SOME SPECIFIC FEATURES OF ERNEST HEMINGWAY’S STYLE
Hemingway's creativity became a new step forward in the development of American and world realistic art. Hemingway's literary style is unique in the prose of the 20th century. Writers in different countries tried to copy this style, but were defeated on their way. The topics covered by Hemingway are eternal. These are the problems of human dignity, morality, personality formation through the struggle - the problems that are still valid today and will be relevant in the future. So as a writer Ernest Hemingway is still up-to-date in our time. The actuality of this article is presented by the study of the characteristics of his literary style. The aim of this article is to have a brief look at the ways of expressing the author's consciousness and characteristics of his style. The article deals with the author’s style and analyses how it is reflected in the works of the writer .The first chapter tells about the author's style. The second chapter analyses how it is reflected in the works of the writer. While working with this material we tried to consider the main features of the Hemingway’s literary style, reveal how they are reflected in the works of the writer and draw conclusions on the material studied. Some aspects of Hemingway’s creative activity were analyzed in the articles by A. Platonov, Y. Olesha, I. Finkelstein, I.Kashkin, M. Mendelson .
As it is said in Wikipedia, Hemingway’s style is characterized by crispness, laconic dialogue, and emotional understatement. Hemingway's writings and his personal life exerted a profound influence on American writers of his time. Many of his works are regarded as classics of American literature, and some have been made into motion pictures. The few characteristics of Ernest Hemingway's writing style are stark minimalist nature, grade school-like grammar, austere word choice, unvarnished descriptions, short, declarative sentences and uses language accessible to the common reader. As I. Kashkin says, Ernest Hemingway was a master of dialogue. It's not so much that he is recreating precisely how individuals speak, but through his brilliant use of repetition, he is able to make the reader remember what has been said. Hemingway's style of writing was probably most influenced by his early work as a cub reporter for TheKansas City Star. There he was forced to adhere to a stylebook for young reporters, which included the following advice: "Use short sentences. Use short first paragraphs. Use vigorous English, not forgetting to strive for smoothness. Be positive, not negative" . Hemingway's words are essentially just words like any other words, but the way he stirs them together is his own unique formula, a stylistic recipe that no other writer has been able to recreate. There are sentences that only Hemingway could get away with because we know that Hemingway wrote them. For example a short sentence from For Whom the Bell Tolls: "He was dead and that was all." This is and always will be a Hemingway sentence. For a reader to immediately recognize that "Hemingway wrote this" by reading the words alone is a remarkable legacy for a writer to leave. Hemingway is truly alive in his words because his words are truly his. His style is uniquely his . This is what makes him a writer in the truest sense . The writer often addressed such words to his readers: "Find what gave you the emotion; what the action was that gave you the excitement. Then write it down making it clear so the reader will see it too and have the same feeling as you had." That was the essence of his style, to focus on facts. Hemingway aimed at "the real thing, the sequence of motion and fact which made the emotion and which would be as valid in a year or in ten years or, with luck and if you stated it purely enough, always" (Death in the Afternoon). In Hemingway, we see a reaction against Romantic turgidity and vagueness: back to basics, to the essentials. Hemingway's writing style, as Y. Olesha says, often seems simple and almost childlike, but his method is calculated and used to complex effect . In his writing Hemingway provided detached descriptions of action, using simple nouns and verbs to capture scenes precisely. By doing so he avoided describing his characters' emotions and thoughts directly. Instead, in providing the reader with the raw material of an experience and eliminating the authorial viewpoint, Hemingway made the reading of a text approximate the actual experience as closely as possible. He believed that a writer could treat a subject honestly only if the writer had participated in or observed the subject closely. Without such knowledge the writer's work would be flawed because the reader would sense the author's lack of expertise. In addition, Hemingway believed that an author writing about a familiar subject is able to write sparingly and eliminate a great deal of superfluous detail from the piece without sacrificing the voice of authority. Hemingway's stylistic influence on American writers has been enormous. The success of his plain style in expressing basic, yet deeply felt, emotions contributed to the decline of the elaborate Victorian-era prose that characterized a great deal of American writing in the early 20th century. Legions of American writers have cited Hemingway as an influence on their own work .
This article contains the features of Ernest Hemingway’s the literary style, on the basis of which it is clear that the writer in his work sought to convey to the reader the atmosphere of the work, bring the reader closer to the events described. Working experience as a correspondent helped the writer to create his own style, which writers from many countries vainly tried to copy.
Hemingway’s poetics is the poetics of simplicity. The main thing is not stated, it is implied. The author seeks to laconic language, leaving only what is necessary. The most important thing is guessed between the lines.
Early British popular music, in the sense of commercial music enjoyed by the people, arose in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries with the arrival of the broadside ballad, which were sold cheaply and in great numbers until the nineteenth century. Further technological, economic and social changes led to new forms of music in the nineteenth century, including parlour music and the brass band, which produced a popular and communal form of classical music. Similarly, the music hall sprang up to cater for the entertainment of new urban societies, adapting existing forms of music to produce popular songs and acts. In the 1930s the influence of American jazz and swing music led to the creation of British dance bands, who provided a social and popular music that began to dominate social occasions and the radio airwaves .
The British Invasion of America led by the Beatles from their arrival in April 1964 saw them, uniquely, hold the top 5 positions on the Billboard Hot 100 singles chart simultaneously. During the next two years, Peter and Gordon, The Animals, Manfred Mann, Petula Clark, Freddie and the Dreamers, Wayne Fontana and the Mindbenders, Herman’s Hermits, The Rolling Stones, The Troggs, and Donovan would have one or more number one singles. Other acts that were part of the invasion included The Dave Clark Five, The Kinks and The Who. At this point most of the British Invasion bands did not distinguish their rock 'n' roll or blues based music from pop music. However, around 1967 as blues-rock acts, emerging folk rock and some beat bands, including the Beatles, veered towards a more serious forms of music (with an emphasis on meaning, virtuosity and orientated towards the albums market), the term pop music began to be applied to rock and roll based music with more commercial aims, often with inconsequential lyrics, particularly simple love songs, and orientated towards the singles chart, continuing the path of traditional pop .Although some bands occupied territory that crossed the emerging rock/pop divide and were able to produce successes in both camps, including the Beatles and Rolling Stones, the British pop genre in the late 60s would be dominated by individual singers like Sandie Shaw. His initial impact of punk on pop music, even when not banned from the charts, was not overwhelming, but by the end of the decade the British pop music industry was becoming dominated by post-punk New Wave acts like Ian Dury and the Blockheads. Other successful New Wave pop bands included XTC, Squeeze and Nick Lowe, as well as songwriters like Elvis Costello, rock & roll influenced bands like the Pretenders, and the reggae influenced music of bands like The Police. By the end of the decade, many of these bands, most obviously the Police, were beginning to make an impact in American and world markets .The success of American boy bands like New Edition and New Kids on the Block led to replica acts in the UK, including Nigel Martin-Smith's Take That and East 17 from about 1992, competing with Irish bands Westlife and Boyzone. Soon after, girl groups began to reappear, like the R&B act Eternal, who achieved a string of international hits from 1993. The most successful and influential act of the genre were the Spice Girls, who added well-aimed publicity and the ideology of girl power to their pop careers..They had nine number 1 singles in the UK and US, including "Wannabe", "2 Become 1" and "Spice Up Your Life" from 1996. They were followed by British groups like All Saints, who had five number-one hits in the UK and two multi-platinum albums. By the end of the century the grip of boy bands on the charts was faltering, but proved the basis for solo careers like that of Robbie Williams, formally of Take That, who achieved six number one singles in the UK between 1998 and 2004. New girl groups managed to continue to enjoy sustained success, including Sugababes and Girls Aloud, the last of the these the most successful British product of the many Popstars format programmes, which began to have a major impact in the charts from the beginning of the 2000s..In conclusion i would like to say that British pop music had a great influence on the development of pop and rock music, not only in Europe but throughout the world, and helped to strengthen the position of English "school of music" on the world stage. America has ceased to be the sole provider of popular music, and for more than forty years, shares the title with Britain. To a large part thanks to an English musician pop music became what we all know it.
4. B. Longhurst,Popular Music and Society(Wiley-Blackwell, 1995),
5. "New wave", All Music Guides, retrieved 26 June 2009. УДК 793.31(417/419)(043)=111 Ємець Анастасія Ігорівна
THE HISTORY AND DEVELOPMENT OF IRISH DANCE
Irish dance is a group of traditional dance forms originating in Ireland which can be divided into social dances and performance dances.
Irish social dances can be divided further into céilí and set dancing .
Irish set dances are quadrilles, danced by four couples arranged in a square, while céilí dancesare danced by varied formations(céilí) of two to sixteen people. In addition to their formation, there are significant stylistic differences between these two forms of social dance. Irish social dance is a living tradition, and variations in particular dances are found across the Irish dancing community; in some places dances are deliberately modified and new dances are choreographed .
Irish dancing, popularised in 1994 by the world-famous show Riverdance, is notable for its rapid leg and foot movements, body and arms being kept largely stationary.
Most competitive dances are solo dances, though many stepdancers also perform and use céilí dances. The solo stepdance is generally characterised by a controlled but not rigid upper body, straight arms, and quick, precise movements of the feet. The solo dances can either be in "soft shoe" or "hard shoe" .
The dancing traditions of Ireland probably grew in close association with traditional Irish music. Although its origins are unclear, Irish dancing was later influenced by dance forms from the Continent, especially the Quadrille. During this time, places for competitions and fairs were always small, so there was little room for the Dance Masters to perform. They would dance on tabletops, sometimes even the top of a barrel. Time went on and larger places for dance competitions and performances were found, so styles grew to include more movement, more dancing across the stage, for example, in Riverdance .
The early history of Irish dance reveals a constant shifting of population through migration and invasions. Each of these people brought their preferred types of dance and music. When the Celts arrived in Ireland from central Europe over two thousand years ago, they brought with them their own folk dances.
Around 400 AD, after the conversion to Christianity, the new priests used the pagan style of ornamentation in illuminating their manuscripts, while the peasants retained the same qualities of their music and dancing .
The Anglo-Norman conquest brought Norman customs and culture to Ireland in the twelfth century. The Carol was a popular Norman dance in which the leader sang and was surrounded by a circle of dancers who replied with the same song. This Norman dance was performed in conquered Irish towns .
Three principal Irish dances were often mentioned in sixteenth century writing: the Irish Hey, the Rinnce Fada (long dance) and the Trenchmore. The first was in a letter written by Sir Henry Sydney to Queen Elizabeth I in 1569. "They are very beautiful, magnificently dressed and first class dancers," Sydney wrote about the girls he saw dancing enthusiastic Irish jigs in Galway.
Sydney went on to describe the dance formation, observing the dancers in two straight lines which suggests they were performing an early version of the long dance.
During the sixteenth century, dances were performed in the great halls of the newly built castles. Some of the dances were adapted by English invaders and brought to the court of Queen Elizabeth in the sixteenth century. From this period another style of dance called the Hey was popular. When King James landed at Kinsale, County Cork, in 1780, he was welcomed by dancers. Three people advanced to slow music and were followed by dancing couples, each couple held handkerchiefs between them.
Irish dancing was accompanied by music played on the bagpipes and the harp. In the houses of the Anglo-Irish aristocracy the master with servants often joined some of the dances. Dancing was also performed during wakes.
During the eighteenth century, the dancing master appeared in Ireland. He was a dancing teacher who travelled from village to village, teaching peasants to dance. Dancing masters had flamboyant characters. Also they wore bright clothes and carried staffs. Their young pupils did not know the difference between their left and right feet. To overcome this problem, the dancing master would tie straw or hay to his pupils' left or right feet and instruct them to "lift hay foot" or "lift straw foot".
Dancing groups were developed by the masters to hold the interest of their less gifted pupils and to give them the chance to enjoy dancing. The standard of these dances was very high.
Each dancing master has his own district and never encroached on another master's territory. It is not unknown for a dancing master to be kidnapped by the residents of a neighbouring parish.
Several versions of the same dance were found in different parts of Ireland. In this way a rich heritage of Irish dances was assembled and modified over the centuries. Today, jigs, reels, hornpipes, sets, half sets, polkas and step dances are all performed. Solo dance or step dance appeared at the end of the eighteenth century .
Today there are many organisations promoting Irish dance. The Feis has been an important part of rural cultural life. Children, teenagers and adults take in separate competitions for Feis titles and prizes. There are group and solo competitions where dancers are graded by age from six to seventeen and then into the senior categories.
There are dancing championships in all four provinces, and winners of these provincial competitions qualify for the All Ireland Championships. The World Championships are held in Dublin at Easter where dancers from England, Ireland, USA, Canada, Australia and New Zealand .
The Irish word céili originally refers to a gathering of neighbours in a house to have an enjoyable time, dancing, playing music and telling the stories. Today it refers to an informal evening of dancing. Céilis are held in large towns and country where young and old people enjoy their dancing. These dances are usually held on Sunday evenings in summer when young people gather at the cross-roads. The music is often performed by a fiddler seated on a three legged stool. The fiddler begins with a reel such as the lively "Silver Tip", but he had to play it several times before the dancers join in.
The world-wide success of Riverdance and more recently Lord of the Dance has placed on the international stage. Today dancing schools in Ireland are filled with young pupils. These pupils learn the dancing styles which brought Jean Butler and Michael Flatley international acclaim.
Today there are many opportunities to watch and enjoy Irish dancing. It is still a regular part of social functions. For example, during the summer months, céilis are held in many Irish towns. Visitors are always welcome to join these dances and with the informal instruction, anyone can quickly master the first steps and soon share enthusiasm in the Irish dance. Also they pay attention to the costumes of the dancers. Several generations ago the appropriate dress for a competition was simply "Sunday best" (clothes wear to church). Irish Dance schools generally have school dresses, worn by lower-level competitors and in public performances. In the 1970s and 1980s embroidered dresses became popular. Today even more ornamentation is used on girls' dresses. Solo dresses are unique to each dancer. Today most women and girls wear a wig or hairpiece for the competitions. Most men wear a shirt, vest, and tie pairs with black trousers.
The dress and style of modern Irish dance is often compared to beauty pageants. The girls wear big curly wigs, get fake tans, they have false eyelashes and lots of makeup, and the dresses (called solo dresses) have lots of crystals and jewels. Over the years the dresses that female dancers wear have become the most elaborate. Costing thousands of dollars, covered in tons of Swarovski crystals, and coming in all colours of the rainbow the dresses are making a statement.
As for shoes there are two types of them: soft shoes (also known as ghillies) and hard shoes. Hard shoes are similar to tap shoes, except that the tips and heels are made of fiberglass, instead of metal, and are significantly bulkier. The first hard shoes had wooden or leather taps with metal nails. Later the taps and heels were changed into resin or fiberglass to reduce the weight and to make the sounds louder. The soft shoes, which are called ghillies, are black lace-up shoes. Ghillies are only worn by girls, while boys wear black leather shoes called "reel shoes", which resemble black jazz shoes with a hard heel. Boy's soft-shoe dancing features audible heel clicks .
So, Irish dancing has been popular in recent years, largely due to Irish dance stage shows like Riverdance and Lord of the Dance.
1. Royston, Peter Riverdance on Broadway – Study Guide Abhann Productions, p. 17-18.
2. Murphy, Pat (1995). Toss the Feathers – Irish Set Dancing. Mercier.
3. O'Keeffe, J. G.; O'Brien, Art (1902). A Handbook of Irish Dances.
4. 1999-2004 Irelandseye.com and contributors.
УДК 811.111’373.23(043)=111 Комар Катерина Сергіївна
HISTORY OF ENGLISH SURNAMES
English surnames as we know them today – family names passed down intact from father to son to grandson – began in England as early as the eleventh century. Such hereditary names were not universally prevalent and settled, however, prior to the era of the Reformation in sixteenth century England. It is conjectured that the introduction of parish registers in 1538 was a great influence in this, as a person entered under one surname at baptism would not be likely to be married under another name, and buried under a third.
Primitive personal names doubtless originated soon after the invention of spoken language, in the unrecorded ages long preceding modern history. For thousands of years first, or given names, were the only designations that men and women bore. Only gradually, with the passing centuries and the increasing complexity of civilized society, did a need arise for more specific designations.
Classified according to origin, most surnames fall into four general groups:
those formed from the given name of the father;
those arising from bodily or personal characteristics;
those derived from locality or place of residence;
those derived from occupation .
Surnames started off as an aristocratic idea – there may have been a few in Anglo-Saxon times, but the Norman Barons who came over with William the Conqueror really kicked it off.
William is a great example of pre-surnames – he was William the Conqueror (or William the Bastard, to his detractors) but his son, who followed him as King, was William Rufus (the red) because he had red hair or a red face.
Many English surnames derive from occupations. As the 13th and 14th centuries drew on, John the Baker’s son was called Henry Baker, even if he followed another trade altogether.
No doubt, the most common English surname today is “Smith”, as blacksmiths, goldsmiths, silversmiths and so forth were abundant across England. Here is an example of other fairly common surnames show an obvious link to trades and occupations: Archer, Baker, Cook, Driver, Miller, Weaver. In many cases, surnames come from occupations which don’t exist anymore, or where the word for the occupation has changed over time, and therefore the origin of the surname isn’t obvious (Arkwright, Bailey, Cooper). “Bailey” is a corruption of “Bailiff”, a person who helped establish law and order, and often helped run a large, powerful aristocratic or gentry household. Bailliffs were also Royal Officials in towns and shires, to help keep the King’s Peace. What is more, “Ward” comes from someone who guarded or protected something, often a town’s or city’s walls. Some surnames look obvious, such as “Walker”, but the origins are actually different from what we might suppose. A walker was a man who helped full cloth, that is, turn it into tougher, less shrinkable woolen material. Many surnames appear to show a high-ranking status, such as Bishop, Lord, Duke, and King. In most cases, the surname was started by a man who was in the employ or service of a Lord or Bishop, rather than actually being one himself.
In England, the most common patronymic (or matronymic, as some surnames derived from a mother’s name) surname was to add “son” to the end of a name.
If the father’s name was a long-ish one, such as Andrew or William, it was often contracted over time in the surname. The following “son” names are all among the most common 100 surnames in England today. Here are some of them: Anderson (Andrew’s son), Harrison (Harry’s son). Sometimes the English “son” suffix just became an “-s” or “-es” at the end of a surname. Both version often survive, so “Harris” and “Harrison” are both found frequently. The “s” or “es” endings were more common in Wales, so many modern surnames with this ending are either more Welsh than English in origin, or are both. Here is an example: Adams (English), Davis (son of David, also sometimes Davies, both English and Welsh). The Norman word “fitz”, for “son of” was commonly found in 11th and 12th century families. The use of Fitz as a patronymic surname was most often retained by Anglo-Irish families. Over time, “fitz” came to be used as “son of royalty”. It was used for royal bastards, often. Examples include Richard Fitzroy, illegitimate son of King John, VIII and some of Charles II’s many bastards. “Roy” in this sense derives from the Norman French for “King”. Welsh surnames deriving from a father’s first name (or, occasionally, a mother’s) often used the “s” or “es” suffix as above. Others used “ap”, meaning “son of”. There are still some examples of UK surnames with “ap” in them, for example, the Welsh actress Llinor ap Gwynedd. More frequently, the “ap” became subsumed into a single surname, such as the following which are still surnames in the UK today: Bevan (from ap Evan), Price (from ap Rhys, or Reece), etc.
The origin of English surnames 1: work and status – [Електронний ресурс] – Режим доступу : http://www.webhistoryofengland.com/?p=128
The origins of English Surnames –[Електронний ресурс] – Режим доступу: http://www.ramsdale.org/surname.htm#father
The origin of English surnames 2: patronymics or father’s first name –[Електронний ресурс] – Режим доступу: http://www.webhistoryofengland.com/?p=232
English Surnames - Meanings & Origins – [Електронний ресурс] – Режим доступу: http://genealogy.about.com/od/surname_meaning/a/english.htm
Dublin is the capital city of the Ireland, there are over 1.5 million residents and the pubs are good. This is all true, but they’re hardly facts that are going to blow your socks off!
Perhaps you are heading away on vacation to Dublin or maybe you would just like to get your facts straight. Let us impart to you some less known facts about Dublin.
Here are ten trivia facts about Dublin’s fair city:
1.The name for Dublin in the Irish language is both Dubh Linn and Baile Átha Cliath. While walking around Dublin you’re more likely to see the latter on road signs. The literal meaning of Átha Cliath is "Ford of the Reed Hurdles."
Dublin or Dubh Linn is derived from the Old Irish Gaelic, which has its literal meaning "Black Pool". The Dubh Linn was a lake used by the Vikings to moor their trade ships and was connected to the Liffey by the River Poddle.
2. The city of Dublin covers a land area of 44.5 square miles. The average temperature in January is 41°F and the July Average is 63°F. It is estimated that 50% of the city’s residents are under-25 years of age. My advice dress warmly and party hard.
3. Dublin is twinned to cities Barcelona in Catalonia, Spain, Liverpool in the United Kingdom and San Jose, in California.
4. Dublin's O'Connell Bridge that covers the famed River Liffey is reckoned to be the only bridge in the European continent that has the same width as its length.
This present concrete structure was built in 1863, replacing a wooden bridge built in 1801. Amazingly, prior to that time, O'Connell Bridge was a rope structure that could only carry one person and a donkey at a time.
5. Dublin has a renowned history in the Literary and Movie World with celebrated native names such George Bernard Shaw (dramatist, critic & Nobel Prize winner), James Joyce (writer and poet and writer of Ulysses), Oscar Wilde (playwright, poet, essayist & novelist) and Dracula creator Bram Stoker to name but a few. Prominent Hollywood Actors hailing from the city include Maureen O’Hara, Brendan Gleeson, Gabriel Byrne and Colin Farrell.
6. The "Oldest Pub in Ireland" is reputed to be located in Dublin. The pub is called the Brazen Head. There has been a pub on this site since 1198.
7. Handel’s classic "Messiah" was premiered for the first time in 1742 in Dublin at the New Music Hall in Fishamble Street, with 26 boys and five men from the St Patrick’s and Christchurch choir cathedrals taking part.
8. Dublin is home to many of Ireland’s most famous musicians, from the Dubliners and Thin Lizzy to Sinead O’Connor and U2.
Many of U2’s back catalogue of albums were recorded in their home city. Windmill Lane Studios was the place where U2 recorded their early work and first three albums. The site at Windmill Lane Studios is covered in graffiti from fans that have paid pilgrimage from all over the world and is known as the "U2 Wall."
9. Trinity College, the ancient Dublin university set up at the request of Queen Elizabeth I, has had some memorable graduates including Oscar Wilde, Jonathan Swift and, surprisingly, Bram Stoker, creator of Dracula.
10. None of the so-called Dublin Mountains is high enough to meet the criteria required to claim mountain status. The Sugarloaf is the tallest 'Dublin Mountain' yet measures a mere 423.3 meters above sea level.
In our opinion, National costume and clothing in general, are very important parts of the culture. Little things express traditions, spirit of the epoch. Fashion can show us the culture itself, so that's why we choose this topic for our little research. After analyzing some articles we decided to characterize the evolution of fashion during several centuries, and describe the main representatives.
London is one of the major fashion capitals of the world, and its streets are packed with shops, from the upmarket Bond Street, to everyday fashion on Oxford Street, and the boutiques of Portobello Road. Great Britain has always been famous for starting trends and bringing some of the world's best designers into the limelight.
12th Century Garb. The 12th Century was an age of innovation and elegance in civilian dress. One such example was a new, elegant back-laced gown. These gowns were typically made from wool since it was the primary fabric worn for all classes .
13th Century. There wasn't much change from women’s' gowns from the 12th to the 13th century. Their long dresses were loosely-fitted and had a narrow belt and tight sleeves. Women also continued to cover their hair.
14th Century Dress. The basic woman's gown of this era is elegant simplicity, naturally following the contours of the body, with a wide neckline .
15th Century. Women’s fashions of the 15th century consisted of a long gown, usually with sleeves, worn over a kirtle or undergown, with a linen chemise or smock worn next to the skin. Sleeves were very long, covering half of the hand, and often highly decorated with embroidery.
16th Century (Tudor Dress). Women's fashions of the earlier 16th century consisted of a long gown, usually with sleeves. The high-waisted gown of the late medieval period evolved in several directions in different parts of Europe.
17th Century (Elizabethan Dress). In the early years of the new century, fashionable bodices had high necklines or extremely low, rounded necklines, and short wings at the shoulders .
18th Century Gowns. Women's clothing styles retained an emphasis toward a conical shape of the torso while the shape of the skirts changed throughout the period.
19th Century (Victorian). In this period women’s gowns developed narrow and sloping shoulders, low and pointed waists, and bell-shaped skirts. Corsets, a knee-length chemise, and layers of flounced petticoats were worn under the gowns.
The 20th Century. To look at British fashion during the 20th century is fascinating, because the styles and trends change so drastically each decade, and often show parallels with what was going on in the country at the time. For example, the flapper girls of the 1920s wore daring outfits and reflected the new freedoms women were gaining, such as equal voting rights with men. The classic look of full-skirts for women and elegant tailoring for men slowly crept into fashion, and continues to influence many designers today .
The most exciting event of the year for the modern world is London Fashion Week. Held twice a year in February and September, its schedule is crammed with shows from some of the biggest fashion houses in the capital. Britain is also very keen to keep up their influence on the fashion world, and many of its colleges such as the London College of Fashion are world famous, highly competitive and attract applicants from all over the globe.
Extravagancy, eccentricity, elegance - the three main epithet, which characterize the history of British fashion. Spirituality and romanticism - these are the main features of the image that was trying to emphasize the British fashion at all times.
A Brief History of British Fashion – from Queen Victoria to Britpop [Електронний ресурс]. – Режим доступу: http://www.england.org.za/england-fashion.php#.UoUdzPnIbA2
Fashion Throughout History [Електронний ресурс]. – Режим доступу: http://allthingshistoricalfiction.blogspot.com/2011/05/fashion-throughout-history-12th-19th.html
Fashion and Dress [Електронний ресурс]. – Режим доступу: http://www.maggiemayfashions.com/regency.html
History of Costume [Електронний ресурс]. – Режим доступу: http://historyofeuropeanfashion.wordpress.com/
УДК 78.03.071 (043) Курило Марина Валеріївна
The themes which are connected with the study of music are always topical. First of all because it’s one of the ways how a person can study language. We can learn a lot of new terms, phrases and expressions. So, the aim of this work is to expand vocabulary and get acquainted with the British music and culture.
According to the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame , rock 'n' roll music has the power to bring people together and motivate them in special ways. No other form of music has proven to be as controversial and influential to generations of people all over the world. The development of rock 'n' roll is constantly evolving, but at its roots are incredible moments and even more memorable musicians.
Rock 'n' roll is a cultural ideology that was developed in a melting pot of genres and lifestyles from around the world. The earliest development of rock ‘n’ roll music was not quite musical in nature. The History of Rock 'n' Roll website  credits African slaves and the rhythms of plantation songs as some of the early influences of rock 'n' roll. Early jazz and blues artists also lent a special musicality, providing the genetic markers to the earliest rock 'n' roll songs.
The distinctive sound of this music often revolved around the electric guitar or acoustic guitar, and the use of a very subtle back beat in the rhythm section on electric bass guitar and drums, and keyboards like organ, piano or synthesizers since the 70s. Besides the guitar or keyboard, saxophone and blues-style harmonica were sometimes used as a solo instrument. In its pure form, the rock music had three chords, a consistent and striking back-beat, and attractive melody. In the late 60s and early 70s, it evolved into several types. Rock music that mixed with the folk music (local music in the U.S.) became folk rock, the music that mixed with blues became blues-rock and the one that mixed with jazz became a jazz-rock fusion .
In the 70s, rock combined the influence of soul, funk, and Latin music. Also in 70s, rock evolved into various sub-genres (sub-categories), such as soft rock, glam rock, heavy metal, hard rock, progressive rock, and punk rock. The sub-categories of rock that were popular in the 80s were the New Wave, a hardcore punk, and alternative rock. In the 90s, there was grunge, Britpop, indie rock and nu metal .
British rock describes a wide variety of forms of music made in the United Kingdom. British rock music has had a considerable impact on the development of American music and rock music across the world.
Initial attempts to emulate American rock and roll took place in Britain in the mid-1950s, but the terms "rock music” and "rock" usually refer to the music derived from the blues-rock and other genres that emerged during the 1960s. The term is often used in combination with other terms to describe a variety of hybrids or sub-genres, and is often contrasted with pop music, with which it shares many structures and instrumentation. Rock music has tended to be more oriented toward the albums market, putting an emphasis on innovation, virtuosity, performance and song writing by the performers .
Although much too diverse to be a genre in itself, British rock has produced many of the most significant groups and performers in rock music internationally, and has initiated or significantly developed many of the most influential sub-genres, including beat music, progressive rock, art rock, heavy metal music, punk, post punk, new romanticism, and indie rock.
Colin I. Britain's Changing Roots. World Music, Vol. 1: Africa, Europe and the Middle East. – Ltd, Penguin Books, 2000. Р. – 64-82.
Rock and Roll Hall of Fame and Museum [Електронний ресурс], режим доступу : http://rockhall.com/story-of-rock/timelines
The Development of Rock 'N' Roll Music [Електронний ресурс], режим доступу : http://www.ehow.com/
УДК 725.1:681.11(410)(043)=111 Лєгкова Ганна Сергiiвна
Big Ben is the nickname for the great bell of the clock at the north end of the Palace of Westminster in London, and often extended to refer to the clock and the clock tower. The tower is now officially called the Elizabeth Tower, after being renamed in 2012 (from "Clock Tower") to celebrate the Diamond Jubilee of Elizabeth II.
Dials. The clock and dials were designed by Augustus Pugin. The clock dials are set in an iron frame 23 feet (7.0 m) in diameter, supporting 312 pieces of opal glass, rather like a stained-glass window. Some of the glass pieces may be removed for inspection of the hands. The surround of the dials is gilded.
Movement. The clock's movement is famous for its reliability. The designers were the lawyer and amateurhorologistEdmund Beckett Denison, and George Airy, the Astronomer Royal. Construction was entrusted to clockmaker Edward John Dent; after his death in 1853 his stepson Frederick Dent completed the work, in 1854.
The bell weighs 13 tons (13,760 kg) and is nine feet (2.7 m) in diameter and 7.5 feet (2.3m) high. It was cast at Whitechapel Bell Foundry in 1858, and rang for the first time from its spot overWestminster Palaceon May 31, 1859. The clock tower is 316 feet (96 m) high. The dials of the clock are 23 feet (7 m) square; the minute hand is 14 feet (4.25 m) long and the figures are 2 feet (.6 m) high. It is a particularly accurate timepiece, and has rarely stopped in its long history.
Great Bell The main bell, officially known as the Great Bell, is the largest bell in the tower and part of the Great Clock of Westminster. The bell is better known by the nickname Big Ben. The original bell was a 16 ton (16.3-tonne) hour bell, cast on 6 August 1856 in Stockton-on-Tees by John Warner & Sons. The bell was named in honour of Sir Benjamin Hall, and his name is inscribed on it. However, another theory for the origin of the name is that the bell may have been named after a contemporary heavyweight boxer Benjamin Caunt. It is thought that the bell was originally to be called Victoria or Royal Victoria in honour of Queen Victoria, but that an MP suggested the nickname during a Parliamentary debate; the comment is not recorded in Hansard. Since the tower was not yet finished, the bell was mounted in New Palace Yard.
The Tower The tower was constructed between 1843 and 1858 as the clock tower of the Palace of Westminster. The palace is now better known as the Houses of Parliament.
The clock tower rises 316ft high (96m) and consists of a 200ft (61m) high brick shaft topped by a cast iron framed spire. The clock faces are 180ft / 55m above ground level.
Big Ben is a symbol of it's time period, the greatest dawn of the country. And Latin inscription at the base of each of the four faces: “Domine Salvam fac Reginam nostram Victoriam primam” (“God save the Queen Victoria!”) – personal tribute of respect to the monarch, which had such a notion as the British Empire. The perimeter of the tower to the right and to the left of the clock keeps another phrase in Latin: “Laus Deo” (“Praise the Lord” or “Glory to God”)
Big Ben tourists aren't allowed. It is possible to return to the beginning of a 96-meter tower only on a narrow spiral staircase. 334 steps lead to the small open area in which center there is legendary Bell, gave the name a tower with hours. Its height more than 2 meters, and diameter it is equal to nearly 3 meters.
Big Ben and the surrounding other small bells knock chime of the following words: “Through this hour of the Lord protects me and his power will not allow anyone to stumble”. After the chiming clock strike the first blow of the hammer on big Ben exactly coincides with the first second of the hour. Every 2 days mechanism is thoroughly tested and grease, is taken into account daily temperature and pressure. But as any clockwork, the clock on the tower of the English Parliament sometimes time loss or gain. I must say that the error is not large, only 1.5 - 2 seconds. To correct the situation you only need a coin, the old English penny. No one knows exactly who first came up with the idea to use coins, but the idea worked. Old English penny put on a pendulum length of 4 meters accelerates the movement to 2.5 seconds per day. Adding or removing a penny, the inspector therefore strives for accuracy. Mechanism, despite its almost 1.5 centuries-old history and weight 5 tons, works perfectly well.
The watch was of incredible popularity both in England and abroad. In London there were lots of “Little Bens”, reduced copies of the towers of St. Stephen with a clock at the top. Such towers - something average between architectural structures and floor clocks venues were constructed almost all intersections. The most famous “Little Ben” is at Victoria train station, but in fact, in almost every area of London, you can find little Ben).
Time Change Weekend Every year, the Palace of Westminster Clockmakers, have the huge responsibility of changing the time on the Great Clock when British Summer Time (BST) finishes and Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) begins - and vice versa each spring.
The process involves careful precision and split-second timing from the clockmakers. As well as re-setting the time, it gives them an opportunity to make close inspection of the clock mechanism as part of a rolling maintenance programme.
In addition to ensuring the most famous clock in the world is correctly re-set, the clockmakers have 2000 other clocks throughout the Palace of Westminster and the parliamentary buildings to adjust over time change weekend.