A NEW METHOD FOR ASSESSING THE IMPACT OF HYDROMORPHOLOGICAL DEGRADATION ON THE MACROINVERTEBRATE FAUNA OF FIVE GERMAN STREAM TYPES
Авторы Armin Lorenz, Daniel Hering, Christian K. Feld, Peter Rolauffs
Журнал Hydrobiologia Год выпуска 2004 Дата март Том 516 Номер 1
Страницы 107-127 Статус
Authors: Gower-AM Myers-G Kent-M Foulkes-ME
Взаимодействия между сообществом макробентоса и
факторами среды в загрязненных металлами речках
Relationships Between Macroinvertebrate Communities and
Environmental Variables in Metal-Contaminated Streams in
FRESHWATER BIOLOGY 1994, Vol 32, Iss 1, pp 199-221
Макробентос и 39 параметров среды описаны в 46 точках 12 речек с различным уровнем загрязнения металлами. Связь бентоса и среды оценивалась анализом канонических корреляций. Главным регулятором для макробентоса оказалась медь. Найдены также сильные корреляции с алюминием, жесткостью, рН, растворенной органикой и покрытием водорослями. В водах с максимальным загрязнением медью нет поденок, обитают олигохета Phagocata vitta, хирономиды Chaetocladius melaleucus, Eukiefferiella claripennis, ручейник Plectrocnemia conspersa и планарии, преобладают Orthocladiinae. Изменения состава сообщества вдоль градиента загрязнения металлами отражает чувствительность отдельных видов. Прямое действие металлов осложняется влиянием природных факторов (рН, щелочности, жесткости, содержания органики). Показана необходимость определения до вида при изучении устойчивости к металлам.
1. Macroinvertebrate species and information on thirty-nine variables were recorded at forty-six sites on twelve Cornish streams affected to varying extents by past metalliferous mining.
2. Relationships between macroinvertebrate communities and environmental variables were examined using canonical correspondence analysis (CCA). Copper was the strongest correlate with Axis 1 of the analysis, suggesting that it may have a major role in determining community structure. There were also strong correlations between Axis 1 and aluminium, alkalinity, pH, dissolved organic matter and algal cover, and between Axis 2 and discharge.
3. CCA distinguished four site groupings. In spite of seasonal changes in position on the ordination, as revealed through CCA and detrended correspondence analysis (DCA), sites retained their group membership. There were differences in the proportions of the major taxa within the four CCA-derived groups. In the group with the highest copper concentration, Ephemeroptera were absent, but triclads and chironomids were abundant, with Orthocladiinae the dominant group.
4. Changes in the occurrence of species along the metal gradient reflected changes in sensitivity. 'Tolerance' plots of selected species based on the CCA site ordination diagram were used to identify environmental thresholds.
5. As well as direct toxic effects of copper and aluminium on invertebrate communities, co-precipitation of these two metals could be an important physical factor. Further modifying influences resulting from interactions between toxic metals and pH, alkalinity, hardness and dissolved organic matter contributed to the complexity of conditions affecting the faunal community in metal-contaminated streams.
6. The most severely contaminated sites, with mean copper concentration exceeding 500 mugl-1, were all characterized by a reduced community dominated by the flatworm Phagocata vitta, the chironomids Chaetocladius melaleucus and Eukiefferiella claripennis and the net-spinning caddis Plectrocnemia conspersa. The necessity for species identification is demonstrated in relation to variation in metal tolerance.
Биоиндикация загрязнений по макрофитам.
Small A M. Adey W H. Lutz S M. Reese E G. Roberts D L.
A macrophyte-based rapid biosurvey of stream water quality: Restoration at
the watershed scale.
Restoration Ecology 4(2). 1996. 124-145.
The restoration of chemically degraded rivers, lakes, and estuaries with
large watersheds and pollution sources that are primarily diffuse in
nature requires the grading of thousands of kilometers of tributary
streams. Many population- and community-oriented biomonitoring methods
have been developed that avoid the cost limitations of
chemical/biomarker/bioassay approaches and the serious limitations of
single-factor analysis as related to complex systems. In this study of the
coastal plain and piedmont geomorphologic provinces of the Chesapeake Bay
watershed, we have demonstrated a set of quantitative measures based on
analysis of macrophyte populations that provide statistically significant
separation of streams in accordance with their state-issued water quality
rating. Macrophytes can be abundant and diverse in lower-order streams,
and they demonstrate patterns of community structure and diversity similar
to those of other organisms developed for biomonitoring of stream
degradation. Unlike organisms previously and extensively used in
biomonitoring techniques, however, macrophytes are considerably easier to
identify and quantify. In addition, macrophyte techniques provide a range
Измерение влияния сточных вод на макробентос речки Верхней - значение таксономической точности определения.
Measuring the Impact of Sewage Effluent on the Macroinvertebrate Community of an Upland Stream - The Effect of Different Levels of Taxonomic Resolution and Quantification
AUSTRALIAN JOURNAL OF ECOLOGY 1995, V.20, Iss 1, pp 142-149
Benthic macroinvertebrates were sampled from four sites on upland streams in the Wentworth Falls area of the Blue Mountains, NSW. One site received effluent from a sewage treatment plant and the others were reference sites. Five replicate collections were taken from each site on four occasions at intervals of 3 months. Macroinvertebrate community data were analysed using univariate (ANOVA) and multivariate (NMDS) techniques and comparisons were made between analyses at different levels of taxonomic aggregation and using different methods of data transformation Similar patterns were observed at both species and family levels, and even the order level showed a clear community response to effluent input. Binary (presence/absence) data provided similar results to quantitative data for the species and family levels. However, when binary data were used at the order level, the distinctions between the reference sites became blurred. We discuss the implications of these findings for environmental monitoring.