Exercise IV. Analyse the sentences below. Identify how the contextual meanings of the bold type articles are realized in Ukrainian (as an identifying pronoun, a relative adjective or any other semantically/contextually suitable word). Translate the sentences into Ukrainian.
1. Desperately he came to a halt in front of one decent picture hanging on the walls. (A. Huxley) 2.1 honestly think if a person's an artist nobody ought to have any feeling at all about meeting him. (D. Parker) 3. Life worried and bored him, and time was a vexation. (J. London) 4. He is a man. (Ibid.) 5. He was over to San Francisco yesterday looking for a ship. (Ibid.) 6. «What's that?» he replied to a question from Olney that broke in upon his train of thought. (Ibid.) 7. «Yes, she is a peacock in everything but beauty», said Lord Henry. (O. Wilde) 8.1 have not laid eyes on him for a week. (Ibid.) 9. They are always telling that it (America) is the Paradise for women. (Ibid.) 10. Were people to gape at the mystery of his life? (Ibid.) 11. «An eternity», she tells me... (Ibid.) 12. There is hardly a single person in the House of Commons worth painting - . (Ibid.) 13.1 want to place her on a pedestal of gold, and to see the world worship the woman who is mine. (Ibid.) 14. Then he discovered Henley and wrote a series of sea-poems on the model of Hospital Sketches. (J. London) 15. For a generation ... the Old Hundredth (night club) has maintained a solid front against all adversity. (F. Fitzgerald) 16. So when a young man at the office suggested that we take a house together in a commuting town, it sounded like a great idea. (Ibid.) 17. «You can tell me the truth without giving me any of that lip.»(W. Saroyan)
Exercise V. Substitute the articles in bold type for the appropriate particles (вже, навіть, просто, саме, таки, ще, etc.). Translate the sentences into Ukrainian.
1.1 believe some pictures of mine had made a real success at the time... (O. Wilde) 2. It was the passions about whose origin we deceived ourselves that tyrannised most strongly over us. (Ibid.) 3. You are the type the age is searching for -. (Ibid.) 4. It seems to be the one thing that can make modern life mysterious or marvellous to us. (Ibid.) 5. Conscience is the trade-name of the firm. (Ibid.) 6. «You are the one man in the world who is entitled to know everything about me -. (Ibid.) 7. «Years ago, when I was a boy», said Dorian Gray - .
(Ibid.) 8. The verythought of it stirs me. (J. London) 9. - when that was over and he had failed to kill his loneliness but only made it worse, he had written to her, the first one, the one who left him. (E. Hemingway)
10. «I suppose, it's the thing to do», Macomber agreed. (Ibid.)
11. «She went into a house-» «Intoahouse!» Michael dived his ciga
rette-case. (J. Galsworthy) 12. -1 have this coloured laundress. She is
a real character. (D. Parker) 13. - He says he wouldn't sit down at the
table with one (Negro) for a million dollars. (Ibid.) 14. She is more than
an individual. (O. Wilde) 15. «That's better», the sheriff said. «That's a
civil answer». (W. Saroyan) 16. «You should go and see Claud Brains.
He's a real genius». (J. Galsworthy) 17.1 have no doubt it was not an
accident, Dorian. (O. Wilde) 18. What a girl! (T.Dreiser) 19. ... «but I
shall have to ask them what the name of the country is, you know»
(L. Carroll) 20. It sounded an excellent plan, no doubt, and very neatly
and simply arranged. (Ibid.) 21. That will be a queer thing, to be sure!
(Ibid.) 22. «Ah, that's the great puzzle!» (Ibid.) 23. «What a curious
feeling»! said Alice. 24. Either the well was very deep, or she fell very
Exercise VI. Point out the difference in the lexical meaning expressed by the indefinite and the definite articles signalizing respectively the rheme and theme in the sentences below. Pay attention to the place which the rhematic and thematic nouns occupy in their Ukrainian variants.
1. As he passed the bronze statue of the Four Moors a man's figure emerged from an old house on the opposite side of the shipping basin. 2. The man approached unsteadily along the water side, shouting an English song. (E.Voynich) 3. As they passed by the gateway of the Uffizi, he crossed the road and stooped down at a dark bundle that was lying against the railings. (Ibid.) 4. The bundle moved, and answered something in a low, moaning voice. (Ibid.) 5. «What a fool Rawdon Crawley has been to go and marry a governess!» (W.Thackeray) 6. «But there was something about the governess too. Green eyes, fair skin, pretty figure». (Ibid.) 7. It was as John had said - he and she just wanted to live and the past was in their way - a past they had not shared in, and did not understand. (J.K.Jerome) 8. I've written a lot of them (his sayings) down in a book for fear of losing them. 9. It is only fair that at the back of the book I would be allowed a few pages to myself to put down some things (Ibid.) 10. It was an early morning of a sunny day. (Ibid.) 11. He remembered suddenly the early morning when he slept on
the house-boat after his father died - .-(J.Galsworthy) 12. He wrote a pamphlet on Malt on returning to England - . (Ibid.) 13. She ... took an interest in the pamphlet on Malt: was often affected, even to tears. (Ibid.) 14. There came a morning at the end of September when aunt Ann was unable to take from Smither's hands the insignia of personal dignity. (Ibid.) 15. The morning after a certain night on which Soames at last asserted his rights and acted like a man he breakfasted alone. (J.Galsworthy)
ASYNDETIC NOUN CLUSTERS AND RENDERING THEIR MEANING INTO UKRAINIAN
Present-day English abounds in asyndetic noun clusters which are very often used in newspaper and scientific matter/texts. They are word-groups consisting of two, three or more nouns (functionally equivalent to word-groups) like yarn production, yarn production figures; the House of Commons debate; mother and child care. New Deal and Great Society programs,'
Irrespective of the number of components in these clusters or their structure, they are always in subordinate relation to each other, i.e., they function as adjunct (attributive component) and head (nucleus). The former occupies the left-hand (initial) position and the latter - the right-hand (closing) position in the cluster. The subordinate relation between the parts of the binary asyndetic substantival cluster can be graphically presented as follows: yarn -> production, the House of Commons -» debate, mother and child -> care, cotton yarn -* production, New Deal and Great Society -> programs.
In many such and the like noun clusters the head components may have a compound noun or a word-group structure too: Sahara -> oilwells, US ~> open tennis champions, The placement of head may be reverse: Stormont-t a Social Democratic and Labour Party MP. Many asyndetic noun clusters have often extended adjuncts and extended/expanded heads as in examples Upper Clyde Shipbuilders -> shop stewards; Noise Advisory Council -> working group representative; the Suez Canal Zone base -> agreement negotiations.
The semantic interrelation between the componental parts in asyndetic noun clusters may often be rather complicated.
1 The illustrative examples of asyndetic noun clusters on this and on the forthcoming pages have been picked up in British and American papers: The Guardian, Financial Times, USA Today, from The Time magazine and others.
So is the structural complexity of many asyndetic substantival clusters, which may make their identification as two-, three-, four-, etc. componental word-group uncertain. In other words, a difficulty may arise as to how the asyndetic clusters should be treated - as the NN, NNN, or NNNN, etc. word-groups. This is of importance not so much for the allotment of a substantival cluster, which can partly be seen from the following examples: wage increase підвищення заробітної платні/зарплати; 10per cent wage increase підвищення зарплати на 10% or десяти відсоткове підвищення зарплатні; US policy політика США; US foreign policy зовнішня політика США; the House of Commons debate дебати в палаті громад; the recent House of Commons debate недавні/останні дебати в палаті громад.
The adjectival components, therefore, can extend the asyndetic noun cluster and change the starting point of their translation without changing in any way their asyndetic nature. Neither do they change the quantitative correlation of noun components in the clusters. Thus, the House of Commons debate, the Scottish Leage Cup-tie, the US foreign policy, etc. are two-componental NN-type asyndetic substantival clusters. Proceeding from this, the components like North-West, the U.S.A., the U.K., Long Kesh and the like are to be treated as single heads or single adjuncts, since they function as a single Ncomound orNabbreviaiec/Nproper'etc- Hence, the word-groups, as these belowTare three-componental only: the Long Kesh concentration camp (N ro. +NN), the US foreign policy statement (Nabbrev+ AN+N).
It goes without saying that each lexeme in the asyndetic substantival clusters adds some new meaning to its general semantic structure. Hence, the more lexemes the cluster consists of, the more unlike the other ways of approach to its translating there may be.
APPROACHES TO TRANSLATING ASYNDETIC SUBSTANTIVAL CLUSTERS
As has been pointed out, there may be various approaches to rendering the lexical meaning of asyndetic substantival clusters. These approaches are predetermined by the following main factors: 1) by the number of nouns making up the cluster; 2) by the structure of the adjunct and head (or both these components); 3) by the semantic relations between the constituent parts of the asyndetic substantival cluster which may be local, temporal and others by nature; 4) by the presence or absense of the preceding adjective, participle, possessive pronoun or ordinal numeral.
Besides, a quick and correct rendering of meaning of any type of asyndetic substantival clusters mostly depends on the choice of the right component (or its part) from which the translation has to be started.
TRANSLATION OF TWO-COMPONENTAL ASYNDETIC SUBSTANTIVAL CLUSTERS
There can be suggested some ways of faithful translation of asyndetic noun/substantival clusters into Ukrainian. Each of these ways may be predetermined by one of the following three factors: 1) by the lexical meaning of the component parts; 2) by their structural form and 3) by the meaning of the cluster as a whole. Hence, translation of two componental asyndetic NN-structure clusters may start:
with the head noun: board members члени правління; economy regime режим економії; policy change зміна політики; payment imbalance нестійкість/незбалансованість платежів;
beginning with the adjunct (functioning as an adjective) or with the head (functioning as a noun): dinner-timebreakобідня перерва/перерва на обід; schoolreformшкільна реформа/реформа школи; studentgroupsстудентські групи/групи студентів; currencyreformгрошова реформа/реформа грошової системи; liberationmovementвизвольний рух/рух за визволення.
The number of thus translated asyndetic substantival word-groups in present-day English is considerable. Having often a dual meaning and nature, some Nadjuncts may be treated both as A+N- and as N+N-components of asyndetic substantival clusters.
Of similar nature are also the substantival clusters with prefixed adjuncts which are translated, as a rule, beginning with the head noun that is mostly characteristic of the NN-type asyndetic noun clusters: anti-apartheid legislation законодавчі акти/закони про заборону апартеїду, anti-trade union act закон (спрямований) проти профспілок; non-smoker compartment купе для некурящих/для некурців.
3) the meaning of some asyndetic substantival clusters with
compound adjuncts can be rendered into Ukrainian in a descriptive
way as well: nine-men defence захист із 9 гравців (спорт); two-thirds
majority більшість у дві третіх голосів; top-drawer family родина,
що вдягається у дорогу одіж; the under-16 country match матч
сільських спортсменів віком до 16 років. Some adjuncts of asyndetic
noun clusters often have a composite structure. They may consist of
words belonging to different parts of speech which constitute either a
regular phrase/word-group or a hyphenated conglomeration of words. This kind of word-groups are usually translated in a descriptive way too: the lame duck policy невдала/збанкрутіла політика; dead ball situations ситуації, за яких м'яч команді не зараховується; rob Peter and pay Paul policy політика виплати одній категорії населення за рахунок пограбування іншої; Manchster -travel-to-workarea район Манчестера, звідки дістаються на роботу комунальним транспортом.
Asyndetic substantival clusters of the NN-, NNN-, etc. structure are often preceded by adjectives, participles, bahuvrihi formations, pronouns, numerals, etc., used in the function of attributes. They usually form with the N/NN components distinct sense units, which may often predetermine the way of approach to the translation of clusters. For example, in the substantival clusters as final press conference, English amateur champion, London cab drivers, striking mine workersXhe attributive (adjectival) components modify the NN head components forming with them word-groups of the A+NN structure. In examples like a Democratic Party member, the Tory Government policy, toxic action results the attributive components form close sense units of the AN+N structure with the head noun. This structure of the word-group, i.e., of the asyndentic noun cluster, and the semantic interrelation between its components predetermines the choice of the approach to translating it. As a result, the meaning of the A+NN-type substantival clusters can be rendered into Ukrainian by the following main approaches:
beginning with the initial adjective after which the head noun and its adjunct noun is translated in succession: English amateur champion англійський чемпіон-непрофесіонал; leading world jockeys провідні (найкращі) жокеї світу; public protest meeting загальні збори/мітинг1 протесту; junior hospital staff молодший медперсонал лікарні; British health service англійська служба охорони здоров'я/ служба охорони здоров'я Великої Британії;
beginning with the adjective after which the adjacent to it following noun (adjunct) and then the head noun is translated in succession: finalpressconferenceзаключна пресконференція; Londoncabdriversлондонські кебмени/таксисти; Яоуа/Sna/cespeare com/илуКоролівська шекспірівська трупа; six-weeksummerholidayпівторамісячна літня відпустка; majorautumncampaignголовна осіння кампанія; London undergroud tunnels лондонські підземні тунелі;
a considerable number of lexically transparent asyndetic substantival clusters of the A+NN-type are translated in reverse order,
i.e., beginning with the head noun after which the attributive component and the adjunct noun are translated in succession. The choice of this approach of translating the A+NN-type asyndetic substantival clusters becomes possible due to the existence in Ukrainian of identical semantic units formed with somewhat different grammatical means: European Cup-winners Cup кубок еропейських володарів кубків; Local authority staff працівники місцевих органів влади;
4) some asyndetic clusters of the type may be semantically condensed. As a result, more words are needed in the target language to render their meaning, i.e., they are to be translated in a descriptive way: Royal Berkshire polo ground (королівський) стадіон у Беркширі для гри вершників у поло ; London Evening News лондонська вечірня газета «Івнінґ ньюз»; Royal Air Force військовоповітряні сили Великої Британії. The A+NN asyndetic substantival clusters may sometimes be translated in two ways:
by preserving the componental structure of the English word-group;
by transforming the initial adjective into a noun and changing the order of components: Maltese NATO base 1) мальтійська військова база НАТО; 2) натівська військова база на Мальті; 3) військова база НАТО на Мальті.
Much simpler is the approach to translating the AN+N-type of asyndetic noun clusters in which the initial adjective (A) and the following adjunct noun form a sense unit of their own. The AN-type sense unit functions as a syntactically and semantically single attributive component to the head noun. Translation of the AN+N type asyndetic substantival clusters predominantly starts with the head noun, after which the attributive component and then the adjunct noun is translated in succession: the Republican Party candidate кандидат у президенти від республіканської партії США; toxic action results наслідки токсичної дії (інтоксикації); dense fog patches пасма/латки густого туману; British Lion film фільм англійської кінокомпанії «Брітіш Лаєн»; human resources planning планування людських резервів.
As has been already mentioned, some attributive components in English are of dual nature (cf. cannon ball, speech sound). As a result, they can be conveyed either as relative adjectives or as nouns: Labour Government policy політика лейбористського уряду/політика уряду лейбористів; London district chairman голова лондонського окружної ради/голова окружної ради Лондона; salary structure design проект реструктуризації/впорядкування зарплатні.
A number of AN+N-type asyndetic substantival clusters are
translated in a descriptive way too. It becomes necessary when the asyndetic noun cluster is used to denote a specifically British/American feature/specific national notion, which needs an explanation in the target language: Civil disobedience campaign кампанія громадянської непокори (кампанія протесту населення Північної Ірландії проти дискримінаційної політики англійської уряду супроти/ проти католицької меншини); Industrial Relations Act закон про взаємовідносини в промисловості (закон косерваторів, яким обмежувалось право на страйки).
Two-componental asyndetic substantival clusters may often have other than AN+N or AN+NN-type structure of their constituents. These may be of the N+AN, or A+AN+N/AN configuration. The approach to their translating may consequently vary to some extent as well. The asyndetic clusters with the N+AN structure of their componetns may be translated in the following ways:
beginning with the AN head sense unit: US military bases військові бази США; NATO nuclear weapons атомна зброя (країн) HATO; UN General Assembly Генеральна Асамблея ООН.
A similar approach should be employed when dealing with the N+AN or N+QN/N+VingN structure substantival clusters with the initial proper names components. This is observed in the following word-groups: the Avior Airline general тападеггенеральний директор авіакомпанії «Авіор ерлайн»; New Times editorial staffредакційні працівники (журналу) «Нью-Таймз»; Burnt Oak public //Ьга/у публічна бібліотека (в Бернт Оуці). This type of asyndetic substantival clusters can be translated beginning with the initial noun which turns in the target language into an adjective: the Opposition Liberal Party опозиційна ліберальна партія; world public opinion світова громадська думка.
Other approaches to rendering the meaning of similar type N+AN asyndetic substantival clusters are not excluded either. Thus, the Burnt Oak public library may also be translated as Бернтоукська публічна бібліотека; Shakespeare Memorial Theatre as шекспірівський/театр ім.Шекспіра (у Стратфорді).
It goes without saying that the descriptive way of translating is preferred, when the asyndetic noun cluster is used out of context: finance overhaul billЗаконопроект про перевірку надходжень коштів на фінансування передвиборчої кампанії претендентів на пост президента США; the Wednesday black belt пояс повного затемнення сонця в середу.
Extensively exemplified in the-newspaper and scientific matter speech styles of present-day English are also A+AN+N-type asyndetic substantival clusters with preceding adjectival, participial and other modifiers in the function of attributes. To render their meaning into Ukrainian, different approaches are employed, each being predetermined by the semantic correlation between the componental elements in the target language equivalent of the asyndetic noun cluster. Among the approaches the following are most frequent:
starting with the head noun, proceeding to the adjunct (AN) unit and concluding with the adjunct noun: major Western states interests інтереси провідних західних держав; the ten-kilometre international road race міжнародні змагання з бігу на 10-кілометрову дистанцію;
starting with the initial adjective or participle, proceeding to the head noun and concluding with the adjunct (AN) unit: thrilling second round replay захоплююча повторна гра другого кола; efficient public transport system рентабельна система комунального транспорту;
starting with the head noun (which may also be a sense unit), proceeding in a reverse order of components to the sense unit with the adjunct noun and concluding with the initial adjective, which becomes a noun in Ukrainian: Scottish Labour Party resolution резолюція лейбористської партії Шотландії; the Chechen fighters activities дії чеченських бойовиків;
descriptive translating can also be resorted to when dealing with this type of asyndetic substantival clusters: International Social Security Association міжнародна Асоціація (з питань) соціального забезпечення.
Two-componental AN+AN-type asyndetic substantival clusters, irrespective of the structural forms of A or N components, are predominantly translated starting with the head (AN sense unit). The A(djective) component of the head sense unit becomes usually the starting point: Big Business multi-national firms багатонаціональні фірми великого бізнесу; First Aid Nursing Yeomanry корпус медсестер швидкої допомоги; Old Age Pensioners Joint Committee спільна комісія/ комітет пенсіонерів за віком.
The descriptive way of conveying the sense of AN+AN-type asyndetic substantival clusters may often become necessary to avoid ambiguity or in order to explain some national specific notions as in the examples Labour Party Young Socialists молоді соціалісти, члени молодіжної організації лейбористської партії; living fire central
heating центральне опалення методом постійного підтримання вогню/підігріву or методом постійного підігрівання.
Since the relative adjective and the noun in English has often the same orthographic form, it may sometimes be difficult to distinguish them at first sight as in the case with the world in the cluster The Next World Esperanto Congress. Here the word world may mean both світ and світовий. Because of this, the translation of the cluster will have two faithful variants in Ukrainian: 1. наступний з'їзд есперантистів світу, 2. наступний всесвітній з'їзд есперантистів.