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Freshwater Biology

Volume 44 Issue 3 Page 523 - July 2000

Beetle assemblages in ponds: effects of habitat and site age

G. Winfield Fairchild*, Ann M. Faulds* and James F. Matta

Summary

1. Water beetle assemblages were sampled in each of 18 freshwater ponds,



including 11 recently constructed sites designed to provide mitigation for

wetlands destruction elsewhere, and seven older reference sites. There were

three objectives: (a) to relate taxon richness and biomass of the beetles to the

same properties of the wider aquatic invertebrate community, (b) to evaluate

changes in beetle assemblage structure over time, and (c) to determine

habitat effects on taxonomic composition, mean body size and trophic guild

structure of the beetle assemblage.

2. Forty-seven beetle genera were identified, representing 77 species. The

beetles represented an average of 21.5% of total generic richness, but only

3.7% of total wet biomass of the wider invertebrate community.

3. Of all variables evaluated using canonical correspondence analysis (CCA),

site age had the greatest influence on the beetle assemblage. Predatory

dytiscids were early colonists at younger sites, while herbivorous

curculionids and chrysomelids associated with particular types of vegetation

typically occurred in older ponds. Mitigation ponds and reference ponds

supported similar numbers of species. Reference sites, however, harboured

substantially more unique species found at only a single site within the study

area.


4. The presence of fish was also strongly related to beetle assemblage

structure. Ponds with few or no fish contained about 3-fold higher biomass

and 3-fold greater mean wet weight per individual compared to ponds with

substantial fish assemblages.

5. Beetle assemblage composition varied among sites and sampling years, but

beetle biomass, richness and species composition may be useful tools in

evaluating the success of wetland mitigation efforts.


Ручейники




Ручейники ручьев, Венгрия


ASSESSING STREAM DWELLING CADDISFLY ASSEMBLAGES (INSECTA: TRICHOPTERA) COLLECTED BY LIGHT TRAPS IN HUNGARY

Авторы Denes Schmera

Журнал Biodiversity & Conservation

Год выпуска 2003 Дата июнь

Том 12 Номер 6

Страницы 1175-1191 Статус


Ручейники: Дания, фауна

SPECIES RICHNESS AND ASSEMBLAGE STRUCTURE OF TRICHOPTERA IN DANISH STREAMS

Авторы P. Wiberg-Larsen, K.P. Brodersen, S. Birkholm, P.N. Gron, J. Skriver

Журнал Freshwater Biology Год выпуска 2000 Дата март Том 43 Номер 4

Страницы 633-647 Статус

1 Species richness and assemblages of Trichoptera from 157 'pristine' Danish lowland stream sites were analyzed, for dependence on geographical position of the sites and simple physical variables, using two way indicator species analysis and detrended correspondence analysis.

2 A total of 106 species were recorded, representing ≈ 90% of the species pool known from Danish streams. Only seven species occurred at more than half the sites, whereas an additional 11 species were found at more than a quarter of the sites.

3 Although sites showed significant regional differences in environmental variables (stream order, width, slope and presence/absence of riparian forest), species richness and assemblages were primarily correlated with stream order, width and slope. Maximum richness was found at the largest (5th order) stream sites.

4 Regional differences in species assemblages were found, with several species being absent from the islands Funen and Bornholm. Species assemblages also differed between forested and non-forested stream sites.

5 We found evidence that stream temperature may be of only minor importance in determining Trichoptera species richness and assemblage composition in Danish streams compared to other size-related physical factors.

Резюме


1 Богатство разновидностей и assemblages Trichoptera от 157 'древних' датских участков потока низменности были проанализированы, для зависимости от географического положения участков и простых физических переменных, используя два пути анализ разновидностей индикатора и detrended анализ корреспонденции.

2 В общей сложности 106 разновидностей были зарегистрированы, представляя  90 % объединения разновидностей, известного от датских потоков. Только семь разновидностей произошли на больше чем половине участков, тогда как дополнительные 11 разновидностей были найдены в больше чем четверть участков.

3 Хотя участки показали существенные региональные различия в экологических переменных (заказ потока, ширина, наклон и присутствие/отсутствие прибрежного леса), богатство разновидностей и assemblages были прежде всего коррелированы с заказом потока, шириной и наклоном. Максимальное богатство было найдено в наибольшем (5-ый заказ) участками потока.

4 Региональные различия в разновидностях assemblages были найдены, с несколькими разновидностями, являющимися отсутствующим от островов Funen и Борнхольмом. Разновидности assemblages также отличались между засаженными деревьями и незасаженными деревьями участками потока.

5 Мы нашли свидетельство, что температура потока может иметь только незначительное значение в определении богатства разновидностей Trichoptera и состава сборки в датских потоках по сравнению с другими связанными с размером физическими факторами.

Ручейники: питание альгофагов.

Authors: Feminella-JW Resh-VH

Title: Herbivorous Caddisflies, Macroalgae, and Epilithic

Microalgae - Dynamic Interactions in a Stream Grazing

System


Source: OECOLOGIA

1991, Vol 87, Iss 2, pp 247-256

Language: English

Document type: Article

Addresses:

UNIV-CALIF-BERKELEY, DEPT ENTOMOL SCI, BERKELEY, CA 94720, USA

Author keywords:

Algae; Aquatic Insect; Biotic Interactions; Periphyton; Grazing

Keywords Plus:

NORTHERN CALIFORNIA STREAM; RIVER FOOD WEBS; INTRASPECIFIC

COMPETITION; SUBMERSED MACROPHYTES; PERIPHYTON RESPONSES;

MARINE HERBIVORES; PISCIVOROUS BASS; CURRENT VELOCITY;

AQUATIC INSECTS; MOUNTAIN STREAM

Abstract:

1. During the low-flow period (April-October) in sunlit

pools of Big Sulphur Creek (northern coastal California), the

attached algal community predictably changes from an assemblage

dominated by lush, upright Cladophora glomerata filaments in

spring and early summer to one dominated by epilithic diatoms

and blue-green algae (together = microalgae) in late summer

through early autumn. Previous studies in this stream indicated

that grazing by the caddisflies Helicopsyche borealis and Gumaga

nigricula maintain low algal biomass during the latter part of

this period. We used a combination of in situ

exclusion/enclosure experiments to examine (1) the separate and

combined effects of these grazers on Cladophora and microalgal

assemblages, and (2) food preferences, growth, and

microdistribution patterns of grazers when offered these

different algal foods. 2. Grazers exerted strong but divergent

effects on algal assemblages. Selective grazing on Cladophora

by G. nigricula greatly accelerated the transition from upright

Cladophora to epilithic microalgae, whereas selective grazing on

microalgae by H. borealis dramatically reduced biomass of these

forms. Grazers were largely ineffective at reducing the non-

preferred algal food source (i.e. Cladophora by H. borealis,

microalgae by G. nigricula). In the case of each grazer, growth

was highest on the preferred algal food. Together, the activity

of these grazers produced a low-biomass assemblage dominated by

microalgal cells. 3. Removal of the Cladophora over-story by

G. nigricula resulted in a three-fold increase in the abundance

of epilithic microalgae, the preferred food of H. borealis.

Elimination of Cladophora by G. nigricula can increase food

availability for H. borealis and, in so doing, can indirectly

facilitate the growth of this grazer during food-limited

conditions. However, microdistribution of G. nigricula shifts

from high overlap with H. borealis in spring and early summer

when Cladophora is abundant to low overlap in late summer after

Cladophora has been eliminated. This may indicate intense

competition between these species for limited epilithic algae,

and a concomitant movement by G. nigricula to areas in the

stream where food resources are more available.

Ручейники в водотоках Дании.

Freshwater Biology Volume 43 Issue 4 Page 633 - March 2000

Species richness and assemblage structure of Trichoptera in Danish streams

P. Wiberg-Larsen*, K. P. Brodersen, S. Birkholm, P. N. Gron and J. Skriver**

Summary


1 Species richness and assemblages of Trichoptera from 157 pristine Danish

lowland stream sites were analyzed, for dependence on geographical

position of the sites and simple physical variables, using two way indicator

species analysis and detrended correspondence analysis.

2 A total of 106 species were recorded, representing 90% of the species pool

known from Danish streams. Only seven species occurred at more than half

the sites, whereas an additional 11 species were found at more than a quarter

of the sites.

3 Although sites showed significant regional differences in environmental

variables (stream order, width, slope and presence/absence of riparian

forest), species richness and assemblages were primarily correlated with

stream order, width and slope. Maximum richness was found at the largest

(5th order) stream sites.

4 Regional differences in species assemblages were found, with several

species being absent from the islands Funen and Bornholm. Species

assemblages also differed between forested and non-forested stream sites.

5 We found evidence that stream temperature may be of only minor

importance in determining Trichoptera species richness and assemblage

composition in Danish streams compared to other size-related physical

factors.



Ручейники: питание.

Authors: Becker-G

Title: Comparison of the Dietary-Composition of Epilithic

Trichopteran Species in a 1st Order Stream

Source: ARCHIV FUR HYDROBIOLOGIE

1990, Vol 120, Iss 1, pp 13-40

Language: English

Document type: Article

Addresses:

MAX-PLANCK-INST-LIMNOL, W-6407 SCHLITZ, GERMANY

Keywords Plus:

CADDISFLY POPULATION; MOUNTAIN STREAM; TROPHIC BASIS;

PERIPHYTON; INSECTS; LARVAE; COMMUNITY; GRAZER; BREITENBACH;

FOOD

Abstract:



The dietary composition of six epilithic trichopteran

species, each with a similar life cycle, was examined. In 1986

and 1987 the gut-contents of later stage larvae were analyzed

and comparisons were made between specimens sampled along the

lower 2 km of a Central European first-order stream. Gut-

contents were classified into 9 components and quantified using

image analysis.

A multifactorial ANOVA revealed significant differences (p



< 0.001) between the utilization of several food components by

the six species considered, despite an overlap in their

microhabitats and food resources.

The gut-contents of Drusus annulatus, Tinodes rostocki, and

Micrasema longulum contained a high proportion of diatoms,

whereas cyanobacteria were abundant in Apatania fimbriata and D.

annulatus. There were fewer algae, but higher proportions of

detritus, in Agapetus fuscipes and Silo pallipes.

Seasonal variability in periphyton composition was partly

reflected in the larval gut-contents. A diatom maximum in

spring was utilized by all species, but a second maximum in

autumn was only reflected in the diets of D. annulatus, T.

rostocki, and M. longulum. A. fuscipes consumed similar

proportions of diatoms in the spring and summer. The summer

cyanobacteria maximum in periphyton was particularly conspicuous

in the diets of A. fimbriata and D. annulatus. POM (< 5-mu-m)

was consumed the most between April and July, while POM (> 5-mu-

m in the larval guts increased in the autumn and winter.

The guts of A. fibriata and D. annulatus contained algae in

similar proportions to the local periphyton. T. rostocki and M.

longulum contained higher proportions of diatoms. A cluster

analysis analysis revealed three species groupings: A. fuscipes

and S. pallipes showed the most distinct trophic niche overlap,

followed by A. fimbriata and D. annulatus. T. rostocki and M.

longulum were combined in one group at a lower similarity level.

Differences in foraging strategies among the six larval

species are discussed. Significant differences between the

utilization of several food components reduced the likelihood of

any inter-specific competition for high quality food resources.

Ручейники: Leptoceridae, экология.

Authors: Towns-DR

Title: Ecology of Leptocerid Caddisfly Larvae in an

Intermittent South Australian Stream Receiving

Eucalyptus Litter

Source: FRESHWATER BIOLOGY

1991, Vol 25, Iss 1, pp 117-129

Language: English

Document type: Article

Addresses:

UNIV-ADELAIDE, DEPT ZOOL, ADELAIDE, SA 5001, AUSTRALIA

Keywords Plus:

RIVER CONTINUUM CONCEPT; NORTHERN JARRAH FOREST;

ZELANDOPSYCHE-INGENS TRICHOPTERA; NEW-ZEALAND STREAM;

WESTERN-AUSTRALIA; COMMUNITY STRUCTURE; LEAF LITTER;

MACROINVERTEBRATES; ECOSYSTEMS; DECOMPOSITION

Abstract:

1. Brown Hill Creek, a small intermittent stream in dry

sclerophyll forest in South Australia, flows for about 6 months

during winter and spring. When flow ceases the stream dries to

isolated pools which receive high summer inputs of Eucalyptus

obliqua litter. Decomposition of this material in remnant pools

causes extremely dark waters and depressed oxygen concentrations

for up to 90 days.

2. Only two fully aquatic insect species, Leptorussa

darlingtoni and Lectrides varians (Trichoptera: Leptoceridae),

persist under these conditions. Both utilize litter as food,

but have different feeding strategies. The more abundant L.

darlingtoni ingests organic and microbial material from leaf

surfaces, whereas L. varians is a leaf shredder.

3. Larval processing budgets based on laboratory and field

experiments indicated that L. varians has a greater impact on

litter decomposition rates than L. darlingtoni. However,

because of low density, low oxygen concentrations in pools

during summer, and rapid flushing of litter from pools once flow

recommences, L. varians larvae process a small proportion of the

total litter input.


Ручейники: Hydropsychidae.

Authors: Hideux-P Elouard-JM Troubat-JJ

Title: Broading and Life-Cycle of Cheumatopsyche-Digitata

(Trichoptera, Hydropsychidae)

Source: ARCHIV FUR HYDROBIOLOGIE

1991, Vol 122, Iss 4, pp 493-512

Language: French

Document type: Article

Addresses:

ORSTOM, AV VAL MONTFERRAND, BP 5045, F-34032 MONTPELLIER,

FRANCE


ORSTOM, BAMAKO, MALI

Keywords Plus:

SPINNING CADDISFLIES TRICHOPTERA; MAYFLY SPECIES

EPHEMEROPTERA; IVORY-COAST; SIMULIUM-DAMNOSUM; AQUATIC

INSECTS; FOOD QUALITY; LAKE OUTLET; DENSITY; LARVAE; STREAM

Abstract:

A running water breeding apparatus, the ''fluvarium'', made

up of several gutters, allows the larvae of the caddis fly to go

through their larval and pupal development and then to emerge.

Several experiments carried out in different conditions have

allowed the authors to estimate the duration of the life cycle

and to distinguish the preferences of the larvae as regards

current speed, water temperature, food quality and quantity and

dissolved oxygen. The information obtained from this breeding is

compared with field information concerning the biology of this

species as well as with information from literature about the

Cheumatopsyche in general.

Ручейники: биология Hydropsyche.

Authors: Kerans-BL

Title: Season and Body Size Influence Movement of Hydropsychid

Caddisfly Larvae (Trichoptera, Hydropsychidae)

Source: CANADIAN JOURNAL OF FISHERIES AND AQUATIC SCIENCES

1992, Vol 49, Iss 2, pp 259-265

Source: CAN J FISHERIES AQUAT SCI

1992, Vol 49, Iss 2, pp 259-265

Addresses:

OHIO-STATE-UNIV, DEPT ZOOL, COLUMBUS, OH 43210, USA

Abstract:

Movement patterns of fifth-instar Hydropsyche slossonae

larvae were investigated in artificial streams. In the first

choice experiment, larvae were released into a central area and

their upstream or downstream crawling or drifting was monitored.

A second experiment used the same design; however, fifth instars

collected during spring and fall were divided into two,

nonoverlapping, relative size-classes (large and small) to

determine how these factors influenced movement parameters. In

both experiments, larvae always drifted more frequently than

they crawled, but in experiment 2, drifting tendency declined

with increasing weight in spring. In both experiments, there

was no statistically detectable directional bias to crawling nor

change in relative crawling direction with season or size-class.

In experiment 2, drifting larvae were lighter than nondrifting

larvae in the large size-class, but equal in weight in the small

size-class. This result was unrelated to absolute weight, as

large size-class larvae in fall were similar in weight to small

size-class larvae in spring. It is possible that the relative

weight differential of drifting and nondrifting larvae in one

size-class but not the other may be related to sexual rather

than body size differences.


Ручейники: биология Sericostoma.

Authors: Wagner-R

Title: The Influence of the Diel Activity Pattern of the Larvae

of Sericostoma-Personatum (Kirby and Spence)

(Trichoptera) on Organic-Matter Distribution in Stream-

Bed Sediments - A Laboratory Study

Source: HYDROBIOLOGIA

1991, Vol 224, Iss 2, pp 65-70

Addresses:

MAX-PLANCK-INST-LIMNOL, LIMNOL FLUSSSTN, POSTFACH 260, W-6407

SCHLITZ, GERMANY

Diel patterns in mobility and feeding behaviour of the

larvae of the stream-dwelling trichopteran Sericostoma

personatum larvae were investigated. Larvae fed at night on

coarse particulate organic matter (CPOM) at the sediment

surface. In the daytime they rested a few cm below the sediment

surface, during which time their defaecation activity effected a

release of fine particulate organic matter (FPOM) into the

sediment. The amount of faeces (mean particle size = 0.1 +/-

0.044 mm, x +/- SD, n = 500) introduced into the sediment by the

larvae, evaluated in two experiments, was 0.4-0.56 mg day-1.

This amount did not differ significantly from the organic input

resulting from bacterial activity (0.36-0.64 mg day-1). The

presence of S. personatum larvae increased the sediment organic

content by 42.9 mg (75.8%) and 59.8 mg (185.6%) AFDW per 16 cm3

sediment over a 90-day period, as compared with control systems

containing no larvae.

Ручейники: питание Lepidostoma.

Authors: Whiles-MR Wallace-JB Chung-K

Title: The Influence of Lepidostoma (Trichoptera,

Lepidostomatidae) on Recovery of Leaf-Litter Processing

in Disturbed Headwater Streams

Source: AMERICAN MIDLAND NATURALIST

1993, Vol 130, Iss 2, pp 356-363

Addresses:

UNIV-GEORGIA, DEPT ENTOMOL, BIOSCI BLDG, ATHENS, GA 30602, USA

Abstract:

Two headwater streams draining catchments 53 and 54 (C53

and C54, respectively) at the Coweeta Hydrologic Laboratory in

western North Carolina were treated with insecticide in 1980

(C53) and 1986-1988 (C54). During recovery periods in both

streams, Lepidostoma spp. were abundant, early colonizers.

Densities of Lepidostoma in litterbags and benthic samples

collected from recovering streams were substantially higher than

in untreated streams (pretreatment and reference streams).

During treatment years, leaf-litter processing rates were

severely reduced relative to pretreatment and reference streams.

In contrast, litter processing rates in C53 and C54 during

recovery were faster than those in untreated streams

(pretreatment and reference). Rhododendron is one of the most

refractory leaves commonly found in Coweeta streams; however,

percent increase of rhododendron processing rates from treatment

periods to recovery was greater than that of more labile red

maple. Laboratory feeding experiments were performed in order to

examine and quantify use of rhododendron and red maple litter by

Lepidostoma larvae. In the laboratory, Lepidostoma consumed

significantly more rhododendron (1.062 mg AFDM/mg AFDM body

wt/day) than red maple (0.479 mg AFDM/mg AFDM body wt/day) (P =

0.001). Results suggest that changes in the taxonomic

composition of stream macroinvertebrate communities due to

disturbance may have significant effects on ecosystem processes

for at least 2 yr after termination of disturbance. Lepidostoma

colonize rapidly following disturbance, enhancing the

restoration of vital ecosystem processes such as litter

decomposition in Coweeta streams.


Влияние температуры и пищи: ручейники, мошки.

Authors: Fuller-RL Fry-TJ

Title: The Influence of Temperature and Food Quality on the

Growth of Hydropsyche-Betteni (Trichoptera) and Simulium-

Vittatum (Diptera)

Source: JOURNAL OF FRESHWATER ECOLOGY

1991, Vol 6, Iss 1, pp 75-86

Language: English

Document type: Article

Addresses:

COLGATE-UNIV, DEPT BIOL, HAMILTON, NY 13346, USA

Keywords Plus:

SOUTHERN ONTARIO; AQUATIC INSECTS; FEEDING ECOLOGY; STREAM;

DIET; PLECOPTERA; EPHEMEROPTERA; BACTERIA; PATTERNS; ALGAE

Abstract:

Growth responses of Simulium vittatum and Hydropsyche

betteni were observed at 5 C, 14 C and 20 C while on diets

restricted to sterile or conditioned fine particulate leaf

detritus (FPOM), cultured bacteria (Escherichia coli), a

filamentous cyanobacterium (Oscillatoria lutea), two eukaryotic

algae (Ulothrix confervicola and diatoms), and Daphnia magna (H.

betteni only). Simulium showed little growth at 5 C regardless

of food type; however, at 14 C growth of Simulium on conditioned

leaf FPOM and O. lutea was greater than on sterile leaf FPOM or

U. confervicola all of which resulted in lower growth rates than

E. coli and diatoms. Growth was highest at 20 C, with all foods

producing similar growth responses except sterile leaf FPOM,

which produced a lower growth rate. Hydropsyche betteni also

grew little or not at all at 5 C but showed positive growth on

all foods at 14 C; furthermore, at 14 C, growth on algae and

Daphnia was higher than for detrital/bacterial or cyanobacterial

foods. At 20 C growth was negative on detrital FPOM, E. coli

and O. lutea but positive on diatoms and Daphnia. These data

suggest that colder temperatures restricted growth of both test

animals regardless of food quality. Also, H. betteni could not

use detrital/bacterial foods as a sole source of energy

(especially at temperatures greater-than-or-equal-to 20 C)

whereas Simulium grew equally well on algae, cyanobacteria and

bacteria either alone or associated with detritus. Differences

in growth responses to temperature and food type may help

explain observed differences in distribution and abundance of

these two species below lake outlets with epilimnial versus

hypolimnial releases.




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