21. Теория простого предложения в современном английском языке
22. Теория сложного предложения в современном английском языке
23. Теория текста в современной лингвистике
24. Универсальные законы языкового развития.
25.Англиский речевой этикет и культура речи
1. Functional Styles in Modern English
The Notion of Functional Style. Functional style as “having social relevance, functionally determined, displaying inner coherence combination of ways of usage, choice and combination of means of speech communication in the domain of a certain national language, correlated with other ways of expression of the same type, which attain other aims and fulfill other functions in the social communicative experience of the people”\V.V.Vinogradov\. Functional style as the arrangement of language means in speech ( in the text), built up as the result of the working principles of language means choice and combination in a certain sphere of communication in accordance with the tasks and conditions of communication \ M.N.Kozhina\. The extra-linguistic basis of a functional style, i.e. the tasks and aims of communication in a certain social sphere, determined by the purpose of the correlated form of public thinking, a type of mentality, current in the sphere, typical patterns of contents. Systematic character of a functional style in speech ( functional stylistic correlation of the units on the basis of common communicative purport).
Functional Styles as speech systems. Functional styles as styles of language and speech. The notion of ‘register’ ( similar to that of the notion of style) , as series of situational factors, which determine the use of specific language means \G.Leech\. General classification of functional styles. Linguistic and extra-linguistic factors in the classification of functional styles. The role of extra-linguistic factors in style studies ( the Prague Linguistic Circle). Style – forming factors of a functional style. Universal, normative-stylistic character of the style-forming factor of a functional style (emotiveness, evaluation, rationality, imagery, logic, exactness) and their difference in accordance with the purport of communication. Functional analysis of the style-forming factors of a functional style \ V. Shneider\..
Problems of the Functional Styles Classification. Reasons for recognizing the style of fiction \ the belles-lettres style \ : pros and cons. Cons: the language of fiction is multi-stylistic, not closed, it integrates other functional styles of the language, has no specific language markers; the aesthetic function the language of fiction which is expressed in special use of language means with the division of styles into artistic and non-artistic or the treatment of the belles-letters style outside the system of functional styles; in Russian it is not included in the domain of literary language due to a specific character of the literary language and the formation of the latter a under the influence of the language of fiction ( V.D.Bondaletov, L.Y.Maksimov, N.A.Mezhersky, A.K.Panfiliv, D.N.Schmelev\. Pros: the language of fiction cannot be beyond the existing system of functional styles as in spite of its multi-stylistic properties it uses only part of the inventory of the elements and units of the other styles but doesn’t express its speech systemic character and their use in the aesthetic function is very specific; it has the unity of a stylistic speech system, in spite of the author’s individuality ]V.V.Vinogradov, I.V.Arnold, R.A.Budagov,I.R.Gaplerin, B.N.Golovin, A.K.Dolinin,, E.G.Risel\. So “ if functional styles should be treated as norms of speech composition there are no objections to treating the belles-letter style as one of the functional styles, in spite of its stylistic heterogeneity, the style of any text has different stylistic meanings. If we suppose that a functional style is identified on the basis of the sphere of communication and its main function, its complexity and heterogeneity shouldn’t present an obstacle” \ A.K.Dolinin\.
Reasons for singling out the newspaper style in the system of functional styles \I.V.Arnold\. Newspaper style as a subsystem of publicist style \M.N.Kozhina\. Newspaper and publicist sub-styles of the so-called ”informational style” Functional style as a historical category. The style of poetry in the English language in the epoch of classicism (17th -18th centuries) with special norms of poetic language – the choice of vocabulary, morphological forms and syntactic construction. The priority of abstract, bookish, high-flown words ( ardours, glories abundance of stylistic devices, archaic grammatical forms (thee, thy, doth, etc.), perfect regularity of rhyming, rhythmic, metre, syntactic, compositional and other formal patterns dependence on the canon. Aesthetism, priority of exquisite taste, sensible and noble ideals – proclaimed in the poem “Poetic Art” by Niccolo Bualo. The spread of French classical traditions in Great Britain.
The Belles-lettres Style.Aesthetic function as the main function of the belles-lettres style. Aesthetics as one the most important elements of human culture. Aesthetic activity as creative activity in accordance with the “laws of beauty”. Social determination of aesthetic vision of the world (social interpretation of the of aesthetics). The objective grounds for of aesthetics discovered in the existence of the world of reality ( symmetry, rhythm, harmony, integrity, regularity, expediency, optimization). Artistic creation as a special form of cognition and exploration of reality: syncretism of cognitive, evaluative, communicative, practical activities. Art as the objective basis of artistic activity. Works of art as integration of creative activity and perception. Art as self-reflection and “code” of culture. Other functions: educational, informational, hedonistic (entertaining), evaluative. Stylistic peculiarities of the belles-lettres style: imagery, unity and indivisibility of artistic form and contents, completeness and integrity (hierarchy and systematic interaction of different levels of the belles-lettres text ), artistic imagery produced by speech concreteness, stylistic integrity and multi-stylistic variation, (introduction of elements of other styles, e.g. of the colloquial style in the aesthetic function into the belles-lettres style), emotionality and evaluation, emphasis, and uniqueness. Sub-styles of the belles-lettres style: poetry, prose, drama. Poetic genres: ballad, ode, pastoral, sonnet, elegy, limerick, epigram, etc. Genres in prose: a story, a short story, a novel, etc. Genres in drama: comedy, tragedy, drama, dramatic monologue, dramatic dialogue. Stylistic difference of texts belonging to various sub-styles and genres, literary trends, artistic methods, (romanticism, realism, sentimentalism, etc.), displaying different types of presentation ( narration, description), points of view of the speaker, ( “I-speaking”, fairy-tale speaking), topics, ideas, compositional arrangements, systems of imagery, the authors’ ideostyles, presence or absence of stylization. Ideostyles. Language means of the belles-lettres style:
phonetic means - sound reiteration, onomatopoeia (sound imitation), alliteration, euphony, consonance, dissonance. Rhyme, rhythm and metre in poetry, the notion of rhythm in prose;
vocabulary – priority of concrete words as ‘artistic speech concretization ’, unlimited choice of vocabulary (including non-literary means, jargon and slang words), multi-stylistic character, wealth of synonyms and variety of vocabulary, developed polysemy, no limits in the use of words, which belong to different functional stylistic groups of vocabulary, stylistic resources of ‘combinatory semantics” of language units, normative and irregular combinatory patterns, decorative and other functions of phraseology, decomposition of phraseology, rich, genuine imagery, the use of figures of speech or lexical stylistic devices, as a unique textual system;
grammatical means of the language: in morphology a variety and wealth of stylistic effects of morphological forms and categories ‘ for expressing ‘artistic speech concretization ’ (deicsis, specific use of aspect and temporal meanings of the verb, ‘verbal speech and plot development’ ( increase in the role and currency of the verb, special use of morphological categories of number, case, degrees of comparison for emphatic and emotive purposes; in syntax a variety and wealth of syntactical constructions, colloquial speech stylization. Means of expressive syntax: inversion, parallelism, antithesis, parcellation, gradation, detachment, different models of author and character speech presentation, different models of homogeneous secondary parts of the sentence arrangement with the priority of double and triple patterns;
compositional textual devices ( three-part compositional canon – introduction, the main part and the ending with a more complex model of prologue and epilogue), deviations from the canon and their stylistic importance, the plot development the exposition, gradation, the climax and the outcome ( the denouement), compositional peculiarities of a poetic text - rigidly fixed dimensions of textual arrangement ( the fixed number of feet, lines, regular accentual models of the foot and line arrangement, the length and arrangement of a stanza, peculiar models of stanza and text arrangement, patterned rhyme, metre and syntax constructions), extensive use of foregrounding (coupling, antithesis, convergence, the effect of deceived expectancy),the effect of replenished expectancy, parallelism, irony, hyperbole as compositional devices;
the system of stylistic devices: systemic use of imagery - textual, developed and simple non-developed metaphors, metonymies, epithets, similes, hyperboles, litotes, puns, oxymorons, zeugmas, different in form contact and distant repetitions (ordinary, anaphora, epiphora, framing, anadiplosis, chain, refrain) Intensification of the total aesthetic impact of the language means of the text.
Scientific Style. The main function of the scientific style: rational cognition and linguistic presentation of the dynamics of thinking. Other communicative tasks. Inner differentiation and the formation of the sub-styles and genres of the scientific style used in different fields of science, characterized by different manners of scientific presentation. Sub-styles and genres: scientific style proper \ thesis, abstract of thesis, monograph, article, report, abstract of a report...\ popular scientific \ an article, annotations, review, etc.).”Sub-languages” of scientific styles: law, political, medical, economic, technical, computer, linguistic, etc. Types of presentation: description and argumentation ( deduction, induction). Different degree of polemics. Popularization of the scientific text. The addressee factor. Peculiarities of scientific communication: planned, prepared delayed in time communication (except for lectures and reports). Style-forming features: great role of tradition in the use of language means, objective and non-categorical presentation, specific means of expression, a certain extent of emphasis, restrictions in the use of intensification, evaluation, emotional language means, absence of imagery. Language means of the scientific style:
lexical means - highly specialized scientific terminology, terminological groups, revealing the conceptual systems of the scientific style, the peculiarities of the use of terms in scientific speech, the use of nouns and verbs in abstract meanings, special reference words, scientific phraseology - clichés, stereotyped and hackneyed word combinations and idioms, priority of neutral vocabulary, limitations in the use of emotional- evaluative and expressive vocabulary and phraseology, absence of non-literary vocabulary and phraseology ( slang words, vulgarisms, obscene words) , peculiarities in word- building (standard suffixes and prefixes, mainly of Greek and Latin origin – tele-, morpho, philo- -ism, etc.), peculiarities in the scarce use of imagery (usually trite and hackneyed, the priority of the functions of intensification and decoration, non-systematic, narrow contextual character, absence of rich associations, schematic and generalized character);
grammatical means: nominal character ( the predominance of nouns over verbs) in the use of parts of speech, the use of prepositional “of-phrases” to substitute the genitive case, transposition of the classes of nouns, wide use of the Passive Voice, Indefinite Tenses, specialization of pronouns in demonstrative and intensification functions, numerous conjunctions revealing the logical order of the text as well as double conjunctions ( not merely... but also, whether ... or both... and, as...as), adverbs of logical connectuin ;
syntactical means: priority of full, logically correct, regular syntactical models, the syntax of simple sentence in the scientific speech - extensive use of extended two-member sentence, priority in the use of compound sentences, extensive use of secondary predicative constructions ( Complex Object, Participial and Gerundial Constructions), wide use of conjunctions and denominative prepositions, concise expression of syntactical connection in word combinations, sentences, groups of sentences, absolute priority of declarative sentences in the use of communicative types of sentences;
composition of scientific text as an explication of the stages of cognition and productive thinking, the usual model is presented by the following scheme - a problem situation, idea, hypothesis, proof, conclusion, compositional speech forms of discussion, argumentation and description, conclusion, types of narration, wide-spread co-referential repetition as a specific method of text development.
Functional restrictions: strong objections to the use of non-literary vocabulary, scarce use of emotional and intensification units of vocabulary and phraseology, and stylistic devices (metaphors, metonymies, etc.), absence of the second person form and corresponding personal pronouns, scarce use of “I-speaking”, limited use of incomplete and non-declarative, and one-member sentences.
Publicist Style ( Journalese). The major functions of the publicist style: social influence and public opinion manipulation; informative function. Additional functions: propaganda, popularization, education, organiziation, analysis and criticism, hedonism (entertainment). Stylistic features of the publicist style: interchange of standard and expressiveness, explicit evaluation, affective, impressive character, stylistic effects of "novelty", advertising, mass, group social orientation, factography (documentary precision, abundance of statistics, toponymic and proper names, factual data), neutral or formal manner of presentation, generalization, the use of arguments, multi-stylistic character.
Publicistic style and other functional styles. Publicist style as a sphere of intersection with the style of fiction / essay, sketch, lampoon, satirical article/ and scientific style /commentary, review/. Elements of conversational and official styles. Substyles and genres: publicist style proper /lampoons, articles, essays, sketches, travelogues, memoirs/, political propaganda /slogans, leaflets, proclamations/, journalese /, newspapers style - editorial (leader) article, brief news, or news columns, report, interview, reportage…/, oratory /speeches, parliamentary debates, TV discussions…/ TV and radio journalese, publicist cinematography (documentary, news-reel, etc.). New publicist genres: talk-show, reality-show, role-play show, game-show, debates, TV poll, TV commentary, new types of information programs. Inner differentiation of the publicist style and correlation of functional relevance of its different variations and genres.
Graphic Means of the newspaper style: wide use of graphic means - change of prints, word-arts, italics, various graphic symbols (asterisks, etc.) used for the sake of text limitation as well as elements of compositional arrangement such as columns, titles, subtitles, parts and paragraphs. Language Means of publicist style:
vocabulary: priority of neutral and bookish vocabulary, wide use of language means to actualize chronotop (proper and geographical names, \abundance of statistics, toponymic and proper names, facts and data), means of evaluation, neologisms, social political terminology, a great number of loan-words and international words, use words and word-combinations of other styles ( especially, conversational), against the general background of the bookish style vocabulary, including terminology as well as means of imagery to increase expressiveness / trite metaphors, metonymies, personification, metaphorical paraphrases, metaphorical use of terminology/, newspaper terms: newspaper vocabulary and cliches (journalese and bookish), decomposition of phraseological units. Word-building: loan suffixes and prefixes as well as combination of words;
grammatical means: in morphology the use of the singular number of nouns in their collective meaning, plural number for the definition of generalization, wide use of the superlative degree of adjectives in order to reveal expressiveness as well as the use of adjectives-colouratives, substantiation and evaluation of the use of numerals, adjectives and participles. Average sentence length (9-11words) and average degree of complexity in the sentence structure. Wide use of declarative sentences. The use of questions, exclamatory sentences for the sake of expressiveness. Means of expressive syntax: inversions, parallelism, antithesis, parcellation, gradation, isolation, different types of the author's words presentation and conversational constructions, different patterns in the use of homogeneous parts of the sentence - double, three-element and multi-element;
compositional and textual means: canonized three-part structure of publicist texts, the principle of “pyramid” and its effects in the composition of modern newspaper text, the use of compositional ( foregrounding) devices.
Official Style. / The Style of Official Documents /. Regulative function as the main one, i.e. the establishment of norms and rules in the sphere of public relations (e.g. the relations of individuals, group – individual relations, the relations of social groups and institutions, etc.). Substyles and genres: the style of law documents / laws, legislative acts, codes, instructions, orders…/, the style official documents / applications, references, protocols, questionnaires, profiles, autobiographies, agreements, contracts…/, the style of diplomatic documents / agreements, pacts, communiqués, note, memoranda, declarations…/. Considerable inner differentiation, i.e. considerable genre-stylistic distinctions depending on the functional purpose of the text, themes, sphere of use, character of the institution issuing a publication.
Stylistic features: standard, imperative and prescriptive nature, ascertaining as leading method of presentation, precision which does not admit misinterpretation, non-personal character. Specific features of the official style characteristic of all its varieties and genres: templet ( pattern) text composition, speech standard and stereotyped ways of expression and arrangement of the language means (cliches, standard vocabulary). Use of the language means belonging to the style of official documents as negative development in speech culture, especially within the norms of publicist style.
Language means of the style of official documents:
graphic means: wide use of graphic means - change of the print, italics, the use of graphic delimitation means - various graphic symbols (asterisks, lines, patterns, etc.) which clearly demonstrate text limitation ( columns, division into parts, sections, elements, paragraphs), means of graphic design which reveal the representational form of the templet;
lexical means: bureaucratic cliches ( words or word-combinations), the use of special terminology to express precision, repetitions, the use of constructions with archaic elements, wide spread of vocabulary units, expressing obligation, absence of subjective emotional appraisal;
grammatical means: nominal character / predominance of nouns, a great number of nominal prepositions and conjunctions/, wide use of the genitive case, different forms of expressing imperative / verbs with the meaning of obligation, verbs of instruction, prescription, future tense forms, the imperative mood, infinitive and infinitive constructions/, absence of the first and second person presentation and correlated pronouns, the use of collective nouns for the expression of impersonality, different patterns of statement and ascertaining, specific use of aspect and tense forms ( future in conditional sentences, wide use of conditional sentences in connection with the necessity of detailed exposition and proviso, rare use of complex sentences, especially with subordinate sentences of cause because of the absence of the necessity to explicate logical operations of analysis and reasoning;
compositional devices: the patterned structure of texts of all the genres and substyles, declarative, ascertaining nature, neglect of narration and discussion.
Colloquial (Conversational) Style. The main function is communication, realization of practical activity of a person. It is used in everyday life. Extra-linguistic features: informality, spontaneous character of speech, interpersonal contact and direct involvement in the process of communication, attraction of paralinguistic means of communication (gestures, expression of the face, movements). Stylistic features: familiarity, ellipsis, concrete character of speech, interruption and logical inconsistency of the speech, emotiveness, efficacy. Secondary stylistic features: idiomatic and pattern character, “personal” type of speech presentation. Oral and written (epistolary) varieties. Two forms of speech: dialogue (simple dialogue and polylogue) and monologue. Inner differentiation, i.e. genre and style distinctions, caused by the communicative status, mood, aims, relations between the speakers, situation and theme of the conversation. Substyles and genres: literary conversational style / talks, conversations, interviews /, familiar-conversational style / communication between family members, friends, intimate communication, children's talk /, low colloquial / quarrels, abuse, scandal, squabble, insult /. Language peculiarities: high activity of non-bookish means of the language ( with stylistic conversational and familiarity colouring, the use of non-bookish low colloquial elements on all language levels, incomplete constructions ( at phonetic, syntactical and partially morphological levels), the use of language units of concrete meaning at all the levels, non-characteristic use of means with abstract and generalized meaning, weak syntactic connections between the parts of a syntactic structure, active use of means of verbal imagery, means of expressing subjective appraisal, emotional and expressive means at all the levels, patterned speech, specific phraseology , personal forms, nonce-words.
Language means the colloquial style.
graphic means: graphic signs as the reflection of phonetic processes of sound modification in fluent speech, graphic signals of the change of communicative roles;
phonetic means: intensive modification of sounds in fluent speech, positional phonemic interchange(combinatorial - accommodation, assimilation, dissimilation and positional changes, connected with the position of a sound in a word - at the beginning, in the middle or at the end of the word, stressed or unstressed position, etc.). Positional changes: reduction (weakening) of vowels in unstressed syllables) and partial devoicing of consonants at the end of the word before a pause. Complete reduction: apokopa (the drop of the final consonant or final part of the word), synkopa ( the drop of a vowel or several sounds in other positions). Partial reduction as a qualitative change of vowels. Partial and complete devoicing of consonants at the end of a word. Stylistic and communicative effects of modification. Wealth and variety of intonation patterns ( rhythm, tempo, timbre, melody peculiarities);
vocabulary: conversational (everyday life) vocabulary, priority of neutral widely-used words with concrete, denotative, referential meanings, wide use of non-literary vocabulary, expressive-emotional vocabulary, means of verbal imagery, well-developed synonymy and polysemy, the use of stylistic devices, including pun, decomposition of phraseological units; in word-formation: emotive suffixes and prefixes, wide use of word-formation, expressive tautology.;
grammatical means: in morphology - frequent use of pronouns and particles, specific deicsis ( wide use of pronouns in substitute and co-referential functions, wealth and variety of aspect and tense form of a verb (Present Continuos, Present Indefinite, Present Perfect), wide use of interjections, stop-, interruption-, break- and pause-word; in syntax: ellipsis, variety in the use of communicative types of the sentence, priority of short sentences, wide use of expressive constructions, exclamatory sentences, specific conversational constructions, distorted and “broken” syntax, predominance of co-ordination over subordination;
compositional peculiarities: different types of discourse strategies, dialogue “entities” and “moves”as elementary units of discourse / question - answer, exclamation - reply, etc./, frames and scenarios of dialogue discourse, complicated communicative strategies of conversational style / "white lies", flattery, irony, deceit, lies, mockery, sarcasm, / as aggressive and non-aggressive, individual and group communicational strategies peculiar composition development in a quarrel, scandal, abuse, insult, squabble/; compositional patterns of epistolary texts ( business letters, personal, friendly, intimate letters, notes, postcards
1. Арнольд И. В. Стилистика современного английского языка, М.: Просвещение, 1980
2. Кожина М.Н. Стилистика русского языка. М.,1993.
2. Part of Speech Theory
Parts of speech are generally described as grammatical classes of words. This is a traditional approach in normative grammar. The interpretation of parts of speech in modern linguistic theory is based on the assumption that parts of speech are semantic-grammatical classes of words which are differentiated on the basis of common syntactical, morphological and semantic properties. e.g. the noun has the common part of speech meaning of ‘a thing’, ‘substance’. It has the same for all the class grammatical forms of number and case, realizing the grammatical categories of the number and case, has common for all the class types of combinability (for e.g. left-hand combinability with the article, adjective and verb and right-hand combinability with the verb/ Besides, it has typical for all the class syntactical functions. It performs the functions of the subject, the object, the predicative of the sentence. The teacher entered the classroom ( the subject of the sentence). I saw the teacher yesterday.( the object). He is a teacher ( the predicative)
The development of the theory of parts of speech has witnessed great changes of paradigms. It is traced back to to the antique Greek logic philosophical tradition. The ten-part of speech system suggested by Aristoteltheory of parts of speech
Части речи как семантико-грамматические разряды слов, выделяемые на основе общности их синтаксических, морфологических и семантических свойств. Логико-философский анализ в античной теории частей речи. \Аристотель\. Формальная школа в анализе частей речи, учет различающихся окончаниями форм изменения \Ф.Ф. Фортунатов\. Форма и значение в их неразрывной связи как основание дифференциации частей речи \Л.В. Щерба\. Знаменательные части речи (глагол, существительное, прилагательное, наречие, числительное и местоимения) и служебные части речи (союз, предлог, артикль). Морфологические признаки (типы флексий, система грамматических категорий – акциденции части речи) как критерий выделения частей речи. Семантические критерии идентификации частей речи. Категориальное значение части речи (существительное – предметность, глагол – действие, прилагательное – признак). Синтаксическая функция (способность стоять в одной синтаксической позиции) как критерий выделения частей речи. Первичные и вторичные синтаксические функции. Имя существительное (общее категориальное значение предметности, категории рода, числа, падежа, определенности \ неопределенности, парадигма склонения синтаксические функции подлежащего, дополнения, именной части сказуемого). Глагол (общее категориальное значение действия, категории лица, числа, наклонения, времени, вида, залога, временной отнесенности и т. д., парадигма спряжения, синтаксическая функция сказуемого). Прилагательное (категориальное значение признака, категории рода, числа, падежа, степеней сравнения, парадигма склонения, синтаксическая функция определения).
Вербоиды (инфинитив, причастие, деепричастие, герундий). Наречие (категориальное значение – признак признака, категория степеней сравнения, синтаксическая функция обстоятельства). Числительное (категориальное значение количества, сочетаемость с существительным на основе формальной связи). Местоимения и местоименные наречия как указательно-заместительные слова, выполняющие указательную (дейктическую) и заместительную функции.
2.The development of the Part of Speech Theory reveals investigations of the criteria and the amount of the classes of words traditionally termed as parts of speech.
The Greek Philosopher Aristotel singled out 10 parts of speech on the basis of their generalized meaning.
The Classic conventional approach \ H.Sweet - “English Grammar” , O.Esperson - “The Philosophy of Grammar” \ suggested the devision of the words into declinables; noun-words \noun, noun-pronouns, noun-numerals, infinitives, gerunds\, adjective-words \ adjectives, adjective-pronouns, adjective-numerals, particles \, verbs \ finite verbs and verbals\ and indeclinables regarding the morphological form of the words.
The structural distributional approach worked out by Ch. Fries \ “The Structure of the Language”\ insisted on the division of words into class-words \1- 4 \ and function-words \ 15\ on the basis of their positions in the structure of the sentence or frame.
Parts of Speech are the grammatical classes of words classified on the basis of three criteria: a\ semantic – the categorical meaning of the part of speech e.g.: the generalized meaning of substance \ nouns \, property or quality \ adjectives \, process \ verbs \, number \ numerals \, indication or deixis \ pronouns \ , secondary property \ adverb \ ; b\ formal - specific grammatical and lexico-grammatical \formal \ characteristics of the class; c\ functional - syntactical characteristics of the class \ typical combinability and part of the sentence positions \.
3. The Noun/ The Generally recognized category of the Noun is the category of number presented by the opposition of the singular form \weak, unmarked \ versus plural \ the strong marked member \ The Grammatical form of the plural number is manifested by the morpheme of the plural number realized in several allomorhpfs: -s,-es, -en, zero morpheme and sound alternation \. The Main problem of the theory of the Number is the fact that many nouns are not capable of forming this category. They make up large grops of nouns called Pluralia Tantum \ the names of games double part objects, sciences, collective notions… \ and Singularia Tantum \ abstract notions, nouns of material…\
The solution of the problem is suggested by the Russian linguist Isachenko who introduced the notion of discreteness to understand the complex relations of the semantics of the word and the grammatical category of number.
The category of gender in the English language is purely semantic as it is the intrinsic part of the lexical meaning of the word and is shown by different lexical means \ man, woman. A he-policeman, a she-policeman, a tiger – a tigress \
The Category of Case causes controversy as to the number of cases from 5 \ M Deutchbein, H. Sweet - Vocative, Accusative, Dative, Genetive, Common Case \ to the existence of the category in the English language, the latter being supported by the fact that ‘s can modify word-combinations and sentences and only the restricted number of words \ nouns denoting living beings, nouns denoting time and distance \ can enter the category
4. The verb is the most complex part of speech due to the role it performs in the expression of the predicative function of the sentence. The verb form identifies the type of connection between the situation named in the utterance and the reality. The complex character of the verb is in the intricate structure of the verb categories and its subclass subdivisions and its profoundly different sets of forms: finite and non-finite
The general categorial meaning of the verb is process presented dynamically i.e. developed in time. The main syntactical functions and combinability differ with the fininte and non- finite verbs due to the transitive character of the latter. Finite forms perform the function of the predicate, non-finite perform alongside this function can perform the function of the adverbial modifier, the object, the subject and even the attribute
The classification of verbs into: a\ semi-notional \modal, auxiliary, link, aspect verbs \ and functional; b\ actional and statal; c\terminative or “limitive”, non-terminative and double or mixed; c\ transitive or commplementive(monocomplementive, bicomplementive and adverbial complementive verbs) and intransitive or uncomplementive (personal and impersonal)
The non-finite forms of the verb (verbals or verbids) are specific hybrid forms, combining verbal characteristics with the characteristics of the other parts of speech verbal and nominal with the infinitive and gerund, verbal and adjectival for participles I and II. Hence the functions in the sentence and the main categorial differences. The infinitive and gerund retain aspect, voice and time correlation characteristics while their main syntactical functions are pronominal. The participles retain voice and time correlation characteristics while the main syntactical functions are attributive. The specific functions of the verbals are predicative consructions: Objective – infinitive, gerundial and particilial ( with participle I ) or Complex Object, Subjective coostructions- infinitive, and Absolute Participial Constructions with both the participles.
The Categories of number and person in reference to verbal forms are treated athe following way: traditionally they are recognisedas existing categoties though the mohologically they show only the the third person singular and its general couterpart. The newr and more consistant approach \ M. Y. Blokh\ treats these forms in unity with the personal-numeric forms of the subject, the main indicator of the numerric personal relations, being the sybject, while the grammatical rudimentary indficators pf number and person in the fininte form of the verb obviously perform a junctional function in the manifistation of predicative relations.
The Category of Tense and the corresponding system of tenses in the English language arouses great controversy as to the number of tenses and to the criteria of their classification/ The most common view recognizing three tenses : present, past and future represented by the triple oppositions of three grammatical forms
\ B.A.Ilyish The Structure of Modern English, A.I.Smirnitsky The Morphology of the English Language… \ reveals the psycological perception of objective time.
According to the second point view the category of tense or verbal time is subdivided into two temporal categories: the first, the category of primary time - presenting absolute time characteristics and correspondingly “primary” tenses - present and past; the second – presenting non-absolute relative time characteristics, the category of prospective time or the category of prospect represented by the opposition of future-non-future forms\ which makes an attempt at the explanation of the complex essense of the Future in the Past Tense \.
The adherents of the third pointy of view recognise only two tenses in English – present and past – reguarding the “shall \ will form” as modal \ L.S.Barchudarov Essays in Morphology of Modern English\/ The term ‘Coloured Future” wide-spread in English and American Grammar textbooks \Quirk R. Grammar of contemporary English \ reaveal a similar approach to the phenomenon/
The next aproach treats recognises more than three tenses including the category of tense into aspect and time correlation systems \ H.Sweet – complete and and incomplete tenses, continuous or point-tenses; O.Jesperson –expanded and non-expanded tenses, ante-ptreterite,present and future, preterite, present and future, post-preterite, present ad future. A similar approach is worked out by the Russian linguist I.P.Ivanova Вид и время в современном английском языке\ representing the tense-aspest system as a unity of grammatical forms manifesting aspect continuous and indefinite and tense distinctions in the form of a special blend of the two.
The Category of Aspect is traditionally treated as represented by the opposition of continuous \ durative, progressive\ aspect and non-continuous \indefinite, non-durative, recurrant \ aspect. Some linguists refer to the category of aspect the category of time correlation alongside the category of development \\ M. Y.Blohk \. O.Curme A Grammar of the English Language singles out 4 aspects: durative, poit-action, terminative and iterative aspects on the basis of the semantics of the verbs showing different modes of performing an action
The Category of Time Correlation or the Category of Orderwas singled out of the general tense system not log ago as the general controdiction of the tense and precedence or resultative meanings seemed to be quite obvious. Some linguists though still treat it inside the category of tense or the category of aspect \ M.A.Blokh - the category of retrospective coordination or the category of retrospect emphasizing its aspective function.
The Category of Mood is viewed through the broad conception of Modality which is defined as a manifistation of the relation of the situation presented by the utterance and the objective reality/ Modality is the core of the predicative structure of the sentence and in this aspect its is one of the most important verbal categories. It is represented by the opposition of the Indicative Mood and the group of Oblique Moods including Subjunctive I, II Suppositional and Conditional Mood . The Imperative Mood is recognized only by some linguists.
In the classification presented in the conception of M.Y. Blohk Subjunctive, opposed to the Indicative is the integral mood of unreality. It presents two sets of forms according to the structural division of verbal tenses into present and past. The functional subsystems of the subjunctive are: the spective – the mood of attitudes, and the conditional – the mood apprasing the cause-conditional relations. Each of them falls into two subsystems so there are : the pure spective, the modal spective, the stipulative conditional, the consective conditional.
The Category of Voice shows the direction of the process as regards the participants of the situation reflected in the syntactic construction. Thus the category is viewed as a morphosyntactical category. The morphological opposition is represented by the thepassive form, the strong marked member , and the active form, the week member which expresses “non-passivity”. Some linguists raise the problem of secondary or medial voices: the reflexive voice – “he shaved himself”; the reciprocal voice – “ they recognized each other; the middle voice – “the door opened” \B. A. Ilyish, M.Y. Blohk \ and consider them cases of neutralizing rduction of the voice opposition.
5. The categorial semantics of the adjective is the meaning of the property of a substance. Adjectives have a specific combinability with nouns in post and occasionally in postposition, with link-verbs in preposition, with modifying adverbs. Adjectives are divided into relative and qualitative, the latter traditionally described as the group forming degrees of comparison, though it seems that the rule has a lot of exceptions in English, so the new division into evaluative and specificative \ M.Y.Blokh\.
Statives or the words of the category of state are grouped into a separate part of speech as: a\ they denote state, not quality, b\ have the formal part-of-speech marker the prefix a-, c\ have no caregory of degrees of comparison, d\ have no right-hand combinability with the noun \ B.S.Khaimovich, B.I.Rogovskaya – A Course in English Grammar\. At the same time statives are very close to adjectives as: a\ their meaning may be classified as “stative propety”, b\ it shares the adjectival function of the predicative and c\ part of te combinability, d\ they are not altogethet outside the category of degrees of comparison e.g. more aware, e\statives are not so numerous as to form a separate part of speech – their total amount is a coulpe of dozen \ M.Y.Blohk \.
The Adverb is a word expressing propety of an action or property of another property or circumstances in which the action occurs. Adverbs are characterized by the combinability with the verbs, adjectives and words of the adjectival character, so their function is to express different adverbial modifiers. Adberbs can refer to the whole situation, in this case they are called “situation-determinants”. Adverbs are commonly divided into qualitative, quantitative and cicumstantial.
The Pronoun is the part of speech having the categorial meaning of indication or deixis. It is the closed for membership class or the class presenting the narrow set of various status with the corresponding formal propeties of categorial changeability and wordbuilding. The pronouns have either sustantival or adjectival functions for different sets. The Pronouns are classified into: personal, possesive. demostrative, indefinite, relative, negative
The Numeral has the categorial meaning of number \ cardinal and ordinal\ / It presents the narrow set of simple numerals and the specific forms of composition for compound numerals and suffixal forms of derivation for ordinal numerals. It performs the functions of numeric attribute and numeric sustantive.
Semi-notional parts of speech or function words are words of incomplete nominative meaning and non-self-dependant, mediatory functions in the sentence.To the basic functional series of words in English belong: the article, the preposition, the conjunction, the particle, the modal word, the interjection. The preposition expresses the dependencies and interdependencies of substantive referents. The conjunction expresses the connections of phenomena. The particles have both specifying and limiting meanings. Modal words express the attitude of the speaker. The interjection is the signal of emotion.
The Article expresses the specific limitation of the substantive function.\ M.Y. Blohl\. The Artcle is traditionally viewed as noun determinant expressing the meaning of definiteness- indefineteness and represented by the opposition of the definite article – the indefinite article – ‘zero” position or the meaningful absence of article. The Artcle p;ays an important part in the communicativesentence division or in the themo-rhematic structure of the sentence.
3.The Noun and its Grammatical Categories см.пункт 3 4. English as a Global Language
British English Today. Linguistic Situation. English as the national language in the UK and British Commonwealth of Nations. English as a global language. The communicative status of the English language ( according to the volume of communication, i.e. the number of speakers, its functional differentiation and its role in inter-ethnic and inter-state communication). English as one of 6 “world” languages, an official and working language of UNO, UNESCO. Changes in “the club of world languages”. Globalization and the spread of English. Characteristics of the new time language situation:
English as the world language ( English as the first language of 300 million people);
English as the national language of Great Britain, the USA, Australia, Canada, New Zealand);
English as a language of international communication.
The geopolitical status of the English language: linguistic dominance in Western Europe and North America in context of economic and macro-political integration with the conflicting tendencies of regional federalism, cultural and political autonomy of small ethnic groups, linguistic pluralism, tolerance and to legal regulation of ethno-linguistic relations.
Historical Retrospective: Introduction of the English language into Scotland . The spread of English in Wales. Great importance of language contacts and the spread of the English language on the American continent (17th century) and in Australia, South Africa, New Zealand ( the 18th-19th centuries), in Canada, Latin America, on the Bermudas ( the 20th century).
The development of the English language in the 20th century: the spread of literary standard, semi-dialects (integration of the norms of the literary standard and dialects). Non-standard urban colloquial speech as a phenomenon, disappearing with the rise of pop culture. English pronunciation standard: RP (Received pronunciation, “received” as “accepted in the best society” ), a regionless accent in Britain. The role of mass media in the spread of national standard. English as a national language in the UK and British Commonwealth of Nations. English as a world language.
Literary Standard as a norm of correct speech; formed with elements of .fiction, scientific and publicist prose \I.V.Arnold\; as “a national and historic phenomenon”, reflecting the peculiarities of the culture and history of the people, and the situation of its formation \ N.B.Mechkovskaya\; determined by the currency, reliability of sources, (but not by logic or etimological criteria) \E.S.Istrina\. The status of the literary standard in the communicative area of the national language. The interrelation of the national standard with other non-literary ( or pre-literary) forms of the language ( dialects, koine, slang, argot, cant, etc.). Linguistic distance between literary standard and non-literary forms. Colloquial speech as part of literary standard. The spread of literry standard as a tendency of increase of “normative area” communication. Orthology ( normative stylistics) is the study of norms of correct speech. H.Fowler’s “Dictionary of Modern English Usage” (Oxford, 1929). Different levels of orthological sensitivity in the society. Functionally relevant and functionally irrelevant variation in languages. Factors, influencing the character of the literary language: “age” factor ( V.Nabokov about languages - “genius youths” and “genius masters”)* the degree of differentiation of language means as the function of time stylistic differentiation of the language as the first of the language by the society and its cultural-psychological essence; tradition ( traditional languages and languages with lost tradition); difference in linguistic ideals, the aesthetic factor. Deviations from Literary Standard (illiteracy, stylistically significant deviations, deviations due to specific circumstances of communication). Social linguistic and stylistic characterization: the unity of the national language in the variety of functional styles, the strengthening and general spread of the literary English language’s standards, the formation of the universal national standard, the intensification of language contacts.
The Notion of a Variant of the Language. The English language and its variants. Two groups of variants according to P.Trudgill, J.Hannah, A.Hughes: the English-based group (English-English, Welsh English Australian English, New Zealand English); the American Based English (United States English, Canadian English. The North American variant of the English language. British, American, Canadian and Australian variants of the English Language. English-English: changes in the standard: pronunciation, vocabulary, grammar changes.
1.Мечковская М.Б. Общее языкознание: Структурная и социальная типология языков: Учебное пособие для студентов филологических и лингвистических специальностей. – М.: Флинта: Наука,, 2001. –312с
5. Grammatical Categories of the English Verb см.пункт 3 6. The Language of Media
Mass media can be described as the extensive phrase describing television, radio, and film, newspapers and magazines, Internet, which has become a major communication resource.
It is not just the journalistic aspects of the apparatus of popular communication. The mass media often perform as the focal point of social control and the source of popular culture. Media help preserve historical events, and teach morals. Basically the commercial enterprises media can represent, frequently effect how we dress, what we buy, and how our society functions ( for additional material see Newspaper Style).
Язык СМИ. Язык и социальные манипуляции в средствах массовой информации. Связь с общественностью - «PR» - как новая социокультурная реалия. PR-коммуникация в разных культурах. Прагмалингвистические особенности «черного» PR. Лингвостилистические и социокультурные особенности манипулятивных технологий англоязычных и русскоязычных СМИ. Чередование «стандарт – экспрессия» как закономерность стиля СМИ: диапазон и формы выражения в различных культурах. «Желтая пресса»: лингвистические и социокультурные особенности в разных национальных традициях. СМИ: языковые и социокультурные стереотипы воздействия. Призывность, агитационность, лозунговость, информативность, жанровый синтез и новаторство современных СМИ. Культура и язык сквозь призму новых и традиционных жанров СМИ: ток-шоу, реалити-шоу, телемост, теледискуссия, телеопрос, телеигра – редакционная статья, КГС, репортаж, хроника, эссе, путевые заметки. Интервью: лингвистические и социокультурные особкнности
Язык рекламы. Особенности языка рекламной коммуникации в Российской и англоязычной культурах. Реклама и PR-коммуникация. Языковые неязыковые средства Языковые средства создания имиджа человека, имиджа товара, имиджа фирмы, фирменного стиля. Товарный и фирменный знаки как социокультурные и семиотические конструкты. Роль невербальных средств при создании имиджа: выражение лица и движение глаз, жесты и позы, внешний вид и одежда, предметы окружающей обстановки, использование пространства, использование времени, голосовые характеристики, тактильная коммуникация (использование прикосновений). Язык телодвижений в разных культурах. Согласование вербальных и невербальных компонентов в целях эффективности коммуникативного воздействия: текст и изображение (визуальная составляющая), текст и шрифт (метаграфемика), текст и цвет, текст и голос. Макроструктура сообщения в межкультурной коммуникации.
Advertising - the techniques and practices used to bring products, services, opinions, or causes to public notice for the purpose of persuading the public to respond in a certain way toward what is advertised. Most advertising involves promoting a good that is for sale, but similar methods are used to encourage people to drive safely, to support various charities, or to vote for political candidates, among many other examples. In many countries advertising is the most important source of income for the media (e.g., newspapers, magazines, or television stations) through which it is conducted. In the noncommunist world advertising has become a large and important service industry.
There are eight principal media for advertising. Perhaps the most basic medium is the newspaper, which offers advertisers large circulations, a readership located close to the advertiser's place of business, and the opportunity to alter their advertisements on a frequent and regular basis. Magazines, the other chief print medium, may be of general interest or they may be aimed at specific audiences (such as people interested in outdoor sports or computers or literature) and offer the manufacturers of products of particular interest to such people the chance to make contact with their most likely customers. Many national magazines publish regional editions, permitting a more selective targeting of advertisements.
In Western industrial nations the most pervasive media are television and radio. Although in some countries radio and television are state-run and accept no advertising, in others advertisers are able to buy short "spots" of time, usually a minute or less in duration. Advertising spots are broadcast between or during regular programs, at moments sometimes specified by the advertiser and sometimes left up to the broadcaster. For advertisers the most important facts about a given television or radio program are the size and composition of its audience. The size of the audience determines the amount of money the broadcaster can charge an advertiser, and the composition of the audience determines the advertiser's choice as to when a certain message, directed at a certain segment of the public, should be run.
The other advertising media include direct mail, which can make a highly detailed and personalized appeal; outdoor billboards and posters; transit advertising, which can reach the millions of users of mass-transit systems; and miscellaneous media, including dealer displays and promotional items such as matchbooks or calendars.
For an advertisement to be effective its production and placement must be based on a knowledge of the public and a skilled use of the media. Advertising agencies serve to orchestrate complex campaigns whose strategies of media use are based on research into consumer behaviour and demographic analysis of the market area. A strategy will combine creativity in the production of the advertising messages with canny scheduling and placement, so that the messages are seen by, and will have an effect on, the people the advertiser most wants to address. Given a fixed budget, advertisers face a basic choice: they can have their message seen or heard by many people fewer times, or by fewer people many times. This and other strategic decisions are made in light of tests of the effectiveness of advertising campaigns.
Companies appeal to consumers in many different ways to persuade them to buy their products. As individuals, or in small groups, list television, magazine or newspaper advertisements that use each of the techniques described below.
the suggestion that using this product puts the user ahead of the times e.g. a toy manufacturer encourages kids to be the firston their block to have a new toy
the suggestion that everybody is using the product and that you should too in order to be part of the group e.g. a credit card company quotes the number of millions of people who use their card
facts and figures
statistics and objective factual information is used to prove the superiority of the product e.g. a car manufacturer quotes the amount of time it takes their car to get from 0 to 100 k.p.h.
"weasel words" are used to suggest a positive meaning without actually really making any guanrantee e.g. a famous sports personality says that a diet product might help you to lose weight the way it helped him to lose weight
the suggestion that this product will protect the user from some danger e.g. a laundry detergent manufacturer suggests that you will be embarrassed when strangers see "ring around the collar" of your shirts or blouses
the suggestion that some almost miraculous discovery makes the product exceptionally effective e.g. a pharmaceutical manufacturer describes a special coating that makes their pain reliever less irritating to the stomach than a competitor`s
the suggestion that purchasing this product shows your love of your country e.g. a company brags about its product being made in Canada and employing Canadian workers
the suggestion that the product is a practical product of good value for ordinary people e.g. a cereal manufacturer shows an ordinary family sitting down to breakfast and enjoying their product
the suggestion that the use of the product makes the customer part of an elite group with a luxurious and glamorous life style e.g. a coffee manufacturer shows people dressed in formal gowns and tuxedos drinking their brand at an art gallery
words and ideas with positive connotations are used to suggest that the positive qualities should be associated with the product and the user e.g. a textile manufacturer wanting people to wear their product to stay cool during the summer shows people wearing fashions made from their cloth at a sunny seaside setting where there is a cool breeze
a famous personality is used to endorse the product e.g. a famous hockey player recommends a particular brand of skates
wit and humour
customers are attracted to products that divert the audience by giving viewers a reason to laugh or to be entertained by clever use of visuals or language
Интернет – это новый вид коммуникации, компьютерный дискурс, который существует в совершенно новых жанрах, таких как «чат», Интернет-сообщение, интрнет письмо, Интернет-реклама. Для него характерен целый ряд особенностей как в языковом аспекте, прежде всего, таких как интернет неологизмы, новые слова, появившиеся в процессе его развития.
Тексты сообщений в рамках компьютерного дискурса характеризуются структурно-семантическими и прагматическими признаками, свойственными текстам массовой коммуникации, публицистики, неформальных обсуждений проблем в рамках научных конференций и неформального межличностного общения. Специфика компьютерного дискурса состоит в избирательном комбинировании признаков, характерных для других видов и форм общения. Важными характеристиками дискурса являются связанность текста, обусловленность экстралингвистическими факторами, событийность, целенаправленность социального действия.
Компьютерное общение занимает промежуточное положение между научным стилем, основанным на принципе рациональности, и художественным, основанным на принципе эмоциональности. От первого компьютерное общение заимствует логическую последовательность в изложении фактов, развернутость высказывания, от второго - образность речи, эмоциональную окрашенность высказывания. Для компьютерного общения, характерна экспансия в сторону всех стилей, т.к. компьютерное общение имеет в себе черты бытового общения, официально-делового, научного стилей.
Русский компьютерный жаргон, являясь производным от компьютерных терминов и жаргонных слов английского языка, характеризуется большим разнообразием форм, развитыми синонимическими и словообразовательными рядами, несравненно более высокой эмоционально экспрессивной окрашенностью, чем английский. При этом основная масса слов содержит шутливо-ироническую, отрицательную оценку.
Неологизмы компьютерной коммуникации – одно из самых особых и динамично развивающихся явлений языка. Переводческая практика делает наибольший вклад в пополнение лексического состава языка перевода новыми словами, приходящими из других языков, а отсюда и словников двуязычных словарей. Что касается выбора того или иного способа передачи неологизмов, то он зависит от многих субъективных факторов, однако прежде всего необходимо стремиться к тому, чтобы эквивалент неологизму ИЯ в максимальной степени отвечал нормам и правилам ПЯ.
Совпадение объемов значений – относительно редкий случай. Гораздо чаще при подстановочном переводе происходит семантическая трансформация, т.е. слово ИЯ предается словом ПЯ, значение которого отличается своим объемом или содержанием.
полностью переведенный на цифровой код (об информации); полностью компьютеризированный
The Times, 11 Feb 1997
фильтрующий электронную почту, не пропускающий ненужные материалы (об устройстве)
Now Sendmail has added anti-spam tools to version 8.9 of the software.
Newsweek, 6 Apr 1998
программа или электронное устройство, “фильтрующее” электронную почту, отсекающее ненужные материалы, особенно рекламного характера
Netcom recently had to dismantle its anti-spam filters because of the potential for this soft of impropriety.
Economist, 1 Nov 1997
компьютерная программа, уничтожающая “компьютерные вирусы” или предохраняющая от них (обычно состоит из двух частей – поисковой и удаляющей вирусы)
And despite the quick rise of companies devoted to tackling the problem by writing “anti-viruses”, the problem is getting rapidly worse.
Guardian, 8 May 1997
разг. лишние, ненужные для пользователя компьютерные программы
Many users need only a small portion of the programs their machines were sold with; all the other "bloatware" merely slows down the PC.
Economist, 29 March 1997
получать доступ к информации, пользоваться информацией через Интернет
Software enabling users to browse the World Wide Web was, untill a couple of years ago, just the latest and most fashionable component to join together the extensive toolkit of Internet bits and pieces to be found on the hard disks of keen users.
The Times 7 May 1997
компьютерная программа, дающая доступ к информации, особенно через Интернет
With Microsoft and Netscape each spending millions of dollars to create the World`s greatest browser, it is easy for small players to be left behind.