Richards Jack C., Schmidt Richard. Longman Dictionary of language teaching and applied linguistics / Jack C. Richard,Schmidt – Third Edition – Pearson Education Limited, 2002. – 606 p.
Neologism as a Linguistic Phenomenon in Mass Media Textbook with Reference to Translation – [Електронний ресурс] – Режим доступу: http://www.iasj.net/iasj?func=fulltext&aId=36994
The Meaning of “e”: Neologisms as Markers of Culture and Technology – [Електронний ресурс] – Режим доступу: http://www.yorku.ca/etopia/docs/conference/McDonald.pdf
УДК 316.728(4=111)(043)=111 Воз’янов Станіслав Володимирович
THE INTERPRETATION OF CULTURES
Problems of intercultural communication researchers interested in various fields of knowledge for a long time. However, with the intensification of globalization and integration of the world community in the XXI century, it became very important for the formation of the modern philological understanding of the interpenetration of language and cultural elements as a result of cross-cultural interaction.
India and England: He was so simple in the history of the interpenetration of English and Indian cultures. Music, Language, and new musical instruments, came to India with the first families of the British, were quickly accepted and understood by local musicians. Indian music is, however, ignored by the British because of insurmountable differences of musical systems and notations. The first attempts to integrate the Indian music to European culture makes Shayyam Shankar, in 1924, presenting an Indian ballet in London. Continued the work his sons - singer of Indian dances of Sri Uday Shankar and his younger brother, a virtuoso sitarist Ravi Shankar, subsequently received worldwide recognition . So Ravi Shankar - popularizer of Indian traditional music, the author of the book «My music, my life" sitarny guru, mentor, George Harrison, the author of the music for the film "Genesis ", submitted on disk. Although, like all film music, “Genesis” is largely sonoristichna. 45 minutes, it was, however, easy to listen to and do not require any superhuman. As if in a session of hypnosis you gently immersed in an atmosphere of Indian Fair. Return from the Fair - the apogee of excellence Ravi Shankar - Indian raga in all its glory. It is worth noting Variation on Genesis - Theme on sitar - the sitar solos with lots of meowing microtones singing to the accompaniment of drums (tabla). Bounty Full Crops - gorgeous duet flutes, striking by the fact that the pedal note is within 4 minutes without a change of breathing (fact worthy of the Guinness Book of Records?). The disc can take its rightful place in the collection of music lovers who are fond of Oriental culture , can also be used in areas such as tourism and catering business, medicine and so on .
India and Russia:A well-known all over the world Indian musician, the incomparable master of the fault, the singer dedicated reviver of classical music of India, as well as Sufi master, Hazrat Inayat Khan visited Russia in 1913. He met with Sergei Tolstoy, son of the famous writer Leo Tolstoy, composer - symbolist Alexander Scriabin and many others. While in Russia for almost seven months, Inayat Khan made many friends and students, as unusual music in an excellent performance charming, beautiful and well-educated man, and besides having a "special" knowledge, attracted the delicate feelings of people. And Scriabin, and Inayat Khan dream to unite humanity in universal brotherhood through music. Scriabin wanted to build a temple in India to fulfill its " Mystery ", and Inayat Khan wanted to erect near Paris in Surrey, the Temple of the unity of all religions and nations. So, the idea of two musicians, thinkers crossed in a spiritual space, but realized they were not given as geniuses are always ahead of its time. It is known that in intercultural communication take people of different ethnic , social , gender, communities , even if they speak the same language (for example , the Americans and Canadians). The dialogue between the minor and dominant cultures within one country also referred to as cross-cultural communication. In general, cross-cultural communication is carried out between the various linguocultures which face a variety of national consciousness and a strange reality is known by the images of their native culture. In the course of this interaction communicants use special language versions and discursive strategies that are different from those that they use when communicating in their native linguistic culture .
3. Leontyeva E.I. ‘The interpenetration of cultures of East and West’, Saint Petersburg, 2003.
УДК 391(410)(043)=111 Голуб Дмитро Олександрович
THE CELTS OF BRITAIN
The Iron Age is the age of the "Celt" in Britain. Over the 500 or so years leading up to the first Roman invasion a Celtic culture established itself throughout the British Isles. Who were these Celts?
For a start, the concept of a "Celtic" people is a modern and somewhat romantic reinterpretation of history. The “Celts” were warring tribes who certainly wouldn’t have seen themselves as one people at the time.
The "Celts", as we traditionally regard them, exist largely in the magnificence of their art and the words of the Romans who fought them. The trouble with the reports of the Romans is that they were a mix of reportage and political propaganda. It was politically expedient for the Celtic peoples to be coloured as barbarians and the Romans as a great civilizing force. And history written by the winners is always a suspect .
The Celts who had moved to Britain, spoke dialects, which later became known as the Breton and Gaelic. Breton dialect is the basis of modern Welsh, Cornish and Breton languages, as occurred from the Gaelic Irish, Scottish and Manx languages.
The Celts raised cattle and were engaged in farming, growing wheat, oats, rye, millet, barley, beans, lentils and flax. They also made benefit from valuable linseed oil, which is used in cooking and in the economy. In addition to the bread – the main meal of the Celts – the diet of these ancient people included the meat of domestic animals or fowl, poultry, fish, honey, dairy products, as well as berries, plants, roots and nuts. The most popular domestic animals, along with cows, were sheep Archaeologists have also found evidence of the presence of horses, dogs and pigs on the farms of the Celts. Horses were used for riding (especially during the war), as well two- and four-wheeled carts. Dogs helped in the hunt and look after their herds of sheep.
The Celts created vast settlements, which consisted of individual farms or small villages. For security purposes, such settlements were enclosed with a high fence or earthen mounds. The Celts knew how to spin and weave, they knew pottery. They were also very adept at working with metal, creating comfortable household items, coins, frightening military armor and fine jewelry. Near Norfolk there was found the Wedding Torque of gold (end of 1st c. B C). Tork – a massive stiff woven necklace with a hole in front, through which it is worn around the neck – was a typical Celtic jewelry for noble women .
There was a written Celtic language, but it developed well into Christian times, so for much of Celtic history they relied on oral transmission of culture, primarily through the efforts of bards and poets. These arts were tremendously important to the Celts, and much of what we know of their traditions comes to us today through the old tales and poems that were handed down for generations before eventually being written down.
Another area where oral traditions were important was in the training of Druids. There has been a lot of nonsense written about Druids, but they were a curious lot; a sort of super-class of priests, political advisors, teachers, healers, and arbitrators. They had their own universities, where traditional knowledge was passed on by rote. They had the right to speak ahead of the king in council, and may have held more authority than the king. They acted as ambassadors in time of war, they composed verse and upheld the law. They were a sort of glue holding together Celtic culture.
Our research touches on the woman’s role in the 19, 20 and 21 centuries. Our research touches on the woman’s role in the 19, 20 and 21 centuries. Women do not have the same position as men, though much progress has been made in the society to bring women to a stage where they have equal rights, equal pay, equal independence but still it is not achieved.
Equality requires that those women who are the most liberated from bondages come forth in the world in all spheres of life and make themselves known, make their values known, influence the society. It is changing quickly but it must change more quickly for it is bringing up the feminine qualities and characteristics that will save the human society from annihilation .
In the 19th century at least 80% of the population was working class. In order to be considered middle class you had to have at least one servant. Most servants were female. (Male servants were more expensive because men were paid higher wages). Throughout the century 'service' was a major employer of women .
On the other hand in the 19th century working class girls began to get some education. In the early and mid 19th century the churches provided some schools.
In Britain women ratepayers were allowed to vote in local elections after 1869.
In 1897 local groups of women who demanded the vote joined to form the National Union of Women's Suffrage Societies (NUWSS). The organization was moderate and its members were called suffragists .
During the 20th century women gained equal rights with men. Technological and economic changes made it inevitable that women would be given the same rights as men.The education available to women included studies in the arts, such as painting, sculpting and playing the piano, as well as in the French language. In the later part of the 19th century, the education for women started to mirror that of the men and encompassed more academic subjects.
But common character is that The Victorian woman's influence is still seen today in the nursing field, in education, in the family and in fashion .
In the 21st century, women have reached an unprecedented height. The scientists say that now looking at what the 21st Century woman has been able to change the status quo they deserve a standing ovation but they have changed their life and have changed the world as a wholе.
Today at the dawn of the 21stcentury the women across the world are placed at a position of advantage. They are literally on the move. They are paying heed to their inner voice. They are finding their individual and collective voice. They are aligned with their conscience, moving ahead with purposeful strides.
One famous British scientist said: “In the 21stcentury women do not need to look at the historical injustices done to her. It’s time to put all that behind her and look forward to her empowered role in this ‘Aquarian age’. Women today need not look anywhere for a perfect role model. They need to look within and listen to their intuition, to take the right action at the right time. Moreover, when I say ‘women’, I mean the ‘feminine’ in men and women alike”.
As a conclusion it should be mentioned that history would tell us categorically that women in the past had been relegated to the background. There were mostly found in the kitchen and other absurd places.
Globalisation and neoliberalism have had a profound effect on the lives of millions of women. Capitalism itself has created new forms and manifestations of women's oppression .
21st century women's liberation has to fight to change the world and to end the class society which created oppression and exploitation in the first place. We can assure you that the 21st century in England is the century of the ‘feminine’.
Jane Smith Ananta Seva Mission Women’s Role in the Society[Електроннийресурс]. – Режимдоступу: http://www.anandaseva.org/yoga/womens-role-in-the-society.
Tim Lambert Women In The 19th Century [Електроннийресурс]. – Режимдоступу:http://www.localhistories.org/vicwomen.html
Tim Lambert Women's Rights in the 20th Century [Електроннийресурс]. – Режимдоступу: http://www.localhistories.org/women20th.html