А той чоловік над нами огризався до людей з натовпу/ сперечався з людьми з натовпу.
На другий же день в супроводі Артура вона приїхала до нього в кареті Морзів.
6) as the indefinite pronoun якийсь (якась, якесь), певний:
10) very often when the noun in the sentence has another attribute the clearly explicit lexical meaning of the definite article remains superflous:
For the moment the great gulf that separated them then was bridged. He was played by'the low comedian, who had introduced
На якусь мить через велику безодню, що розділяла їх, був наведений міст. Його роль виконував такий собі комік з
He lay where he had fallen, and from there he watched the
Він лежав, де впав, і звідти спостерігав за чоловіком у
man in the red sweater. червоному светрі. (J.London)
Here the man in the redsweatermay be translated as той чоловік у червоному светрі but the postpositive attribute у червоному (светрі) has a stronger force of definiteness than the prepositive lexically charged ar\\c\e. As a result, the meaning of the article remains implicit, though strongly felt.
Similarly in the sentence below where the lexically charged definite article is also suppressed by the attributive prepositional noun:
The definite article in the sentence above is substituted for the contextual noun вечори (з танцями) instead of ті танці as in the original sentence.
11) In many a case the definite article may point to thematic functioning of the noun, which is usually signalized by its initial position in the sentence and pointing to the core of the utterance presenting the basic, known already elements in the sentence:
From the first mention of the dance by Mrs. Cowperwood and Anna, Ailen had been conscious of a desire toward a more effective presentation of herself than as yet. (T.Dreiser)
The street lights were fewer now. (J. Steinbeck)
The old man stared at the open door. (Ibid.)
The night was getting colder and more raw all the time. (E. Caldwell)
The dog had gone back to his slow, spiritless barking. (J. Steinbeck)
They silently passed the studio. (J. Fowels)
З першої миті, як місіс Каупервуд та Анна заговорили про вечори з танцями, Ейлен закортіло блиснути (показати себе) ще яскравіше, ніж це їй вдавалося досі.
Лампіонів на вулиці тепер горіло менше.
Старий з острахом дивився на прочинені двері.
А ніч усе холоднішала і ставала щодалі вологішою/ і ставало щодалі вологіше.
Тут собака заходився знову спроквола і неохоче погавкувати.
Повз майстерню вони пройшли мовчки.
noun in the initial position. When translated into Ukrainian, however, the rhematic noun, as has long been noticed1, occupies a terminating position in the sentence/clause (when the utterance is a composite sentence):
There was an old twostorey Того року на Філдінґ Авеню ще
yellow house on Fielding Avenue стояв старий двоповерховий
that year. (W. Saroyan) жовтий будинок.
A dog growled in one of the Коли чоловіки проходили
yards as the men went by. (J. повз один з будинків, у його
Steinbeck) дворі загарчав собака.
A light fog began to drift У повітрі потяглися
through the air, and the stars were легенькі пасма туману, / вони
swallowed in it. (Ibid.) заволокли й поглинули зірки.
A train hooted mournfully, and Тужно загув поїзд, і, обігнув-
in a moment it rounded a bend ши за якусь мить округлий вигін,
and pushed its terrible light down кинув свої страхітливі сліпучі
the track. (Ibid.) пасма світла на колії.
A correct selection of thematic and rhematic nouns, identified by the definite and indefinite articles and by their respective placement in the sentence, facilitates the faithful conveying of the logical sentence perspective in the target language.
REALIZATION OF CONTEXTUAL MEANINGS OF THE INDEFINITE ARTICLE
Strange as it may seem but very often, almost predominantly,
the indefinite article is endowed in speech/text with lexical meanings,
which may coincide with those of different pronouns. The only excep
tion is made for the meaning of the cardinal numeral «one» from which
the indefinite article historically originates. No wonder that the
contextual meanings of the lexically charged indefinite article can
sometimes be, as will be seen further on, quite unexpected. The most
frequent and common of these meanings can be expressed, as has
been mentioned already, in one of the following ways:
1) by the cardinal numeral один (одна, одне):
He said something about а Він тут розповідав щось про
The rheme, the new notional element in the utterance, is more frequently indicated in English by the indefinite article determining the
' See: Бархударов Л.С. Структура простого предложения современного английского язьїка. - М.: «Вьісш. шк.», 1966, p.p. 192-195.
5) As one of the possessive "pronouns (according to their contextual meaning):
6) As the negative pronoun жоден or the negative perticle ані
(when the determined noun is preceded by the negative particle not):
You were not following а Ви не чули жодного слова/
word. ані слова.
Не hadn't a penny. Він не мав жодного пенні
(S. Maugham) (ані пенні).
7) as the relative adjective цілий which is lexically equivalent
in the sentences below to the Ukrainian identifying pronoun весь
8) More common in Ukrainian contextual substitutes for the lexically meaningful indefinite article are, however, different relative adjectives, the most often used being справжній:
9) The contextual meaning of the indefinite article may some-
schooner that's gettin' ready to go одну шхуну, яка готується
off. (O. Wilde) відпливати.
2) In some contexts, however, the indefinite article may acquire
a lexical meaning which corresponds either to the Ukrainian cardinal
numeral один, to the ordinal numeral перший or to the indefinite pronoun
якийсь (якась, якесь). The indefinite article may also mark the rheme
of the utterance as in the sentence: Only for an instant he hesitated,
then his head went up and his hand came off. (J. London) In this
sentence any of the above-given substitutes may be quite faithful,
since the cardinal or ordinal numeral and the indefinite pronoun are
equally fitting in the utterance, which in Ukrainian will have another
Він був у нерішучості (вагався) тільки якусь мить...
Він був у нерішучості (вагався) тільки першу мить...
Він був у нерішучості (вагався) тільки одну мить...
Similarly in the following sentences:
It was only for a moment.Це тривало тільки одну/
(J. London) якусь мить.
3) By the indefinite pronoun якийсь only, without the attendant
meanings of the cardinal or ordinal numerals:
He saw her come down the Він бачив, як вона пройшла
aisle, with Arthur and a strange партером у супроводі Артура і
young man. (J.London) ще якогось незнайомого
Sometimes, when with her, Часом, коли він бував з нею,
she noted an unusual bright- вона помічала якийсь
ness in his eyes, and she liked особливий блиск в його очах,
it. (Ibid.) що подобався їй.
4) when the lexically meaningful indefinite article precedes the
noun under logical stress, it functions as the demonstrative pronoun,
which is translated into Ukrainian as цей, ця, це:
This was his programme for а Це була його програма на
week. (J. London) цей тиждень.
Here was a man who could Ця людина здатна на все -
do anything, was the message ось що вона прочитала в його
she readthere. (Ibid.) погляді.
How can a man write so Як може ця людина (цей
badly?.. (E. Hemingway) чоловік) писати так погано?..
He did not go home immediately, and under the tree, where he kept his vigils, he looked up at a window and murmured. (J. London)
Martin rented a typewriter and spent a day mastering the machine. (J. London)
- (his) day's work was the equivalent to a week's work of the average succesful writer. (Ibid.)
It is sweet to feel that you are really and truly a woman. (Ibid.)
This small sum seemed a fortune. (Ibid.)
Він (Мартін) не рушив зразу додому, а пішов до знайомого дерева, став на звичне місце проти її вікна і прошептав схвильовано.
Коли вона (Рут) повернулася з граматикою, вона присунула свій стілець до його стільця.
Мартін узяв напрокат друкарську машинку і цілий (весь) день вчився друкувати на ній.
...(його) доробок за день дорівнював доробкові якого-небудь модного письменника за цілий тиждень.
Приємно відчувати (себе), що ти є справжньою жінкою.
Ця маленька сума здалася (Мартіну) справжнім (цілим) скарбом.
times be expressed in Ukrainian through different adverbs:
He had the conviction that he У нього було таке переконання,
could sit in a draught if he що він міг сидіти навіть на про-
wanted to. (J. Galsworthy) тязі, якби того захотів...
There is a great difference. Це зовсім різні речі/зовсім
(O.Wilde) інша річ.
The above-given lexical realizations of the determining and identifying functions of the definite and indefinite articles would be incomplete without the illustration of some other meanings, which they may acquire in contextual environment. The choice of the se-mantically fitting substitute for the definite or indefinite article then rests entirely with the translator, who is well acquainted with the text/ work under translation. Since the style of the text may often influence or predetermine the choice of the necessary synonym, care should be taken in order not to neglect the possible ways of expression in Ukrainian either. Thus, the lexical meaning of the indefinite article a in the sentence - I didn't dare show my face at Court for a month. (O. Wilde) - could be faithfully expressed in Ukrainian either through the identifying pronoun весь or by its lexical equivalent at sentence level, which is the relative adjective цілий. But the translator of The Picture of Dorian Gray (R. Dotsenko) has suggested for this particular case a more acceptable contextual version: Я добрий місяць і носа не наважувався показати при дворі.
10) The broader context often predetermines the employment
of lexically equivalent variants which could scarcely ever be offered for
a narrow context. The kind of contextual substitutes can be seen in
the examples below, where Ukrainian demonstrative and other
pronouns, adjectives, numerals, etc., are contextually/semantically
enforced by emphatic or modal particles. Thus, the contextual mean
ing of the indefinite article below is expressed through an adjective
enforced by an emphatic or some other particle or group of particles:
Не seemed to think it a dis- Він вважав це чи не за
tinction. (Ibid.) особливу відзнаку.
11) The contextual meaning of the indefinite article may be ex
pressed through the interrogative or indefinite pronoun also enforced
by some emphatic particles:
- a penniless young fellow, а ...молодик без шеляга за
mere nobody, sir, a subaltern in а душею, - власне ніщо, сер,
foot regiment. усього лишень якийсь
What a lovely day! (La Mure) Який же гарний день!
Note: Apart from the above-cited contextual meanings of the definite and the indefinite articles there may be some other (implicit) meanings of them. Thus, the definite article may sometimes have the following additional realizations in Ukrainian:
a) that of a pronominal word-group of an emphatic force:
I want you to get rid of the Я хочу, щоб ви врешті-решт
dreadful people you're associ- перестали спілкуватися з усіма
ated with. (O. Wilde) тими покидьками.
The identifying definite article may include in its semantic information some specifying function and meaning too:
The Chinamen were already Там уже метушились госпо-
busy in their shops. (Ibid.) дарі китайських крамничок.
Some implicit contextual meanings of the modifying and identifying definite article the can often be given a true and faithful explication i.e. realization in translation only after a thorough study of the broader content as well. Cf.:
After a moment's hesitation, Стрікленд роздумував
Strickland scrambled to his feet, недовго. Випростав затерплі
and together they went to the ноги, і вони вдвох подалися до
Bonchee de Pain. (S. Maug- іншого благодійного
ham) закладу під назвою
The MacAndrews, who were Полковник Мак-Ендрю з
childless and in easy circum- дружиною, бездітні й добре
stances, arranged to undertake забезпечені, взяли на
the care of the children, and Mrs. утримання її дітей, так що місіс
Strickland had only herself to pro- Стрікленд заробляла тільки на
vide for. (Ibid.) себе.
b) Sometimes the article may substitute an implicit identifying/
interrogative pronoun and a particle expressing the contextual mean
ing of the emphatically used noun with the definite article. This can be
seen in the following exclamatory sentence:
The pity of it! The pity of it! Як жаль! Який жаль! А
шкода! Дуже шкода! The picture of contextual realizations of meanings pertained to the determining and identifying articles would be incomplete without some illustrations of their «deep», as one might call them, or interphrasal and superphrasal meanings, which the articles may acquire in some contexts. The interphrasal meaning of the definite or indefinite article may be elicited already from its contextual meaning at the level of the sentence. Cf.:
I looked at her mouth for an Я позирав на її вуста - чи
expression that could give me а не майне там бодай тінь її clue to what she felt. (Maugham) душевного стану.
The meaning of the noun with the indefinite article (an expression) is clearly perceived from the content of the sentence where it may also be substituted for якийсь вираз/хоч якийсь вираз.
More or less transient is also the meaning of the underlined noun with the definite article in the following sentence:
Of the threat she said noth- Власне ж про саму погрозу
ing. (O.Wilde) вона промовчала/не сказала
нічого. In some cases, however, it is next to impossible to translate a noun with the implicit meaning of its identifying or specifying article without an inquiry into the broader context of the whole work, as in the following sentence:
They sent me to Amsterdam Мене вірядили до
to try for a scholarship, and І Амстердама на конкурс, який
won it. (Maugham.) обіцяв стипендію в художній
школі, і я здобув її.
It goes without saying that such a descriptive translation of the noun (a scholarship) could be offered only by a translator well acquainted with the content of the preceding sentences or even of the whole paragraph.
There are, naturally, many more contextual realizations of the lexical meanings, pertaining to the definite and the indefinite articles, which they may acquire in a text/at speech level.
In view of the diversity of possible lexical realizations, which the English articles may have in speech, the student will be warned to employ not only their single word equivalents to express their meanings in Ukrainian. A thorough study of the broader context may sometimes help to find a more fitting substitute for a lexically charged indefinite or
definite article in Ukrainian. Thus, in the sentence He had a face that reminded me of a frog. (W.Lewis) the bold type indefinite article a can not be denied the meaning of the demonstrative pronoun таке. All this must be borne in mind when dealing with the lexically meaningful articles in the sentences of the exercise below. Unfortunately, the restricted space of the manual makes it impossible to give regular passages with the implicit (contextual) meanings of the definite and the indefinite articles.
SUGGESTED TOPICS FOR SELF-TESTING AND CLASS DISCUSSION
The most general contextual realizations of meanings of the nominalizing and emphatic articles. The means of expressing their meanings in Ukrainian.
The most common contextual meanings of the definite article and means of expressing them in Ukrainian.
The most common contextual meanings of the indefinite article and means of expressing them in Ukrainian.
Ways of conveying the rhematic and thematic contextual meanings of the definite and the indefinite articles in Ukrainian.
Other possible contextual meanings of the definite and indefinite articles and means of their expression in Ukrainian.
EXERCISES FOR CLASS AND HOMEWORK
Exercise I. Analyse the sentences and substitute the definite article for an appropriate Ukrainian demonstrative pronoun. Translate the sentences into Ukrainian.
I. This was the man Dorian Gray was waiting for. (O. Wilde) 2. He had met the woman at last - the woman he had thought little about, not being given to thinking about women. (Ibid.) 3. Eight Street Bridge is the place. (J.London) 4. - and at the instant he knew, he ceased to know. (Ibid.) 5. That's the Barney, that has the ugly daughter. (W. Maken) 6. «You've heard of Rancocanty?»- «I'm the man». (G. Byron) 7. «The Mr.Jardyce, sir, whose story I have heard?» (C. Dickens) 8. When she smiled, he saw the Pat he had known, the Pat smiling at him from worn photo, that still lay in the pocket-book against his heart. (J. Lindsay) 9. If I ever saw a man hopelessly hard up it was the man in front of me. (H. Wells) 10.1 was brought up by
my paternal aunt, Miss Frobisher, the Miss Frobisher of the Barton Chapel Case and the Woman's World Humanity movement. (Ibid.)
Exercise II. Substitute the definite article for an appropriate possessive pronoun. Translate the sentences into Ukrainian.
1. He had uttered a mad wish that he himself might remain young, and the portrait grow old - . (O. Wilde) 2. It was his beauty that ruined him, his beauty and the youth that he had prayed for. (Ibid.) 3. «Take the thing off the face. I wish to see it.» (Ibid.) 4.1 know the age better than you do, though you will prate about it so tediously. (Ibid.) 5. The next night, of course, I arrived at the place again. (Ibid.) 6. At last, liveried in the costume of the age, Reality entered the room in the shape of a servant to tell the Duchess that her carriage was waiting. (Ibid.) 7. - and you have often told me that it is personalities, not principles, that move the age. (Ibid.) 8. «He began to talk about the house». (J.Fowles). 9. In England he never quite capitalized on the savage impact, the famous «black sarcasm» of the Spanish drawings. (Ibid.) 10. The friendship, the rapport (взаємовідносини) became comprehensible -. (Ibid.)
Exercise III. Translate the sentences into Ukrainian. Give your reasons for the choice of the indefinite pronoun (or cardinal numeral) to express the lexical meaning of articles.
1. «A Mr. Forsyte to see you, sir». (J. Galsworthy) 2. «By the way, have you any spare clothes you could give the wife of a poor snipe? -. (Ibid.) 3. He was moving slowly on the Bond Street, when a little light lady, coming from the backwater, and reading as she went, ran into him behind. (Ibid.) 4. Haviland looked at him for a moment and then hung up his hat and coat. (M.Wilson) 5. «I saw a Mrs. Danvers on the twelfth floor at two o'clock», he said. (D. du Maurier) 6. There was a woman sitting before the fire. (K.Mansfield) 7. There lay a young man, fast asleep - sleeping so soundly, so deeply, that he was far, far away from them both. (Ibid.) 8. In a few minutes a man came in, and George explained that the cook was sick. (E. Hemingway) 9. «We're going to kill a Swede. Do you know a big Swede named Ole Anderson?» (Ibid.) 10. As he swung, head down, into Talgarth Street he was conscious, suddenly, of a man running. (A. Cronin) 11. «- not to be acquainted with a Jamdyce is queer, ain't it, Miss Flite?» (C. Dickens). 12. Every old gang has a Billy in it. (S. Leacock) 13. «What a fool Rawdon Grawley has been to go and marry a governess!» (W. Thackeray) 14. After a pause Lord Henry pulled out his watch. (O. Wilde) 15. When all that is settled, I shall take a West End theatre and bring her out properly. (O. Wilde) 16. A woman in a fluttering
shawl was creeping slowly by the ratlings, staggering as she went. (Ibid.) 17. At last he heard a step outside, and the door opened. (Ibid.) 18. When a government makes a bad mistake of judgement, the electorate turns against it as soon as it feels the effect. (J. Galsworthy)