, he was the only qualified translator, who besides A.Krymskyi, was able to render works of some Eastern classics directly from the original. He revealed in Ukrainian the works of old Persian and Tajik world-wide known classics A.Firdousi, Abu Ali Husain Ibn Seana, Omar Khayam, M.Saadi, Sh. Hafiz as well as some French classics (J.du Bellay, P.Scarron) and several others.
Meanwhile, another veteran translator and poet, who had a narrow escape from getting into the Stalinist GULAG, Mykola Tereshchenko (1898-1966) performed versifications from French (a collection of the seventeenth-eighteenth century poets F.Malhebre, B.Le Fontenelle, C.Perrot, J.Rousseau, D.Diderot, L.de Lisle, E.Parny, A.Chenier and others). He also translated French classic poets of the nineteenth century (E.Verlaine, P.EIuard and others). Besides that Tereshchenko edited many poetic versifications of other translators (including M.Lukash's first complete translation of Gothe's masterpiece Faust).
No less significant versifications were performed by Yevhen Drobyazko (1898-1980), who was the first to artistically recreate The Divine Comedyby Dante in Ukrainian (1975). This achievement established the reputation of Y.Drobyazko as a real master of translation, who also produced some quality translations from German (Heine, Gothe, Schiller), French (Moliere, H.de Balzac), Italian (Eduardo de Filippo), Russian (A.Pushkin, A.Griboyedov, I.Krylov, A.Herzen, V.Mayakovskiy), Polish (Yu.Slowacki, Yu.Tuwim), Czech (V.Nezval) and works of some other prominent foreign authors.
To this constellation of talented translators belongs also Iryna Steshenko (1898-1987), a former actress of the Berezil theatre in Kharkiv. A highly educated person, she translated poetry and prose from French (G.Apollinaire, J.-B.Moliere, A.Michott, Guy de Maupassant), English (W.Shakespeare, M.Twain, J.London, J.Fletcher), German (J.-W.G6the, F.Schiller, S.Zweig), Italian (C.Goldoni), Norwegian (H.Ibsen) and Russian (M.Gorki, A.Ostrovskiy). In her translations she paid great attention to the logical cohesion of phrases in lines and stanzas, to euphony of verses and to the natural ease of speech as well as to the rendition of the inner force pertained to the source language idiom. Prominent in the galaxy of this older generation translators was Borys Ten (1897-1983), the pen name of Vasyl' Khomychevs'kyi. A poet and former Stalinist terror victim, he was the first to produce entire masterly translations of Homer's Iliad and the Odysseyin Ukrainian. Besides, he edited M.Bilyk's translation of Virgil's Aeneidand provided the Ukrainian theatre with a collection set of dramas by the most outstanding ancient Greek playwrights as Aristophanes, Sophocles, Aeschylus and others. Borys Ten also iianslated the works of Shakespeare (King Richard III).
A considerable contribution to Ukrainian belles-lettres was made by M.Bazhan (1904-1983), whose most important work in the domain of translation was the versification of Shota Rustaveli's Knight in The Panther's Skin, which all prominent Georgian poets considered to be a masterly translation. Bazhan had also translated several other classical works of Georgian literature (D. Huramishvili) as well as some poems by Italian (Dante, Michelangelo Bounarotti, P. Pasolini), German (Gothe, Helderlin, Rilke, S. Selan), Polish (Yu. Slowacki, A. Mickiewicz), Russian (A. Pushkin, V. Mayakovskiy), Indian (R. Tagore) and other .luthors'poetic works.
A noticeable place among the older generation of Ukrainian translators belongs to M.Zerov's emigrant brother Mykhailo Orest (1901-1963), who versified from several West European languages and literatures, as French (P.Verlaine, J.Heredia, C.Baudelaire, Lecont de Lisle, and A. Chenier), German (G. Staff, F. Nitzsche, F. Novalis), English (E.B.Browning), Russian (I. Annenskiy, N. Humilyov), Italian (G.Cavalcanti), and also from Spanish, Portuguese and other languages. Besides, M.Orest is the author of three larger collections of translated poetic works in Ukrainian: The Anthology of French Poetry, The Anthology of German Poetic Works and The Mussel and the Sea Anthology of European Poetry.
Active both in the pre-war 1930's, in the post-war 1940's and
also later were some poets, who versified from several foreign languages, though not always directly from the originals but on the basis of interlinear translations. Thus, the poet L.Pervomays'kyi would translate and publish German poets Rilke, Heine, Walter von der Vogelweide and the Russian poetry of Pushkin, Lermontov directly from their originals. At the same time, poetic works of Hungarian, French, Korean, Chinese, Indonesian, Burmese, Persian or Tajik authors could be translated by him, naturally, only on the basis of interlinear translations.
Similarly versified (and published) were in those years in Ukraine (and in the U.S.S.R.in general) many other poetic works written by well-known authors in various foreign languages.
The long list of outstanding Ukrainian prose and poetry translators, who happened to live through the years of Stalinist oppressions during the 1930's, 1940's and later years, and who either perished in the concentration camps or were forced to interrupt their literary activities for that same reason, would be incomplete without some more at least most noted names. One of them is the prolific translator of West European authors Sydir Sakydon (1896-1974), who was forced to flee in the late 1930's to Russia's Smolensk region where he managed to hide himself from the NKVD persecution and thus escape the Stalinist concentration camp. He had worked in the everfrost area all through the 1940's and returned to Ukraine only after Khrushchov's «thaw». S.Sakydon produced several faithful translations from some foreign languages: German (J.W.Gothe, E.-T-A.Hofmann), French (de Coster, R.Rolland), Polish (Zeromski), Czech (K.Capek), Serbo-Croatian (B.Nusic) and others. Also of note is Yuriy Nazarenko (1904-1991), an active participant of the Sixties Movement and translator from German (Schiller, Hauptmann), French (Verne, Verlaine, Hugo), Polish (Orzeszkowa), Byelorussian (Ya.Kolas, Krapiva, Tank).
As was already mentioned, in late 1950's and early 1960's there came into being and arrayed themselves around Ukrainian publishing houses in Kyiv, Kharkiv, L'viv and some other cities, a new linguistic generation of talented translators. Their proclaimed aim was to translate only directly from the original and fully employ the riches of the Ukrainian language. Some talented translators also grouped around the newly revived (1958) literary Vsesvitjournal. Most of these younger generation men of letters were ideological and spiritual adherents of the two most outspoken opponents of Russif ication of the Ukrainian people Hryhoriy Kochur and Mykola Lukash, who were themselves very talented in poetry and prose translation from
several foreign languages. Neither of them would yield to the constant pressure and intimidation on the part of the Soviet authorities which accused the translators of «archaization of the Ukrainian language» and other «deadly sins» of the kind. As has been mentioned, M.Lukash (1919-1988), a polyglot and an equally brilliant prose and poetry translator from eleven languages began to be published after World War II. He contributed greatly to the enrichment of Ukrainian literature with exemplary versions of many masterpieces of world literature such as Faust oi Gothe, Decameron oi Boccaccio, /Madame Bovary of Flaubert, The Fate of Man by Imre Madac, Don Quixote of Cervantes (in co-authorship with A.Perepadya) and several other important works by West European classics. M.Lukash was also a prolific translator of mainly French poets (Verlaine, Rimbaud, Valery, Apollinaire, etc.) as well of Spanish (Lorca, Cervantes, Lope de Vega, Calderon), German (Gothe, Schiller, etc.), English (R.Burns), Polish (Mickiewicz), Hungarian (E.Adi, I.Madach) and several others. His translations are distinguished by a rich and versatile Ukrainian lexicon, accurate idiomatic equivalents, high expressiveness and ease corresponding to those of the originals. In addition to his academic credentials, Lukash, as H.Kochur and I. Svitlychnyi before him, was a symbol of persistence and unyielding defence of the right of the Ukrainian language and culture to their free and independent development and functioning.
H.Kochur (1908-1994), a former student of M.Zerov and higher school lecturer in foreign literatures spent several years in Soviet concentration camps. He was a scrupulous versifier from foreign languages such as ancient Greek (Alcaeus, Sappho), contemporary Greek (C.Cavafes, Y.Ritsos) and especially the French classics (A.Vigny, C.Baudelaire, PVerlaine, A.Rimbaud, P.Valery, Saint-John Perse and some others). He also translated English and American classics (R.Burns, T.S.Eliot, John Milton, P.B.Shelley, G.G.Byron, J.Keats, H.W.Longfellow), Polish classics (Yu.Slowacki, Yu.Tuwim), Czech, Jewish, Lithuanian and other national poets. An inspirational role belonged to Kochur as he influenced and guided the Ukrainian translators during his chairmanship of the Translator's section in the Ukrainian Writers Union in early and mid 1960's.
Among other younger and older generations of translators who grouped around Kochur and Lukash are first of all Mykyta Shumylo, a translator from the Russian, D.Palamarchuk, O.Terekh, A.Perepadya, Y.Popovych, O.Senyuk, Borys Ten, I. Steshenko, R.Dotsenko, P.Sokolovs'kyi and others to be more extensively characterized below.
77 It is expedient to single out at least the most prolific of these and other translators and enumerate very shortly the most significant masterpieces of world literature which they recreated in Ukrainian. Thus, Dmytro Palamarchuk (1914-1998), a poet and also a former Soviet concentration camp victim, was an active participant of the Sixties Movement. He successfully versified all Shakespearian sonnets (1966) and published a collection of Byron's and Shelley's poems as well as many poems of well-known French poets (C.Baudelaire, S.Prud'homme, J.Heredia, S.Mallarme, A.Renoir) and also German (H.Heine), Polish (Yu.Tuwim, A.Mickiewicz), Italian (E.Petrarca) and Byelorussian (M.Tank, P.HIebka) poets. Besides, he also translated several novels by H.G.Wells, A.France, F.Mauriac, A.M.Stendhal, H.Flaubert.
Very close to the new generation of translators spiritually was the participant of the Sixties Movement Feofan Sklyar (1903-1979). He was a poet and scrupulous editor of many poetic translations carried out from West European languages by his colleagues, but he also versified the works of German Renaissance poets Sebastian Brandt (The Ship of Fools) and Hans Sachs (The Country of Idlers) published in the Vsesvit journal. Apart from these he also gave our readers a collection of excellent translations of P.Ronsard's poems into Ukrainian.
The post-war generation of Ukrainian translators who worked in various publishing houses or arrayed themselves during the 1960's around the Vsesvit journal has given our national literature several prominent masters of the pen. They contributed greatly to the quantitative growth and higher qualitative standard of Ukrainian belles-lettres works, which were enthusiastically received by the reading public. Masterly translations of world literature attracted more readers in the 1950's and 1980's, than the mostly mediocre poetic and prose works of many national authors writing under the yoke of the ideological principles of the so called «Socialist realism».
A leading position in the history of Ukrainian post-war translation have occupied some translators of prose and poetic works from Germanic and Romanic languages. Namely, Rostyslav Dotsenko (b. 1931), a former Soviet concentration camp victim and active participant of the Sixties Movement. He produced excellent prose translations from English (works by O.Wilde, Mark Twain, J.F.Cooper, W.Faulkner, E.A.Poe), French (J.-P.Sartre), Polish and other literatures. Mar Pinchevskyi (1930-1984), who translated prose works from literatures of the English language countries (Gr. Britain, the U.S.A., Canada, Australia). He produced Ukrainian versions of novels and
narratives of E.Hemingway, W.Saroyan, S.Maugham, W.Faulkner, F.S.Fitzgerald and others. Oleksandr Terekh (b. 1928) enriched our belles-lettres with an exemplary Ukrainian version of J.Galsworthy's most outstanding series The Forsyte Saga. Besides, he has translated some other prose works of the English language authors (J.Joyce, R.Bradbury, P.Ballentine, D.Salinger, G.Trease).
Some Ukrainian translators also worked successfully in more than one foreign language, the most outstanding of them being Yuryi Lisnyak (1929-1992), a former Soviet concentration camp victim as well and an active participant of the Sixties Movement. He left behind exemplary artistic prose and poetry translations from Czech (A.lrasek), German (H.Nachbar, M.-B.Schulz, B.Brecht, H.B6II, H.Mann), English (J.K.Jerome, C.Dickens, R.OIdington, B.D.Golding, H.Melville, W.Shakespeare), French (A.France, H.de Balzac) and other authors. Lisnyak was the chief editor of the new complete six-volume edition (1984-1986) of the complete works of Shakespeare in Ukrainian (translated by M.Ryl'skyi, O.Mokrovol'skyi, I.Steshenko, Borys Ten, H.Kochur, D.Palamarchuk, V.Koptilov and some others).
Petro Sokolovskyi (1926-2000), a participant of the Sixties Movement and a prolific translator from some West European languages, such as English (D.Cusack, C.Bronte, J.London, J.AIdrid-ge, F.Bret Harte), Spanish (F.Benites, V.B.Ibahes, J.S.Puig, C.J.Sela, C.L.Falids), Italian (G.Piovene, J.Vasari, C.Cassola, C.Malaparte, A.Moravia), French (J.Verne, E.Bazen, H.Chevalier) and others.
Yevhen Popovych (b. 1930) has dedicated his creative activities to the exclusive translation of the German language belles-lettres. He has brought into Ukrainian the most outstanding prose works of German, Austrian and some Swiss authors. For almost 40 years he has produced masterly translations of a veritable library of well-known novels, narratives, dramas and short stories written by the greatest authors as J.W.Gothe, H.Heine, E.N.Remarque, H.Hesse, M.Frisch, H.B6II, G.E.Lessing, J.Roth, J.Mosdorf, T.Mann and some others. Popovych in his translations pays an extraordinary attention to the faithful rendition of the main characteristic features pertaining to the syntactic structures and artistic style of every belles-lettres work, its expressiveness and ease like that within the logical sentence structures of the source language works. Like M.Lukash and Yu.Lisnyak, Y.Popovych ranks among the most outstanding Ukrainian translators of the second half of the 20th century.
Scandinavian belles-lettres were almost exclusively translated in the last 35 years by Olha Senyuk (b. 1929). The readers have
received ideal Ukrainian versions of many artistic works of the Swedish authors (A.Lindgren, S.Lagerlof, R.BIomberg, W.Waldfridson, S.Topelius, P.Wale, T.Janson, M.Shewal, S.Lindman, P.Lagerquist, P.Enquist), of Norwegian authors (S.Helmeback, B.Bierson, H.Ibsen, D.Grenoset, K.Holt, E.Jakobsen, O.Nesse), of Danish authors (M.Andersen-Noxe) and also works of English and American authors, (V.Ash, W.Thackerey's Vanity Fair, Shakespeare's Merry Wives of Windsor, separate short stories of Mark Twain, J.London, J.D.Salinger, J.D.Updike, O'Connor, K.Porter). Many belles-lettres works from Romanic languages (apart from those performed by M.Zerov, M.Rylskyi, PKarmanskyi, M.Orest, M.Voronyi, M.Lukash, H.Kochur, P.Sokolovskyi, F.Sklyar and some others) were successfully accomplished during the last 35 years by some representatives of the second generation of post-war translators. To be mentioned first is Anatol Perepadya (b.1935), who was severely criticized and persecuted by the Communist authorities in the late 1960's and early 1970's for his open public support of Kochur and Lukash. These translators consistently demonstrated the principle of unimpeded use of all the riches within the Ukrainian lexicon in their translated versions of foreign belles-lettres. Perepadya managed to carry this idea into practice in numerous translations of works of a number of Romanic languages authors. Among these were French (H.de Balzac, F.Mauriac, A.Saint-Exuperi, P.CIodel); Italian (J.Fava, A.Moravia, N.Machiavelli, I. Calvino); Portuguese (J.Amado); Spanish (A.Carpentier, M.Cervantes) and some others.
Among the very prolific translators of the 1960's -1990's was also Volodymyr Mytrofanow (1929-1998), who turned into Ukrainian about forty books by prominent American and German classic writers. The authors were Mark Twain (The Gilded Age, The Adventures of Tom Sawyer); novels, narratives and collections of short stories by E.M.Hemingway, H.Beecher-Stowe's Uncle Tom's Cabin, T.Mayne Reid's Headless Horseman as well as novels, narratives and collections of short stories of N.Lewis, R.P.Warren, T.Capote, S.King, R.D.Bradbury, G.M.Synge, PH.Abrahams, B.Brecht's Carrier of Arturo L//'(from German) and several others. Some contribution to Ukrainian belles-lettres was also made by N.Hordiyenko-Andrianova (1921 - 1996), who translated prose works from Russian (V.Korolenko, A.Herzen, A.Kuprin, A.Ostrovskiy), German (L.Renn, A.Welma, B.Apitz, B.Brecht), French (A.France, Ch. de Coster's Till Ulenspiegel) and from Esperanto (V.Yaroshenko).
Mykhailo Lytvynets' (b.1933) translated several best poetic works mostly from contemporary Romanic languages (French, Italian, Spanish, Portuguese and others). His most outstanding versification into Ukrainian is The Luisiades by the Portuguese Renaissance poet Luis Camoens. Apart from this he produced translations of some best works of separate French poets (P.Beranger, V.Hugo), Spanish language poets (G.Mistral, B.Carrion, H.Marti, H.de Esponceda, P.Neruda, N.Guillen), Italian poets (G.Leopardi) and others.
Several well-known works written in Romanic languages were successfully brought into Ukrainian by another prolific translator H.Filipchuk (b. 1936). Among these are almost 30 novels and narratives representing the most outstanding French authors: E.Zola, H.Flaubert, A.Malraux, P.Merle, B.CIavel, A.Marquet, H.Crussy, PGamarra, and also some works of the Spanish language authors as Roa Bastos, D.Medio and others. Quite noticeable during the 1970's -1999's was also Lohvynenko O.P.(b. 1946), a translator of several prose and drama works by German, Swiss, British and American literatures authors as L.Frank, S.Lenz, E.Strittmatter, H.Hartuna, B.Kellermann, F.Durrenmatt, H.B6II, H.Kruschell, P.Handtke, H.Hesse, K.Ransmayer, M.Frisch, W.Scott, R.Stouter, D.Salinger, H.Wells, I. Show, E.O'Neill and others.
Active among the upcoming younger generation of Ukrainian translators, who have already won wide recognition in the last decades of the twentieth century is O.Mokrovols'kyi (b. 1946). He has accomplished a number of poetic and prose translations from English (G.G.Byron, J.Chiardy, P.B.Shelley, W.Shakespeare, D.H.Lawrence, W.Collins, R.Graves), Italian (S.Quasimodo, G.Leopardi, T.Tasso, L.Ariosto), German (G.Brezan), Spanish (A.Grosso, D.AIohso) and other languages. Also of note is M.Moskalenko (b. 1948), who translates mostly from French (P.EIuard, V.Hugo, Saint-John Perse) and Spanish (F.H.Lorca, H.Marti and some others).
A prominent position among the new generation of talented Ukrainian translators is occupied by A.Sodomora (b. 1937). He has performed faithful translations of several major works of famous Roman poets and authors as Horace, Ovid (Metamorphoses), Lucretius, Seneca, and of ancient Greek playwrights as Aristophanes, Menander, Sophocles, Aeschylus, Euripides. Several works of ancient Greek and Roman poets (Virgil, Horace, Tirtacus, Tibullus and others) were translated by Sodomora's predecessor M.Bilyk (1889-1970). His most significant translations are Virgil's Aeneid (edited by Borys Ten) and