Эрозия песка при деятельности подвижных хищных речных личинок насекомых - приложение в экологии и гидрологии.
Sand Erosion by Mobile Predaceous Stream Insects - Implications for Ecology and Hydrology
WATER RESOURCES RESEARCH 1996, Vol 32, Iss 7, pp 2279-2287
Despite increasing knowledge of the ability of keystone animal species (''ecosystem engineers'') to change their physical environment, there is little and inconsistent evidence that benthic invertebrates affect the erosion of bottom material in streams. Therefore we designed field stream experiments and observations to investigate the effect of mobile predaceous stonefly (Dinocras cephalotes) larvae on sand erosion. When short of prey, the stoneflies erode sand from stream riffles thereby deepening the interstices between cobbles. On the basis of reasonable assumptions, we speculate that Dinocras has an erosion potential of about 200-400 kg sand m(-2) yr(-1) at natural population densities under favorable flow conditions. We consider the possible implications of the bioturbation potential of stream invertebrates for ecology (habitat quality and disturbance) and hydrology (sand transport and stability of coarse stream bottoms), which call for joint research on this novel role invertebrates play in the functioning of stream ecosystems.
Testing for context-dependence in a processing chain interaction
among detritus-feeding aquatic insects
Matthew P. Daugherty and Steven A. Juliano
Abstract1. Scirtid beetles may benefit mosquitoes Ochlerotatus triseriatus (Say) by consuming whole leaves and leaving behind fine particles required by mosquito larvae. Such interactions based on the sequential use of a resource that occurs in multiple forms are known as processing chains.
2. Models of processing chains predict that interactions can vary from commensal (0, +) to amensal (0, -), depending on how quickly resource is processed in the absence of consumers.
3. The scirtid-O.triseriatus system was used to test the prediction derived from processing chain models that, as consumer-independent processing increases, scirtids benefit mosquitoes less. Consumer-independent processing rate was manipulated by using different leaf species that vary in decay rate, or by physically crushing a single leaf type to different degrees.
4. Although scirtids increased the production of fine particles, the effects of scirtids on mosquitoes were weak and were not dependent on consumer-independent processing rate.
5. In the leaf manipulation experiment, a correlation between scirtid feeding and consumer-independent processing was detected. Numerical simulations suggest that such a correlation may eliminate shifts from commensal to amensal at equilibrium; because mosquito populations are typically not at equilibrium, however, this correlation may not be important.
6. There was evidence that mosquitoes affected scirtids negatively, which is inconsistent with the structure of processing chain interactions in models. Processing chain models need to incorporate more detail on the biology of scirtids and O.triseriatus, especially alternative mechanisms of interaction, if they are to describe scirtid-O.triseriatus dynamics accurately.
Philip Agnew, Mallorie Hide, Christine Sidobre and Yannis Michalakis
Abstract1. Due to its effects on the phenotypic and genotypic expression of life-history traits, density-dependent competition is an important factor regulating the growth of populations. Specifically for insects, density-dependent competition among juveniles is often associated with increased juvenile mortality, delayed maturity, and reduced adult size.
2. The aim of the work reported here was to test whether the established phenotypic effects of density-dependent competition on life-history traits could be reproduced in an experimental design requiring a minimal number of individuals. Larvae of the mosquito Aedes aegypti were reared at densities of one, two, or three individuals per standard Drosophila vial and in six different conditions of larval food availability. This design required relatively few individuals per independent replicate and included a control treatment where individuals reared at a density of one larva per vial experienced no density-dependent interactions with other larvae.
3. Increased larval densities or reduced food availability led to increased larval mortality, delayed pupation, and the emergence of smaller adults that starved to death in a shorter time (indicating emergence with fewer nutritional reserves).
4. Female mosquitoes were relatively larger than males (as measured by wing length) but males tended to survive for longer. These differences increased as larval food availability increased, indicating the relative importance of these two traits for the fitness of each sex. The role of nutritional reserves for the reproductive success of males was highlighted in particular.
5. This minimalist approach may provide a useful model for investigating the effects of density-dependent competition on insect life-history traits.
Насекомые: трофические взаимосвязи.
Volume 25 Issue 2 Page 140 - May 2000
Health food versus fast food: the effects of prey quality and mobility
on prey selection by a generalist predator and indirect interactions
1. In order to understand the relative importance of prey quality and mobility in indirect interactions among alternative prey that are mediated by a shared natural enemy, the nutritional quality of two common prey for a generalist insect predator along with the predator's relative preference for these prey was determined.
2. Eggs of the corn earworm Helicoverpa zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) were nutritionally superior to pea aphids Acyrthosiphum pisum (Homoptera: Aphididae) as prey for big-eyed bugs Geocoris punctipes (Heteroptera: Geocoridae). Big-eyed bugs survived four times as long when fed corn earworm eggs than when fed pea aphids. Furthermore, only big-eyed bugs fed corn earworm eggs completed development and reached adulthood.
3. In two separate choice experiments, however, big-eyed bugs consistently attacked the nutritionally inferior prey, pea aphids, more frequently than the nutritionally superior prey, corn earworm eggs.
4. Prey mobility, not prey nutritional quality, seems to be the most important criterion used by big-eyed bugs to select prey. Big-eyed bugs attacked mobile aphids preferentially when given a choice between mobile and immobilised aphids.
5. Prey behaviour also mediated indirect interactions between these two prey species. The presence of mobile pea aphids as alternative prey benefited corn earworms indirectly by reducing the consumption of corn earworm eggs by big-eyed bugs. The presence of immobilised pea aphids, however, did not benefit corn earworms indirectly because the consumption of corn earworm eggs by big-eyed bugs was not reduced when they were present.
6. These results suggest that the prey preferences of generalist insect predators mediate indirect interactions among prey species and ultimately affect the population dynamics of the predator and prey species. Understanding the prey preferences of generalist insect predators is essential to predict accurately the efficacy of these insects as biological control agents.
Насекомые водотоков: конкуренция.
Disturbance and Variation in Competition Between 2 Stream Insects
ECOLOGY 1991, Vol 72, Iss 3, pp 864-872
UNIV-LOUISVILLE, DEPT BIOL, LOUISVILLE, KY 40292, USA