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Загрязнение воды и индикация.

Влияние типов землепользования на бентос ручьев


Авторы U. Cascorbi

Журнал Geoderma

Год выпуска 2002 Дата февраль

Том 105 Номер 3-4

Язык английский Тип Научная статья

Страницы 179-200 Статус

Оценка воздействия нарушений на бентос, Германия


Авторы Armin Lorenz, Daniel Hering, Christian K. Feld, Peter Rolauffs

Журнал Hydrobiologia Год выпуска 2004 Дата март Том 516 Номер 1

Страницы 107-127 Статус

Влияние загрязнений

Authors: Gower-AM Myers-G Kent-M Foulkes-ME

Взаимодействия между сообществом макробентоса и

факторами среды в загрязненных металлами речках

юго-западной Англии.

Relationships Between Macroinvertebrate Communities and

Environmental Variables in Metal-Contaminated Streams in

South-West England

FRESHWATER BIOLOGY 1994, Vol 32, Iss 1, pp 199-221

Макробентос и 39 параметров среды описаны в 46 точках 12 речек с различным уровнем загрязнения металлами. Связь бентоса и среды оценивалась анализом канонических корреляций. Главным регулятором для макробентоса оказалась медь. Найдены также сильные корреляции с алюминием, жесткостью, рН, растворенной органикой и покрытием водорослями. В водах с максимальным загрязнением медью нет поденок, обитают олигохета Phagocata vitta, хирономиды Chaetocladius melaleucus, Eukiefferiella claripennis, ручейник Plectrocnemia conspersa и планарии, преобладают Orthocladiinae. Изменения состава сообщества вдоль градиента загрязнения металлами отражает чувствительность отдельных видов. Прямое действие металлов осложняется влиянием природных факторов (рН, щелочности, жесткости, содержания органики). Показана необходимость определения до вида при изучении устойчивости к металлам.


1. Macroinvertebrate species and information on thirty-nine variables were recorded at forty-six sites on twelve Cornish streams affected to varying extents by past metalliferous mining.

2. Relationships between macroinvertebrate communities and environmental variables were examined using canonical correspondence analysis (CCA). Copper was the strongest correlate with Axis 1 of the analysis, suggesting that it may have a major role in determining community structure. There were also strong correlations between Axis 1 and aluminium, alkalinity, pH, dissolved organic matter and algal cover, and between Axis 2 and discharge.

3. CCA distinguished four site groupings. In spite of seasonal changes in position on the ordination, as revealed through CCA and detrended correspondence analysis (DCA), sites retained their group membership. There were differences in the proportions of the major taxa within the four CCA-derived groups. In the group with the highest copper concentration, Ephemeroptera were absent, but triclads and chironomids were abundant, with Orthocladiinae the dominant group.

4. Changes in the occurrence of species along the metal gradient reflected changes in sensitivity. 'Tolerance' plots of selected species based on the CCA site ordination diagram were used to identify environmental thresholds.

5. As well as direct toxic effects of copper and aluminium on invertebrate communities, co-precipitation of these two metals could be an important physical factor. Further modifying influences resulting from interactions between toxic metals and pH, alkalinity, hardness and dissolved organic matter contributed to the complexity of conditions affecting the faunal community in metal-contaminated streams.

6. The most severely contaminated sites, with mean copper concentration exceeding 500 mugl-1, were all characterized by a reduced community dominated by the flatworm Phagocata vitta, the chironomids Chaetocladius melaleucus and Eukiefferiella claripennis and the net-spinning caddis Plectrocnemia conspersa. The necessity for species identification is demonstrated in relation to variation in metal tolerance.

Биоиндикация загрязнений по макрофитам.

Small A M. Adey W H. Lutz S M. Reese E G. Roberts D L.

A macrophyte-based rapid biosurvey of stream water quality: Restoration at

the watershed scale.

Restoration Ecology 4(2). 1996. 124-145.

The restoration of chemically degraded rivers, lakes, and estuaries with

large watersheds and pollution sources that are primarily diffuse in

nature requires the grading of thousands of kilometers of tributary

streams. Many population- and community-oriented biomonitoring methods

have been developed that avoid the cost limitations of

chemical/biomarker/bioassay approaches and the serious limitations of

single-factor analysis as related to complex systems. In this study of the

coastal plain and piedmont geomorphologic provinces of the Chesapeake Bay

watershed, we have demonstrated a set of quantitative measures based on

analysis of macrophyte populations that provide statistically significant

separation of streams in accordance with their state-issued water quality

rating. Macrophytes can be abundant and diverse in lower-order streams,

and they demonstrate patterns of community structure and diversity similar

to those of other organisms developed for biomonitoring of stream

degradation. Unlike organisms previously and extensively used in

biomonitoring techniques, however, macrophytes are considerably easier to

identify and quantify. In addition, macrophyte techniques provide a range

of measures of increasing sensitivity from species numbers at a few sites,

to the presence/absence and abundance of indicator species, and, finally,

to a diversity analysis based on easily identified species at an extended

number of sites. We suggest that the ease of utilization of this

methodology will allow repeated surveys of all streams in large watersheds

with the invertebrate, fish and diatom biomonitoring to biomarking and

chemical bioassays and finally analytical chemistry, progressively applied

to verify and then identify specific pollution sources ("hot spots") in a

more limited number of problem streams.

Биоиндикация загрязнений.

Wallace J B. Grubaugh J W. Whiles M R.

Biotic indices and stream ecosystem processes: Results from an

experimental study.

Ecological Applications 6(1). 1996. 140-151.

We investigated the ability of the North Carolina Biotic Index (NCBI) and

the Ephemeroptera + Plecoptera + Trichoptera (EPT) index to track an

experimental manipulation of the invertebrate community and resultant

alteration of several ecosystem-level processes in a headwater stream at

the Coweeta Hydrologic Laboratory in western North Carolina. Indices were

calculated from quantitative monthly or bimonthly benthic samples of

moss-covered rockface and mixed substrate habitats, as well as

habitat-weighted values based on the proportion of each habitat in the two

streams. One stream (C 55) served as a reference stream over the 6-yr

period of late 1984 through 1990, whereas the other (C 54) received

seasonal treatments with an insecticide for 3 yr (1986-1988). Throughout

pretreatment, treatment, and recovery, both the NCBI and EPT indices

tracked the disturbance regime of the treatment stream. Indices for the

reference stream varied little during the 6-yr period. Both the NCBI and

EPT suggested strong changes in the treatment stream during treatment

relative to both pretreatment and the reference stream. Following

cessation of insecticide treatments, both indices reflected improved

biotic conditions during first and second years of recovery in C 54.

Compared with fauna of mixed substrates, rockface fauna had lower (better)

NCBI values during pretreatment, and exhibited a greater proportional

increase in tolerant taxa during treatment than mixed substrates,

emphasizing the importance of including rockface communities in

environmental monitoring programs. Changes in both the EPT and NCBI

indices closely corresponded to changes in ecosystem level processes

observed in C 54 from pretreatment to treatment, and recovery periods.

These processes include: leaf litter processing rates, organic matter

storage, fine particulate organic matter generation and export, and

secondary production. With the exception of organic matter storage, all of

these processes declined during treatment of C 54, and subsequently

increased during recovery. Our results demonstrate the potential of such

indices to detect and monitor stream ecosystem changes during and

following disturbance. The EPT index was by far the easiest to use from

both the standpoint of time required for sample processing and ease of

application. Compared with the labor-intensive sample processing, specimen

identification and measurement, and data entry required for secondary

production calculations, the EPT index was relatively simple and displayed

a remarkable ability to track secondary production of invertebrates in the

treatment stream. Our data strongly support the inclusion of the EPT and

NCBI indices in these southern Appalachian headwater streams as indicators

of both degradation and recovery of Stream ecosystem processes from

chemical-induced disturbance.

Индикация загрязнений водотоков.

Freshwater Biology

Volume 47 Issue 7 Page 1297 - July 2002

Hydropsychid (Trichoptera, Hydropsychidae) gill abnormalities as morphological

biomarkers of stream pollution


1. The use of morphological gill abnormalities of hydropsychid larvae was assessed

in Hydropsyche siltalai larvae exposed to cadmium in the laboratory and

Cheumatopsyche lepida and H. pellucidula larvae collected from a polluted river.

Two biomarkers were evaluated: (1) Hydropsychid abnormality incidence (HAI),

referring to the proportion of individuals with at least some abnormalities, and (2)

Hydropsychid gill abnormality indice (HYI), referring to the average number of

abnormal gill tufts for all individuals.

2. Abnormality-contaminant relations for both biomarkers were established by

studying gill responses along gradients of increasing cadmium and organochlorine

concentrations. A cadmium gradient was verified in laboratory exposures, whereas

the concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (PCDD), dibenzofuran

(PCDF) and diphenyl ether (PCDE) of the aquatic moss Fontinalis antipyretica

were used as measures of an organochlorine gradient in the field.

3. Morphological abnormalities were easily distinguished as heavy darkening,

malformation and/or reduction of single gill tufts. Darkening of the gills appeared to

start either at the basal or distal ends.

4. A marked increase of HYI values with increasing Cd concentration reflected a

clear abnormality-contaminant relation, whereas the mere dicotomic classification of

larvae as normal or abnormal (HAI) was less informative. High values of both HAI

and HYI were associated with high contamination. A significant positive correlation

was found between organochlorine concentration in mosses and biomarker values

for H. pellucidula, but not for C. lepida.

5. We conclude that HAI indicates deleterious effects, but fails to quantify the

severity of degradation. Use of individual gill tufts, as response units in deriving

HYI, revealed a simple solution to the quantification problem. Further research into

the ecological meaning, physiological background and patterns of gill abnormality is

recommended for assessing the applicability and relevance of hydropsychid gill


Водотоки: загрязнение.

Freshwater Biology

Volume 46 Issue 4 Page 535 - April 2001

Effects of urbanization on streams of the Melbourne region, Victoria, Australia.

I. Benthic macroinvertebrate communities

Christopher J. Walsh, Andrew K. Sharpe, Peter F. Breen & Jason A. Sonneman

1. Macroinvertebrate community composition was assessed in small streams of the

Melbourne region to test the effects of (a) urban density (catchment imperviousness

0-51) and (b) stormwater drainage intensity (comparing the intensively drained

metropolitan area with urban areas of the hinterland, which had open drains and

some localized stormwater drainage).

2. Hinterland communities separated into two groups of sites correlating strongly

with patterns of electrical conductivity (EC), basalt geology and annual rainfall.

Community composition varied little in the high-EC, western group (imperviousness

0.2-1.2), but in the eastern group it was strongly correlated with catchment

imperviousness (0-12), with lower taxon richness in more impervious catchments.

3. Metropolitan communities (imperviousness 1-51) were all severely degraded, with

high abundances of a few tolerant taxa. Community composition was poorly

correlated with patterns of geology, rainfall or imperviousness. Differences between

metropolitan and hinterland communities were well explained by patterns of

biochemical oxygen demand and electrical conductivity, which were postulated to

indicate the more efficient transport of pollutants to receiving streams by the

metropolitan stormwater drainage system.

4. Degradation of macroinvertebrate community composition was well explained by

urban density but intensive urban drainage increased degradation severely at even

low urban densities. Quantification of relationships between imperviousness,

drainage intensity and stream degradation can better inform the assessment,

conservation and restoration of urban streams.

Водотоки: влияние факторов среды. Загрязнение.

Freshwater Biology Volume 46 Issue 10 Page 1409-1424 - October 2001

Relationships between land use, spatial scale and stream macroinvertebrate


R. A. Sponseller, E. F. Benfield & H. M. Valett

1.The structure of lotic macroinvertebrate communities may be strongly influenced

by land-use practices within catchments. However, the relative magnitude of

influence on the benthos may depend upon the spatial arrangement of different land

uses in the catchment.

2.We examined the influence of land-cover patterns on in-stream physico-chemical

features and macroinvertebrate assemblages in nine southern Appalachian

headwater basins characterized by a mixture of land-use practices. Using a

geographical information system (GIS)/remote sensing approach, we quantified

land-cover at five spatial scales; the entire catchment, the riparian corridor, and

three riparian sub-corridors extending 200, 1000 and 2000m upstream of sampling


3.Stream water chemistry was generally related to features at the catchment scale.

Conversely, stream temperature and substratum characteristics were strongly

influenced by land-cover patterns at the riparian corridor and sub-corridor scales.

4.Macroinvertebrate assemblage structure was quantified using the slope of rank-

abundance plots, and further described using diversity and evenness indices. Taxon

richness ranged from 24 to 54 among sites, and the analysis of rank-abundance

curves defined three distinct groups with high, medium and low diversity. In

general, other macroinvertebrate indices were in accord with rank-abundance

groups, with richness and evenness decreasing among sites with maximum stream


5.Macroinvertebrate indices were most closely related to land-cover patterns

evaluated at the 200m sub-corridor scale, suggesting that local, streamside

development effectively alters assemblage structure.

6.Results suggest that differences in macroinvertebrate assemblage structure can be

explained by land-cover patterns when appropriate spatial scales are employed. In

addition, the influence of riparian forest patches on in-stream habitat features (e.g.

the thermal regime) may be critical to the distribution of many taxa in headwater

streams draining catchments with mixed land-use practices.

Водотоки: биоиндикация по макробентосу.

Freshwater Biology

Volume 42 Issue 3 Page 575 - November 1999

Temporal variability of stream bioassessments using benthic macroinvertebrates

Simon Linke, Robert C. Bailey and John Schwindt

1.When using benthic macroinvertebrate communities for bioassessment, temporal

variation may influence judgement as to whether or not a site is degraded.

2.In a survey of sixteen reference and sixteen test sites in the upper Thames River

catchment area (UTRCA) in south-western Ontario, Canada, consistent differences

between summer and winter samples were found for taxon richness (increase; P =

0.06) and the Family Biotic Index (decrease; P =0.11). A bioassessment based on

these results would indicate better water quality in the same streams in winter

relative to summer. No consistent pattern of seasonal difference was detected for

Simpsons Diversity and Equitability, or percentage Dominant Taxon.

3.The Reference Condition Approach to bioassessment uses predictive modelling

to explain variation in reference communities with the environmental conditions at

these sites as predictors. The community at a test site is compared with that

predicted by the model. Several predictive models were constructed using simple

geographic and habitat characteristics (i.e. catchment area, distance to source,

stream width, substrate and habitat diversity) as predictors. By including season of

sampling in the models, we increased their predictive power and the ability of the

bioassessment to detect degradation. The best results were achieved when separate

predictive models were built for each sampling season.

Биоиндикация: индекс биотической цельности.

Simon T P. Emery E B.

Modification and assessment of an index of biotic integrity to quantify

water resource quality in great rivers.

Regulated Rivers-Research & Management 11(3-4). 1995. 283-298.

A measure of stream quality, the index of biotic integrity (IBI), was

adapted to great rivers ( gt 3226 km-2) and calibrated using a variety of

spatial scales. Fish fauna was sampled at 60 localities within 15

impoundments of the Ohio River drainage, eastern Ohio, West Virginia and

Pennsylvania, with boat electroshocker methods during the summers and

autumns of 1990-1993 to provide biological information for the IBI.

Significant correlation was not found between ecoregion or differing

reservoirs; however, the IBI was sensitive to differences in land use and

variable industrial and municipal loadings. Species richness, the

percentage large river faunal group, the proportion of round-bodied sucker

species, the number of centrarchid species, the number of sensitive taxa

and the proportion of simple lithophilous spawning species showed the

greatest change between riverine and lacustrine habitats within an

impoundment. The percentage large river faunal group metric was not

significantly different between riverine, transitional and lacustrine

habitats; however, the metric reflected significant differences when

evaluated with habitat information. The number of centrarchid species was

higher in lacustrine habitats, whereas round-bodied sucker species were

highest in transitional habitats. The inherent variation of proportional

metrics was significantly reduced with the removal of gizzard shad. This

modification of the IBI will enhance assessment sensitivity over the

original approach designed for wadable streams and rivers.

Биоиндикация. Температура.

Wichert G A. Lin P.

A species tolerance index for maximum water temperature.

Water Quality Research Journal of Canada 31(4). 1996. 875-893.

A weighted species association tolerance index with respect to water

temperature (WSATI-WT) is based on the final temperature preferendum (FTP)

of each of the fish species present in a locale of a stream ecosystem. The

WSATI-WT is a measure of the distributional consequences of "behaviour" or

habitat selection of an interactive set of species with respect to

temperature and extends the indicator species concept to an entire

association of fishes. Several relationships were exploited to estimate

the FTP of several species for which direct estimates were not available:

FTP inferred directly from behavioral responses are found to be related

approximately by a 1:1 ratio with optimal temperatures for growth, upper

lethal temperatures estimated using ultimate upper incipient lethal

temperatures,or critical temperature maximum, are related to the FTP by a

straight-line relationship across species (within a limited temperature

range). When the WSATI-WT was tested in the field, we found positive

relationships between it and maximal summer habitat temperatures. The

WSATI-WT can be used with observed maximum summer stream water

temperatures to forecast change in index scores from a known reference

community structure due to warming.

Биоиндикация загрязнений.

Parsons M. Norris R H.

The effect of habitat-specific sampling on biological assessment of water

quality using a predictive model.

Freshwater Biology 36(2). 1996. 419-434.

1. Detection of impairment in macroinvertebrate communities using rapid

biological assessment depends on the ability to compare sites, with

confidence that differences obtained result from water quality. However,

collections from more than one habitat type may introduce variation that

can potentially mask water quality differences among sites. Data were

collected from the riffle, edge, pool-rock and macrophyte habitats at

reference (minimally disturbed) and test (disturbed) stream sites

throughout the Australian Capital Territory. The effect of

habitat-specific sampling on predictive models for detecting impairment in

macroinvertebrate communities was determined. Four models were used:

riffle only, edge only, each habitat as an individual object, and all

habitats sampled at a site considered as a composite sample. 2.

Macroinvertebrates from individual habitats generally clustered into

separate groups because collections from the same habitat at different

sites were more similar than collections from different habitats within a

site. Thus, in the habitats as individual objects model, the taxa

predicted to occur at a test site may be an indication of habitat type

rather than water quality. The outputs of the composite habitats and

riffle and edge models were similar. However, the variable number of

habitats included at each site in the composite model may confound the

detection of biological impairment because of unequal sampling effort. The

riffle and edge models were the most robust because they were less

confounded by inter-habitat variation and were based on comparisons made

between equivalent environmental units. 3. Comparison of observed/expected

taxa ratios for test sites showed that each model could detect biological

impairment, indicating considerable data redundancy was introduced by

sampling several habitats. In particular, the pool-rock and macrophyte

habitats contributed no information with regard to macroinvertebrate taxon

occurrence or detection of biological impairment that could not be

obtained from either the riffle or edge habitats within the study area.

Биоиндикация загрязнения по диатомеям.

Juttner I. Rothfritz H. Ormerod S J.

Diatoms as indicators of river quality in the Nepalese Middle Hills with

consideration of the effects of habitat-specific samplings.

Freshwater Biology 36(2). 1996. 475-486.

1. Using a replicated survey design at the catchment scale, we compared

the composition and diversity of diatom communities in three stream groups

in the Middle Hills of Nepal: semi-natural reference (Arun Valley),

enriched by agricultural runoff (Likhu Khola) and grossly polluted by

sewage (Kathmandu Valley). We sampled riffles at all sites; in the

Kathmandu Valley and Likhu Khola we also sampled diatoms in pools and on

vegetation. 2. Species richness and diversity H' were significantly higher

in agricultural streams than in either organically polluted streams or

references. Community composition, as shown by principal components

analysis, varied significantly between all three stream types due to

differences in the abundances of species characteristic of organic

enrichment-(Kathmandu Valley), moderate enrichment (Likhu Khola) or

undisturbed hillstreams (Arun Valley). 3. Few species varied in relative

abundance between pools, riffles and vegetation so that variations in

community composition and diversity were stronger between stream groups

than between habitats. Samples from any one habitat produced only 75.7%

(+- 8.6 SD) of the species from three habitats, so that surveys aimed at

recording biodiversity may need more comprehensive habitat coverage than

surveys for biomonitoring. 4. We conclude that diatom communities can

indicate different sources of pollution in Nepalese streams, and advocate

further studies to develop this indicator potential over a wider area of

the Himalaya. Comparisons between replicate groups of streams selected a

priori helped to clarify effects which were sometimes obscured by other

survey designs.

Загрязнение водотоков.

Freshwater Biology Volume 41 Issue 2 Page 197-209 - March 1999

What is river health?

Richard H. Norris Martin C. Thoms


1.Traditionally the assessment of river water quality has been based solely on the

measurement of physical, chemical and some biological characteristics. While these

measurements may be efficient for regulating effluent discharges and protecting

humans, they are not very useful for large-scale management of catchments or for

assessing whether river ecosystems are being protected.

2.Measurements of aquatic biota, to identify structural or functional integrity of

ecosystems, have recently gained acceptance for river assessment. Empirical

evidence from studies of river ecosystems under stress suggests that a small group

of biological ecosystem-level indicators can assess river condition. However,

physical and chemical features of the environment affect these indicators, the

structure and function of which may be changed by human activities.

3.The term river health, applied to the assessment of river condition, is often seen

as being analogous with human health, giving many a sense of understanding.

Unfortunately, the meaning of river health remains obscure. It is not clear what

aspects of river health sets of ecosystem-level indicators actually identify, nor how

physical, chemical and biological characteristics may be integrated into measures

rather than just observations of cause and effect.

4.Increased examination of relationships between environmental variables that affect

aquatic biota, such as habitat structure, flow regime, energy sources, water quality

and biotic interactions and biological condition, are required in the study of river


Загрязнение водотоков.

Fresh Water Biology

Volume 41 Issue 2 Page 221-234 - March 1999

Defining and measuring river health

James R. Karr


1.Society benefits immeasurably from rivers. Yet over the past century, humans

have changed rivers dramatically, threatening river health. As a result, societal well-

being is also threatened because goods and services critical to human society are

being depleted.

2.Health shorthand for good condition (e.g. healthy economy, healthy communities)

is grounded in science yet speaks to citizens.

3.Applying the concept of health to rivers is a logical outgrowth of scientific

principles, legal mandates, and changing societal values.

4.Success in protecting the condition, or health, of rivers depends on realistic

models of the interactions of landscapes, rivers, and human actions.

5.Biological monitoring and biological endpoints provide the most integrative view

of river condition, or river health. Multimetric biological indices are an important

and relatively new approach to measuring river condition.

6.Effective multimetric indices depend on an appropriate classification system, the

selection of metrics that give reliable signals of river condition, systematic sampling

protocols that measure those biological signals, and analytical procedures that

extract relevant biological patterns.

7.Communicating results of biological monitoring to citizens and political leaders is

critical if biological monitoring is to influence environmental policies.

8.Biological monitoring is essential to identify biological responses to human

actions. By using the results to describe the condition, or health, of rivers and their

adjacent landscapes and to diagnose causes of degradation, we can develop

restoration plans, estimate the ecological risks associated with land use plans in a

watershed, or select among alternative development options to minimize river


Загрязнение: известкование ручья.

Simmons K R. Doyle K.

Mass. Div Fisheries Wildlife, Field Headquarters, Westboro, MA 01581, USA.

Известкование ручья: изменения сообщества беспозвоночных.

Limestone treatment of Whetstone Brook, Massachusetts: III. Changes in the

invertebrate fauna.

Restoration Ecology 4(3). 1996. 284-292.

We monitored the invertebrate fauna in Whetstone Brook for 3 years before

and after limestone treatment to mitigate low pH conditions caused by acid

precipitation. Sampling was conducted during the spring, summer, and fall

by both qualitative and quantitative methods. The fauna in Whetstone Brook

in the control and treatment sections was dominated by chironomids

(Diptera), simuliids (Diptera), Leuctra (Plecoptera) and Hydropsyche

(Trichoptera) in both pretreatment and treatment periods. The

acid-sensitive mayfly genera Epeorus increased during liming in the

treated section of the stream but also declined during the same period in

the control section. Annelida increased during the treatment period in

both sections of the stream. The chironomid and black fly populations were

not affected by liming. The lack of impact to the black fly population was

surprising because larvae are obligate filter-feeders and feed on

suspended seston in the same size range as the limestone slurry that was

used to treat Whetstone Brook. Treatment did not change species diversity

and taxa richness in the treated section of Whetsone Brook, but both

indices declined during the treatment period in the control section of

Whetstone Brook. This decline was attributed to the poorer water quality

of the untreated section of Whetstone Brook during the treatment period,

which was due to higher-than-average precipitation. Percent community

similarity analysis indicated that the community composition changed more

in the treated section of Whetstone Brook than in the control section as a

result of treatment. We conclude that the invertebrate fauna in the

treated section of Whetstone Brook was not negatively affected by liming,

but that population density and diversity did not increase.

Влияние загрязнения на бентос.

Authors: Ferraro-SP Cole-FA

Уровень определения, достаточный для изучения влияния загрязнений для макробентоса Южной Каролины.

Taxonomic Level Sufficient for Assessing Pollution Impacts on the Southern California Bight Macrobenthos - Revisited



Taxonomic sufficiency is the pragmatic concept of

identifying organisms only to the taxonomic level necessary and

sufficient to meet a study's objectives. Sufficient taxonomy was

determined for detecting differences in macrobenthic taxa

richness, a dominance index, and three diversity indices between

a reference and two pollution-impacted stations in the Southern

California Bight using a wide variety of sampling protocols. A

higher taxonomic level was deemed sufficient for a given measure

and sampling protocol if the statistical power of t tests

performed on data grouped to it was essentially the same as that

when tests were performed on data grouped to all lower taxa. The

sufficient taxon for the optimum sampling protocol was phylum

except when assessing biological stimulation based on

differences in mean log(10)(number of taxa) where it was

species. Generic dominance and diversity indices were sufficient

independent of the sample units tested (0.02, 0.06, and 0.1

m(2)) and sample size (n greater than or equal to 2). We

recommend family-level identification of specimens collected

using the optimum sampling protocol when assessing macrobenthic

community impacts in the study area because familial analyses

are very likely to be sufficient. Confounding effects of

sampling variables need to be accounted for when determining the

true cost efficiency of and the underlying reason(s) for the

sufficiency of higher taxonomy.

Стрекозы: биоиндикация пестицидов.

Authors: Takamura-K Hatakeyama-S Shiraishi-H

Title: Odonate Larvae as an Indicator of Pesticide Contamination


1991, Vol 26, Iss 3, pp 321-326

Language: English

Document type: Article




Author keywords:

Odonate Larvae; Pesticide Contamination; River; Rice Field;


Keywords Plus:



The abundance of odonate larvae was surveyed in a river

system at two upstream stations surrounded by rice fields

lacking aerial spraying of pesticides, two midstream stations

surrounded by rice fields with and without aerial spraying, and

four downstream stations surrounded by sprayed fields. Species

diversity and numbers of individuals were much lower at the

downstream stations. Pesticide contamination from ground

spraying occurred at one upstream station as well as one

midstream and all downstream stations. Damage to the odonate

larvae was not clearly evident except at one downstream station.

Damage by the aerially sprayed insecticides seemed appreciable

at the downstream stations. The distribution of odonate larvae

in a river may be restricted by pesticide contamination and thus

can indicate pesticide contamination.

Влияние загрязнений: фосфор.

Authors: Mundie-JH Simpson-KS Perrin-CJ

Title: Responses of Stream Periphyton and Benthic Insects to

Increases in Dissolved Inorganic Phosphorus in a Mesocosm


1991, Vol 48, Iss 11, pp 2061-2072

Language: English

Document type: Article





Keywords Plus:





Responses of stream periphytic algae and benthic insects to

increases in dissolved inorganic phosphorus (P) were assessed in

a streamside mesocosm. Controls and treatments were colonized

continuously in summer by biota from the stream. P was

maintained in the treatments at 10-mu-g.L-1, great-than-or-equal-

to 8 times the concentration in the controls. In the treatments

the biomass of chlorophyll a reached 3.5 times that of the

controls, accompanied by an increase in Cyanophyta relative to

diatoms. No difference was detectable in the numbers of insects

drifting from controls and treatments. Numbers of individuals

emerging (> 40 species) from the treatments over 7 wk were 2.2

times those from the controls. In both controls and treatments,

77% or more of emerging insects were Chironomidae. After week 7

the density of benthic insects in the treatments, determined

without size selection, was 1.75 times that of the controls;

size distributions in treatments and controls were similar.

Addition of P, therefore, increased the food of insects and

resulted in a doubling of their survival to emergence.

Chironomidae, влияние инсектицидов.

Authors: Lugthart-GJ Wallace-JB Huryn-AD

Title: Secondary Production of Chironomid Communities in

Insecticide-Treated and Untreated Headwater Streams


1990, Vol 24, Iss 3, pp 417-427

Language: English

Document type: Article



Keywords Plus:




1. Production of chironomid communities of three first

order, Appalachian Mountain streams was estimated and the

effects of an insecticide-induced disturbance on chironomid

production was examined.

2. Annual production of non-Tanypodinae chironomids in the

streams during the first study year (no treatment) ranged from

1366 to 3636 mg m-2, while production of Tanypodinae chironomids

ranged from 48 to 116 mg m-2. Production/biomass ratios ranged

between 19 and 23 for non-Tanypodinae and from 6 to 7 for

Tanypodinae chironomids.

3. Insecticide applications resulted in significantly

lower chironomid densities and biomass in the treated stream

relative to the pretreatment year and reference stream. Annual

production of non-Tanypodinae (703 mg m-2) and Tanypodinae (32

mg m-2) chironomids in the treated stream decreased by 64% and

67%, respectively, compared with the pretreatment year. In

contrast, production of non-Tanypodinae (2084 mg m-2) increased

by 34% and production of Tanypodinae (96 mg m-2) by 57% in the

reference stream.

Водотоки: влияние загрязнения на бентос

Authors: Wright-IA Chessman-BC Fairweather-PG Benson-LJ

Измерение влияния сточных вод на макробентос речки Верхней - значение таксономической точности определения.

Measuring the Impact of Sewage Effluent on the Macroinvertebrate Community of an Upland Stream - The Effect of Different Levels of Taxonomic Resolution and Quantification

AUSTRALIAN JOURNAL OF ECOLOGY 1995, V.20, Iss 1, pp 142-149


Benthic macroinvertebrates were sampled from four sites on upland streams in the Wentworth Falls area of the Blue Mountains, NSW. One site received effluent from a sewage treatment plant and the others were reference sites. Five replicate collections were taken from each site on four occasions at intervals of 3 months. Macroinvertebrate community data were analysed using univariate (ANOVA) and multivariate (NMDS) techniques and comparisons were made between analyses at different levels of taxonomic aggregation and using different methods of data transformation Similar patterns were observed at both species and family levels, and even the order level showed a clear community response to effluent input. Binary (presence/absence) data provided similar results to quantitative data for the species and family levels. However, when binary data were used at the order level, the distinctions between the reference sites became blurred. We discuss the implications of these findings for environmental monitoring.

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