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Nauch -> Геометрия в абстракции
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Nauch -> Отчет о научной деятельности Учреждения Российской академии наук Уфимского научного центра ран за 2010 год
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Literature

  1. Architeckture Australia [Електронний ресурс]. – Режим доступу : http://architectureau.com/magazines/architecture-australia/

  2. Australian Architecture Association [Електронний ресурс]. – Режим доступу : http://www.architecture.org.au/

  3. Architecture in Australia [Електронний ресурс]. – Режим доступу : http://www.architectsofaustralia.com.au/

725 (410) (043) =111 Сапожнік Ганна Олександрівна



THE TALLEST BUILDINGS OF LONDON

London is not the city, which is overstocked with high-ceiling skyscrapers like NYC, but yet there are plenty of sky-high buildings in the city. London is a city with limits to building height. Permission to build skyscrapers in the centre of the city is granted on a case-by-case basis. For this reason, tall buildings in central London are landmarks. Until the early 1960s buildings in London were restricted to 100 feet (30 metres) in height. This restriction was put in place in order to keep every floor of a building in reach of the fire-fighting equipment. The lifting of the height restriction caused a boom in the building of tall buildings during the 1960s. Here is the list of some/tallest/buildings/and/structures/in/London.

The Shard London Bridge, previously known as London Bridge Tower, is a mixed-use building in London. The Shard London Bridge is 310 meters tall. The structure has been constructed on the site of an existing 1970s office building, known as Southwark Towers. The Shard is an 87-storey skyscraper in London but only 72 are habitable. It is a multi-use structure and the tallest of its kind in the European Union, standing 1,017ft tall. It incorporates around 602,779ft² of modern, high-spec office space, along with a 197-room hotel and a range of shopping, leisure, residential and public spaces. Seen from the outside, the Shard London Bridge is a tapering, glazed spire dominating the surrounding area. The tower is made of granite, glass and steel. Its surface helps it blend in with the skyline by reflecting the sky and the surrounding buildings. Its shape and appearance, as much as its function, distinguishes it from many of the taller buildings across the river.6.



One Canada Square (often incorrectly called Canary Wharf, after its location) is a skyscraper in Canary Wharf, London. The name given to the building by the developers is 'One Canada Square', but it is often incorrectly called 'Canary Wharf'. It was the tallest building in the United Kingdom from 1990 to 2010. The tower at Canary Wharf (One Canada Square) has 50 floors and is 800 feet (244 metres) high. The tower is an occupied office building and is not open to the public. The most interesting in it is the pyramid roof. There is a flashing light on the top of it which serves as an aircraft warning. The pyramid roof lights up in the evening. The exterior walls are clad by some 370,000 square feet of Patten Hyclad Cambric finish stainless steel. Another curious fact about the building is that there is no thirteenth floor. This is a widespread custom throughout North America and the Canadian developers of the building decided that floors will go straight from the 12th floor to the 14th floor. One Canada Square is the most prestige office building in the UK.and.today.it.is.a.remarkable.London.landmark.5. ///////////Heron Tower, also referred to as 110 Bishopsgate is a skyscraper in the City of London, the historic centre and main financial district of London. It is owned by Heron International and stands 230 metres (755 ft) tall including its 28-metre (92 ft) mast (202 metres (663 ft) excluding the mast) making it the tallest building in the City and the third tallest in Greater London, after the Shard in Southwark and One Canada Square at Canary Wharf. Tower has 46 floors. Construction of the building started in 2007 and was completed in 2011. Tower is a multi-occupied building which is home to around 4,300 workers. Offices are situated on levels 2 through to 37 whilst levels 38 to 40 incorporate a bar, conference facilities and a public restaurant situated on level 39, which is served by two dedicated high-speed glass lifts. Levels 41 to 46 are dedicated to plant. The development includes fully glazed, double-deck lifts affording spectacular views, unprecedented business support and services and a triple height lobby accommodates the largest privately owned aquarium in Europecontaining/1200/fish/of/67/different/species. ///////// The Leadenhall Building. The nickname, "the Cheese Grater", was coined by this site in response to the "Gherkin" and "Shard." The 225 m (737 ft) tall Leadenhall Building is currently under construction. It will have 46 floor count. Construction is due for completion in 2014. The building will comprise offices, retail spaces and restaurants. The new tower will feature a tapered glass façade. The building comprises a number of distinct architectural elements that provide clarity to the composition both as a whole and as a legible expression of its constituent parts. These elements include the primary stability structure, the ladder frame, the office floor plates, the northern support core, the external envelope and the public realm 6. ……

There is a bit of a tie between the next two on this list as they both are 200m high. 8 Canada Square (also known as HSBC Group Head Office, or HSBC Tower) is a skyscraper located in the Canary Wharf development in the London Docklands. 8 Canada Square is the world headquarters of HSBC, one of the world's largest banks.8 Canada Square accommodates approximately 8,000 workers. Construction began in 1997 and was completed in 2002. There are 45 floors in the 210 metre high tower, the joint second largest in the United Kingdom with the Citigroup Centre. Standing alongside the HSBC Tower are One Canada Square (known popularly as Canary Wharf); and the Citigroup Centre, which forms the British head office of the multinational US bank, Citigroup. The tower is not open to the public. The lobby features a large art installation known as the 'history wall', which depicts the history of.the.HSBC.company/through/an/interactive/display. //////////The Citigroup Centre is a skyscraper located in the Canary Wharf development in the London Docklands. The building, whose address is 25 Canada Square, serves as the British headquarters for Citigroup, a large bank based in the United States of America.The tower was designed by Cesar Pelli & Associates. Construction began in 1998 and was completed in 2001. There are 45 floors in the 655 foot tall tower, the third largest in the United Kingdom. Standing alongside the Citigroup Centre are 1 Canada Square (known popularly as Canary Wharf); and the HSBC Tower, London. 25 Canada Square was built in tandem with 8 Canada Square. Both/buildings/are/exactly/the/same/height. ///////// Tower 42 is skyscraper in the City of London and the seventh tallest in Greater London. The original name was National Westminster Tower (Tower or NatWest), were built to accommodate the international division of the bank. When the tower is visible from above, it resembles the NatWest logo. The tower was constructed from 1971 to 1980 by John Mowlem and Co. at a cost of £72,000,000, and formally opened on 11 July 1981 by Queen Elizabeth II. The tower has 47 floors, 42 of which are cantlevered, with 2 underground floors, and its height of 183 m (600 ft) made it the tallest building in the UK from 1980 until 1991 and the tallest building in the City of London until 2011 5. Innovative features in the tower's design include double-deck elevators, a sky lobby, an internal automated "mail train", and an automated external window-washing system. On 24 April 1993, the tower was extensively damaged by a truck bomb which detonated in the Bishopsgate area. From 1994 to 1996, it had to be externally reclad and internally refurbished. Afterwards, NatWest decided not to reoccupy, had the building renamed International Financial Centre, and then sold it. The new owners, Greycoat, gave the building its current name. The building today is multi-tenanted and comprises Grade A office space and restaurant facilities.Tower/42/also/has/three/restaurants/4. /////////30 St Mary Axe (widely known informally as "the Gherkin") is a skyscraper in London's main financial district, the City of London, completed in December 2003 and opened in April 2004. With 41 floors, the tower is 180 metres (591 ft) tall and stands on a street called St Mary Axe, on the site of the former Baltic Exchange, which was extensively damaged in 1992 by the explosion of a bomb. The outside of the building consists of 24,000 square metres of glass arranged in diamond-shaped panes. Floors 38 to 40 hold restaurant, private dining and bar facilities, and are the highest eating establishments in London. The office space inside has the capacity to accommodate up to 4,000 workers. The tower's exterior cladding consists of roughly 5,500 flat triangular, diamond-shaped glass panels. Despite its overall curved glass shape, there is only one piece of curved glass on the building  the lens-shaped cap at the/very/top. The Gherkin serves as a symbol for the city 1.

/Set on the edge of the Square Mile, Broadgate Tower was completed in early 2009 after almost four years of construction and at an estimated cost of £240 million. The 35-floor structure is 164 metres (538 feet) high and was, on completion, the third tallest building in the City (after Tower 42 and the Gherkin). It contains 37,000 squared metres of office space. The tower is supported by a 6,000 tonne concrete and steel raft which straddles a railway tunnel. The tower employed around 14,000 tonnes of steel in its construction. The tower is clad in around 40,000 square metres of glass, roughly equal to the surface area of 154 tennis courts. The tower has a central core with visible steel cross bracing to the exterior 2.



Literature

  1. http://www.homedit.com/london-gherkin-an-unusual-eggshaped-building/

  2. http://www.emporis.com/building/the-broadgate-tower-london-united-kingdom

  3. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/BT_Tower

  4. http://www.nationmaster.com/encyclopedia/Tower-42

  5. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_tallest_buildings_and_structures_in_London

  6. http://www.emporis.com/statistics/tallest-buildings-london-unitedkingdom

УДК 392.5(410.5)=111(043) Семівол Аделіна Олександрівна



NATIONAL SYMBOLS OF SCOTLAND

What’s interesting about Scotland? There are some facts which I‘d like to speak about. First of all, Scotland is the most autonomous of all the countries that make up the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.

I must say that Scotland is a unique country which has many different traditions and symbols.

The first national Scotland`s symbol is thistle. Thistle flower is a semi-official national symbol of Scotland and is depicted, in particular, on bank notes. Thistle has become a symbol, as a result of winning a battle. According to legend, in the XIII century coastal settlement of Scots suffered from Viking raids. One managed to avoid sudden night attack by the fact that the Vikings went barefoot in a thicket of Scotch thistle, than gave themselves. Thistle is the floral emblem of Scotland. The symbol is widely used in the Scottish and British heraldry, logos, as well as on British coins.

The next symbol is bagpipe - the national musical instrument, the unofficial symbol of Scotland, an ancient Scottish instrument. Is a reservoir of sheep or goat skin, turned inside out (goose), to which are attached (attached ) Three Bourdon tube (drones), one tube with eight playing holes (chanter) and a special short tube for blowing air . Has a simplified air flow - through ancillary pipe - provides the freedom of the right hand.

When playing musician (piper) fills the air tank and pushing it down the elbow of his left hand, makes sound and game Bourdon tube , in turn equipped with special reeds ( canes ) , and, Bourdon tubes are used in single and double tube in the game canes, made of reeds.

The third symbol of Scotland is The Apostle Andrew (St. Andrew) the patron of Scotland, according to the legend, his relics were transferred in the 7th century from Constantinople the Scottish town of St Andrews. The picture of the apostle, as well as X-shaped cross on which he was crucified according to legend, are symbols of Scotland.

The forth symbol. The flag of Scotland – is the official historical symbol of Scotland, the national flag of the Scottish people. It is a blue rectangular flag with a white oblique (St. Andrew's) cross. In some sources the Scottish flag is called St. Andrew's cross. In contrast to the royal standard, a flag with a slanted cross is available for public use .The flag is used Scottish government departments as one of the official symbols. During the daytime flag adorns almost all government buildings.

The next symbol is Coat of Arms of Scotland. In the gold box with a scarlet double internal border, there is a revolting lion of the same color with azure weapons. Above the shield a golden helmet, topped with a crown of Scotland. In the scarlet crest there is sitting a crowned lion holding a sword and a golden scepter. Above the lion silver ribbon with the motto In Defens, inscribed scarlet letters. Around the shield is the collar of the Ancient and Most Noble Order of the Thistle. The shield is supported rebelling crowned silver unicorn with golden arms (mane, horns and hooves), clad in gold chain and standing on a green ground, overgrown with thistles.

The sixth symbol of Scotland is tartans. Tartan - ornament formed twill weave, pre colored in different colors, resulting in a checkered pattern consisting of horizontal and vertical lines as well as rectangular areas filled with diagonal stripes. Tartan is used for coloring plaid and can symbolize a certain clan, as well as terrain or organization. Scottish kilts almost always have tartan pattern.



The anthem of Scotland. People's anthem can be considered the song of folk group The Corries - «The Flower of Scotland», written in 1967 by Roy Uiliamsonom. This is the song played when the Scottish rugby team takes the field.

(O Flower of Scotland,


When will we see
Your like again
That fought and died for
Your wee bit Hill and Glen
And stood against him
Proud Edward's army
And sent him homeward
Tae think again
The Hills are bare now,
And Autumn leaves
lie thick and still,
O'er land that is lost now,
Which those so dearly held,
That stood against him,
Proud Edward's Army,
And sent him homeward,
Tae think again.
Those days are past now,
And in the past
they must remain,
But we can still rise now,
And be the nation again,
That stood against him,
Proud Edward's Army,
And sent him homeward,
Tae think again.)

So, these are all symbol of Scotland. And making a conclusion we may say that Scotland is the great country with good culture, traditions, and of course symbols.



Literature

1. Электронный ресурс http://ru.wikipedia.org

2. Электронный ресурс http://tourism-london.ru

3. Электронный ресурс http://www.destinations.ru

4. Электронный ресурс http://muzey-factov.ru

5. Электронный ресурс http://takearest.ru

6. Электронный ресурс http://usalife.ucoz.ru
УДК 392.8(410)(043)=111 Статура Ольга Сергіївна

BRITISH, IRISH AND SCOTTISH FOOD

Some people criticize English food. They say it's unimaginable, boring, tasteless, it's chips with everything and totally overcooked vegetables. The basic ingredients, when fresh, are so full of flavour that British haven't had to invent sauces to disguise their natural taste. What can compare with fresh pees or new potatoes just boiled and served with butter? Why drown spring lamb in wine or cream and spices, when with just one or two herbs it is absolutely delicious?

If you ask foreigners to name some typically English dishes, they will probably say "Fish and chips" then stop. It is disappointing, but true that, there is no tradition in England of eating in restaurants, because the food doesn't lend itself to such preparation. English cooking is found at home. So it is difficult to a good English restaurant with a reasonable prices [1].

As we have an opportunity to travel all over the world, going to the UK we should remember, that сuisine in each region can be very different. Now would be presented the most unusual dishes from each part of the UK, in particular British desserts, Welsh hot snacks, Irish magical dishes and Scottish appetizers.


In the UK they’re proud of their unique traditional foods, but let’s be honest: some of them are quite strange [2]. First of all it should be mentioned the Spotted Dick. This is one of the best known and most humorous Britain’s foods if you get the joke. For those who don’t already know “Dick” this is British slang for a man’s reproductive organ and a spotted reproductive organ is never good. Quite recently, and in a spasm of uncontrollable political correctness, several hospitals in Britain renamed this pudding “spotted Richard”. (Dick also is the abbreviated form of the name Richard). It didn’t catch on and common sense prevailed and the name was changed back again. Thanks to this patients can now grin and ask their nurses whether there’s any chance that they could have a spotted dick. In reality this is simply a suet pudding into which raisins and other dried fruits are mixed before cooking. Naturally, these are the spots. Where the 'Dick' part of the name came from is still a mystery although some claim it is a derivation of the word “dough” meaning dog or the German word “dicht” meaning thick. Actually ... This is a delicious pudding that is usually served with custard, another great British invention made from eggs, sugar and cream and known as Creme Anglais in France.

Another dish to talk about is Welsh Rabbit. Often mispronounced as Welsh Rabbit the correct name is Rarebit. Put simply, it's a sophisticated form of cheese on toast but all grown up. The base is a strong cheddar cheese that has been grated and into which is mixed various ingredients with the most common being a little cream, worcester sauce, pepper, salt, mustard, a little flour, paprika and a touch of beer. The mixture is blended until smooth and then spread onto toast and grilled in the oven. The rarebit is ready when the mixture melts and develops a golden brown crust. Variations include first putting a fried egg on the toast before adding the mixture or even mixing in a small amount of smoked ham. It's properly served with a slice of tomato on top which can either be grilled with the rarebit or added fresh after cooking. Warning: This is proper rarebit and should not be confused with thin, runny cheese sauces that are sometimes poured over toast and often taste as synthetic as a rubber tyre. Real Welsh Rarebit made from fresh ingredients is delicious - accept no substitutes.

To continue it would be talking about Scotch Eggs. These are great even if a little strange. Essentially it's a hard boiled egg that is then peeled and wrapped in sausage meat of various varieties before being coated with breadcrumbs. It is then deep fried and can be served hot as a meal or cold as a snack or picnic food. Different parts of Britain tend to favour their own local sausages so a scotch egg can taste quite different depending on where it was bought. The tastiest are probably those made from a combination of standard pork and Cumberland filling. How they became known as scotch eggs is a mystery as they have clearly been made across Britain and Ireland for many centuries. One theory is that they were originally called scorched eggs and made in the same way except that they were cooked on a spit or simply by laying them next to the cooking fire. The fat from the sausage meat would filter through the breadcrumbs and air-fry them until crisp. A little scorching just added to the flavour. A crunchy coating and succulent centre perfectly compliment the juicy pork shell. The origin of Scotch Eggs may be a mystery but they are still one of the most popular strange British foods [3].

And in the end there are some strange Irish dishes. Would it be colcannon? Crubeens? Barmbrack? To the people of Ireland, these traditional dishes offer cold-weather comfort and holiday nostalgia. But for the rest of the world, centuries-old Irish recipes serve up some decidedly mixed reactions [4]. So I`ve chosen colcannon. It is a favorite Irish recipe and a particular St. Patrick's Day favorite. It is quick, easy and simple to make. Colcannon was traditionally used for predicting marriage on Halloween. Charms were hidden in the Colcannon and any unmarried girl who found one would place socks with spoonfuls of Colcannon and the charms on their front door handle. The first man entered the house was their intended [5].

Unfortunately, none of the dishes is not widely popular in Ukraine. It is quite difficult to find these dishes in our country, as we are accustomed to our national cuisine. Of course, while cooking certain dishes, both we and the British are using the same products, but their combination sometimes makes me wonder. So in conclusion I`d like to tell that if you are interested in a taste of quaint national British dishes, it is best to go to the UK and to try. It is always better to try once, than to read and to imagine for hundred of times.

Literature


  1. Английский (топики/темы): British Cuisine - Английская кухня Електронный ресурс].- Режим доступу: http://www.alleng.ru/engl-top/023.htm

2. 10 Strange British Foods That We Love [Електронный ресурс].- Режим доступу: http://www.britishfoodstoreonline.co.uk/Blog/10-strange-british-foods-love/

  1. Ten Strange British Foods  [Електронный ресурс].- Режим доступу:

http://www.britainexplorer.com/ten-strange-british-foods.html

  1. 8 Distinctly Irish Foods [Електронный ресурс].- Режим доступу: http://www.parade.com/145063/parade/distinctly-irish-foods-3/

  2. Irish Recipes - Colcannon Recipe [Електронный ресурс].- Режим доступу: http://britishfood.about.com/od/recipeindex/r/colcannon.htm

УДК 725.1.012.27(73)(043)=111 Фурлєтов Іван Сергійович



EMPIRE STATE BUILDING

The Empire State Building is a 102-story skyscraper located in Midtown Manhattan, New York City, at the intersection of Fifth Avenue and West 34th Street. It has a roof height of 1,250 feet (381 meters), and with its antenna spire included, it stands a total of 1,454 ft (443.2 m) high. Its name is derived from the nickname for New York, the Empire State. It stood as the world's tallest building for nearly 40 years, from its completion in early 1931 until the topping out of the World Trade Center's North Tower in late 1970. Following the September 11 attacks in 2001, the Empire State Building was again the tallest building in New York (although it was no longer the tallest in the US or the world), until One World Trade Center reached a greater height on April 30, 2012. The Empire State Building is currently the fourth-tallest completed skyscraper in the United States (after the One World Trade Center, the Willis Tower and Trump International Hotel and Tower, both in Chicago), and the 23rd-tallest in the world (the tallest now is BurjKhalifa, located in Dubai). It is also the fourth-tallest freestanding structure in the Americas.



Construction. The Empire State Building was designed by William F. Lamb from the architectural firm Shreve, Lamb and Harmon, which produced the building drawings in just two weeks, using its earlier designs for the Reynolds Building in Winston-Salem, North Carolina, and the Carew Tower in Cincinnati, Ohio (designed by the architectural firm W. W. Ahlschlager& Associates) as a basis. Every year the staff of the Empire State Building sends a Father's Day card to the staff at the Reynolds Building in Winston-Salem to pay homage to its role as predecessor to the Empire State Building. The building was designed from the top down. The general contractors were The Starrett Brothers and Eken, and the project was financed primarily by John J. Raskob and Pierre S. du Pont. The construction company was chaired by Alfred E. Smith, a former Governor of New York and James Farley's General Builders Supply Corporation supplied the building materials. John W. Bowser was project construction superintendent.

The Empire State Building was the first building to have more than 100 floors. It has 6,500 windows and 73 elevators, and there are 1,860 steps from street level to the 102nd floor. It has a total floor area of 2,768,591 sqft (257,211 m2); the base of the Empire State Building is about 2 acres (8,094 m2). The building houses 1,000 businesses and has its own zip code, 10118. As of 2007, approximately 21,000 employees work in the building each day, making the Empire State Building the second-largest single office complex in America, after the Pentagon. The building was completed in one year and 45 days. Its original 64 elevators are located in a central core; today, the Empire State Building has 73 elevators in all, including service elevators. It takes less than one minute by elevator to get to the 80th floor, which contains a gift shop and an exhibit detailing the building's construction. From there, visitors can take another elevator or climb the stairs to the 86th floor, where an outdoor observation deck is located.

The Empire State Building cost $40,948,900 to build (equal to roughly $500,000,000 in 2010). Long-term forecasting of the life cycle of the structure was implemented at the design phase to ensure that the building's future intended uses were not restricted by the requirements of previous generations. This is particularly evident in the over-design of the building's electrical system.

Unlike most of today's skyscrapers, the Empire State Building features an art deco design, typical of pre–World War II architecture in New York. The modernistic stainless steel canopies of the entrances on 33rd and 34th Streets lead to two story-high corridors around the elevator core, crossed by stainless steel and glass-enclosed bridges at the second-floor level. The elevator core contains 67 elevators.



Lights. In 1964, floodlights were added to illuminate the top of the building at night, in colors chosen to match seasonal and other events, such as St. Patrick's Day, Christmas, Independence Day and Bastille Day. After the eightieth birthday and subsequent death of Frank Sinatra, for example, the building was bathed in blue light to represent the singer's nickname "Ol' Blue Eyes". After the death of actress Fay Wray (King Kong) in late 2004, the building stood in complete darkness for 15 minutes.

The floodlights bathed the building in red, white, and blue for several months after the destruction of the World Trade Center, then reverted to the standard schedule. On June 4, 2002, the Empire State Building donned purple and gold (the royal colors of Elizabeth II), in thanks for the United Kingdom playing the Star Spangled Banner during the Changing of the Guard at Buckingham Palace on September 12, 2001 (a show of support after the September 11 attacks). This would also be shown after the Westminster Dog Show. Traditionally, in addition to the standard schedule, the building will be lit in the colors of New York's sports teams on the nights they have home games (orange, blue and white for the New York Knicks, red, white and blue for the New York Rangers, and so on). The first weekend in June finds the building bathed in green light for the Belmont Stakes held in nearby Belmont Park. The building is illuminated in tennis-ball yellow during the US Open tennis tournament in late August and early September. It was twice lit in scarlet to support nearby Rutgers University: once for a football game against the University of Louisville on November 9, 2006, and again on April 3, 2007 when the women's basketball team played in the national championship game. On June 1–3, 2012, the building was lit in blue and white, the colors of the Israeli flag, in honor of the 49th annual Celebrate Israel Parade.

The Empire State Building is generally thought of as an American cultural icon. It is designed in the distinctive Art Deco style and has been named as one of the Seven Wonders of the Modern World by the American Society of Civil Engineers. The building and its street floor interior are designated landmarks of the New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission, and confirmed by the New York City Board of Estimate. It was designated as a National Historic Landmark in 1986. In 2007, it was ranked number one on the List of America's Favorite Architecture according to the AIA.



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