Exercise I. Translating the sentences into Ukrainian state the meaning of the modal verb to be toin each of them.
1. «Is he to take it that everything is O.K.?» (Salinger) 2.1 was to catch them and hand them over to her. (C.Lewis) 3. «There is only one thing to be done.» (Cronin) 4. We made a list of things to be taken. (J.K.Jerome) 5. «If I were to marry Guilliandum, the Church would never stand for it.» (J.Fowles) 6. But all his meals were to be taken outside his working hours and he was to report promptly in uniform for line-up and inspection by his superior... 7. This daughter of poverty, who was now to fetch and carry the laundry of this citizen, was a creature of a mellowness of temperament. 8. They were to be seen upon the principal streets of Kansas City flitting to and fro like flies. 9.... he was to be held back by any suggestion which his mother could now make. 10. She could give him seventy five dollars cash in hand, the other forty to be paid in one week's time. 11. Anything to be as carefully concealed as possible. 12. ...they were to be turned over to Clyde with the suggestion that he try them. 13. But Clyde, in spite of this honest and well-meant condition, was not to be dissuaded. 14.... there had been a development which was to be effected by this very decision on the part of the Griffiths. 15. And yet, if the problem were on this account to be shifted to him, how would he make out? 16. From this Clyde wondered how long he was to be left in that dim world below the stairs. 17.... there was to be staged on June twentieth the annual intercity automobiling floral parade and contest, which this year was to be held in Lycurgus and which was the last local social affair of any consequence. 18. Plainly, it was an event to be admitted to the presence of such magnificence. (Dreiser) 19. The polling stations were to have been closed at 8 p.m. (News from Ukraine)
6. The modal verb ought tolike the modal verb should expresses moral obligation, presupposition, desirability, advisability and some other meanings. Its meaning in Ukrainian is mostly very close
to that of the stative треба or modal verb слід, the modal word потрібно. which can be seen from the following sentences:
«Oh, I've forgotten, I ought to have asked Iris about her cook.» (F.King)
He ought never to have given it (the flute) up. (Galswothy)
«Every man ought to be married.» (Hemingway)
«О, а я й забув: я ж мав/ повинен був запитати Айріс про її кухарку.»
Йому нізащо не треба було кидати гру (на флейті).
«Кожному чоловікові слід/ потрібно одружуватись.»
As can be understood from the content of the third sentence, the meaning of ought tomay equally be expressed through the modal word необхідно: Кожному чоловікові необхідно or потрібно одружуватись.
b) The content of the sentence may often display a still stronger meaning of the modal verb ought to. which corresponds to that of the modal verbs повинен, мати, мусити:
« We're going to Greece...» «Ми їдемо до Греції.» «Зараз
« You ought to know that you can't have to steal.» (J.Cheever)
прекрасно в цю пору року»
«Ти повинен/мусиш знати, що красти не можна.»
с) Apart from the above-mentioned, the modal verb ought to may acquire some other meanings in different contextual environments. These may be as follows:
1) that of the assumptive duty or obligation, necessity, assumption, which is expressed in Ukrainian through the particles 6/ би, щоб and the corresponding infinitive of the verbal predicate or subordinate clause:
«You ought to be working now.» (J.Joyce)
By this time it ought to have been over. (Christie)
I don't think she ought to be in that place alone. (Galsworthy)
«Ти ж повинен би працювати/ мав би бути на роботі зараз.»
На цей час/під цю пору все мало б давно вже скінчитися.
Не думаю (навряд чи), щоб вона була там сама.
2) The conditional subjunctive meaning expressed through the particles б/би and the notional finite verb without the subordinate conjunctions якби or якщо б, as in the following examples:
«You ought to have seen her «Бачили б ви його в її
tie he had on.» (Dreiser) краватці»Л~реба було бачити
«God. You ought to hear «Боже. Чула б ти, що про
Walter on the subject of you.» тебе каже/говорить Волтер.» (Fitzgerald)
3) When ought toexpresses desire or affirmation, assump
tion, its modal meaning is rendered into Ukrainian through the modal
adverbs and modal words певне, напевне, мабуть:
«She ought to have been «Вона мабуть/певне no-
thinking about spending her думує вже про те, як потра-
money on theatres already ...» тити своїгрошіна театр"(на
(Dreiser) відвідування вистав).
«She's said to be very beauti- «Люди, які напевне/мабуть-
4) The meaning of the modal verb ought tomay sometimes be
rendered into Ukrainian through peculiar word forms (mood forms) of
the verbal predicate as in the sentence below:
«If you're a poor driver, you «Якщо ти поганий водій/
oughtn't to try driving at night.» шофер, то не їздь (не треба
(Fitzgerald) їздити/уникай їзди) вночі.»
Some other contextual realizations of the modal meanings pertained to ought toare not excluded either, which can be seen from the English sentences of the exercise that follows.
Exercise I. Offer faithful Ukrainian equivalents for the meanings of the modal verb ought toin the sentences below and translate these sentences into Ukrainian.
1. «Someone ought to go for the police.» 2. «Well, I think you ought to send it to her.» (Maugham) 3. «We don't think you ought to let him, dear.» 4. «Well, I think we ought to be starting ...» 5. «She ought to be very happy.» (Galsworthy) 6. «It is her birthday and she ought to have first choice.» (J.Priestley) 7. «We ought to make terms with him.» 8. «You ought to take care of yourself.» (Galsworthy)
9. «A strong party ought instantly to be thrown into the block-house.»
10. «Have I said anything I oughtn't?» asked Harvey Birch. 11. «You
think I.ought to have thrown White to the wolves?» (J.F.Cooper)
12. But I was wondering whether I ought to be getting back. 13.... he
ought at least to be violently attacked by some party within it.
14. «You ought to be ashamed of yourself...» (C.Lewis) 15. «It ought to be better out in the country than in Town.» (Hemingway) 16. «That ought to be a beauty.» (Bates) 17. «He says so and he ought to know,» was the answer. 18. «You ought to care,» she answered with blazing eyes. (London) 19. «You ought to know all about statues and things.» 20. «He ought to have put a spoke in the wheel of their marriage.» (Galsworthy) 21. «You ought to ask for a transfer to a more civilized school,» Leslie said. (I.Shaw) 22. «You ought to see the baby.» 23. «You ought to live in California,» began Miss Baker. 24. «Either you ought to be more eyeful, or you oughtn't to drive at all.» (Fitzgerald) 25. Life ought to be lived, as he lived it... 26. «Well, she ought to know bettter than to want to go out alone.» 27.... he ought not to be compelled to continue at this very manual form of work any longer. (Dreiser)
7. The modal verb needis known to have two forms of realization, e.g., that of a defective verb and that of a regular verb with modal meaning. The double morphological nature of need does not influence in any way its lexical meaning, which remains in both cases identical. Hence, when used in its paradigmatic forms with the personal endings or with the auxiliary verb do/doesand the infinitive with the particle to, the verb needis translated in quite the same way as its defective form in the present or past tense, always maintaining the meaning of треба, потрібно, необхідно. This can be seen from the following illustrative sentences:
a) «That needs a bit of think- «Над цим треба ще трохи
ing.» (Christie) подумати.»
«He need say no more to her.» «Йому не треба більше їй
(Ibid.) нічого казати.»
«May I ask you to take care «Можна попрохати тебе
of me?» «I didn't need any ask- заступитися за мене?» «Не
ing.» (E. Wharton) треба прохати мене.»
The meaning of the modal verb need may be rendered in the last sentence implicitly, i.e., by employing semantic transformation:
Нічого/нема чого прохати мене.
b) Similar semantic transformations are observed when rendering the meaning of resolute/negative advice or indignation:
«Why need we defend it?» «Навішо/чого ие нам захи-
(Maugham) щати це?»
« You need not worry about it.» « Тобі нічого турбуватись
(ibid.) про це.»
с) There may be other contextual meanings equivalents of the modal verb need as in the sentence below where its Ukrainian equivalent is the modal verb бути повинним/мусити.
« Well, nobody needn 't know «Але ніхто не повинен будь-
about it...» (W.Jacobs) що знати про це.»
The meaning of need in this sentence may also be expressed with the help of prosodic means (intonation and stress): «Тільки щоб 'ніхто не 'знав про це.»
Exercise I. Identify the meaning of the verb needin fhe sentences below and translate them into Ukrainian.
1. «We don't need anything else.» 2. «You needn't have to bring your umbrella, Sugar Boy, as we are going by car.» 3. «He need say no more to her this evening.» (R.Warren) 4. «Boys of your age need to sleep the clock round.» (Snow) 5. «I don't think you need be afraid of that.» (Maugham) 6. «You need not come before tea.» (Ibid.) 7. «You are in a condition in which you will shortly need care and attention.» (Ibid.) 8. «You need not worry about that.» (Voynich) 9. Then for a flight to Italy ... people needed pasports to get abroad. (Hailey) 10. «Let's take your car... Then I needn't get mine out of the garage.» (F.King) 11. «You need not be afraid.» (Wilde) 12. «You needn't trouble. It's here.» (Greene) 13. «More, I shall send you at all times that you need.» (O.Henry) 14. «As a matter of fact you needn't ascertain.» 15.... the chauffeur asked him if he needed help, but he shook bis head. (Fitzgerald) 16. «You needn't bother about coming up, Manson...» (Cronin) 17. «You want my professional opinion ... that what you need is sea air.» (Christie) 18. She said, «Need we go to the club?» (Greene) 19. «I'm sorry. You needn't be. It's not you, kid.» (Ibid.) 20. His presence in Columbus was due to the fact that his political fences needed careful repairing. 21. Hence, only twenty-five cents need to be returned to the man. (Dreiser) 22. «You needn't be in such a fright, take my arm.» (B.Shaw) 23.1 need hardly say I would do anything in the world to ensure Gwendolen's happiness. (Wilde) 24. To achieve long-term capital growth, you need foresight and selectivity. (The Economist). 25. «... I don't think you need translate it.» (Galsworthy)
both as a modal verb and as a regular finite verb with all its paradigmatic forms. The lexical meaning of the verb, however, remains unchanged and corresponds to the Ukrainian verbs сміти, наважуватися/відважуватися, насмілюватися.
The verb dareis mostly translated into Ukrainian as сміти, насмілюватися. For example:
She daren't come here when І Вона не сміла/насмілювалася
was alone. (V. Pritchett) заходити сюди, коли я був сам.
When in its non-modal formal meaning, the verb dareis translated with the help of these same Ukrainian verbs:
He longed to read his stories Йому дуже кортіло прочитати
to Ruth but he did not dare. (Lon- свої оповідання Рут, але він не
don) наважувався/не насмілювався.
In colloquial English the verb dareis often used either in a phrase form or as a composite word with the verb say dare say/ daresay.
«Most people would say so.» «Більшість так сказали б.»
«І dare/say they would.» «Вважаю/гадаю, що ска-
(Christie) зали б.»
The verb daresay in the last sentence may also have the meaning насмілюватися, сміти, наважуватися/відважуватися. Hence, a correct translation depending on its contextual environment may also be «Наважуваюсь/відважуюсь, стверджувати, що сказали б».
The meaning of dare say/daresay in Ukrainian may be conveyed, therefore, as вважаю, допускаю, цілком імовірно, смію сказати, не без того, щоб; наважуся сказати/ стверджувати, etc. Besides, the verb dare is often used to express indignation as in the following sentences:
The above-mentioned and other meanings of both the modal form and the regular finite form of the verb dare/daresayare to be found in the sentences cited in the exercise below.
Exercise II. Identify fhe meanings of the verb dare/daresay in the given sentences and translate them info English.
1. «How dare she come here!» cried Davidson indignantly. 2. «I simply dared not think what he meant.» 3. «I dare say you'd like to think it over a little.» 4. «I dressed in a hurry I dare say.» 5. «I dare say there's a great deal about human nature that I don't know.» (Maugham) 6. «I dare say he'll be happy enough.» 7. «I dare say he'll make a very good husband,» saidTarrell patronizingly. (W.Jacobs) 8. «Dare not say that man forgets sooner than woman». (J.Austen) 9. No conquistador dared to move without a royal licence. (J.Heming) 10. «How dare he say such a thing?» (B.Shaw) 11. He dared not go near Ruth's neighbourhood next in the day time. (London). 12. He did not dare to travel after dark. (London) 13. «I dare not be alone at night.» (Voynich) 14. Margaret did not dare to define her feeling. (Gaskell)
ENGLISH MODAL VERBS HAVING NOT ALWAYS MODAL VERBS EQUIVALENTS IN UKRAINIAN
Apart from the aforementioned there are four more modal verbs in English, which practically lack direct lexical equivalents in Ukrainian. These modal verbs are: shall, will, wouldand partly should, the latter being only historically the past form of shall, which, like the modal verb will and would, may sometimes have implicit meanings but lacking explicit lexical equivalents in Ukrainian. This is partly explained by the complicated nature of shall, will, would and should, which mostly combine their modal meanings with that of the auxiliary one, pertained to some of these verbs.
A. Shallin its modal meaning is most of all used with the second and third persons plural and sometimes (though mostly in interrogative sentences) with the first person singular and plural. Depending on the intention of the speaker, the modal verb shall may express in combination with the notional infinitive the following main meanings:
1. Will or intention which can be conveyed in Ukrainian either with the help of the verb хотіти or through the logical stress on the verb that implicitly expresses this meaning plus the corresponding intonation (prosodic means) of the sentence. Cf.:
«Shall Itell you how I felt as а «Розповісти вам, як я,
mate of my high school stu- дорослий, почувався учнем в
dents ?» (С. Schimmels) одному з коледжів ?»
The principal clause shall I tell'in this sentence has the implicit
contextual meaning corresponding to the Ukrainian «Хочете/ бажаєте, щоб я розповів вам...?»
A similar meaning of wish or will of the person addressed has the modal verb shaWwith the infinitive in the following sentence:
serve?» said Doris. (Maugham) «Допомогти (вам) ?» - запитала Доріс.
Shall I serve? can also be translated as Хочете/бажаєте, щоб я допомогла? or Треба/потрібно моєї допомоги?
The modal meaning of the verb shallmay often incorporate some
other meanings inherent in the lexical meaning of the infinitive with
which it is used. Hence, different explicit variants may sometimes be
suggested in the target language for one and the same modal word-
group. The modal verb shaWwith the infinitive may also express in the
simple or composite sentences some other meanings:
2. Promise or promised assurance, consent:
«You shall entertain as much«... Запевняю, ти будеш і
as you please.» (B.Shaw) далі розважатися, як твоя
«Shall we say four pounds а «Погодишся (працювати)
week?» (D.Lessing) за чотири фунти за
3. Warning, threat or resolute demand which is usually conveyed in Ukrainian through the imperative verb forms. Cf.:
«I shall want your account of «Вимагаю звіту про те, як
how this happened.» (B.Shaw) ви таке допустили.»
«You shall not have it - not «Ніколи - ніколи ти цього
ever. I will take care of that.» не матимеш. Це вже я про це
4. Compulsion, obligation, order or demand (both in simple and composite sentences), which is also often conveyed through the imperative mood forms of the Ukrainian verb:
«You shall not run away before «He втечеш, доки не
hour in my house. Get out!» тут не бачив. Геть звідси!» (Dreiser)
The modal verb shall, expressing compulsion or obligation according to law or a prearranged agreement, is mostly used in texts of different regulations, proclamations, charters, treaties, contracts, etc. The verb s/ia//forms with the infinitive a sense unit, which is conveyed in Ukrainian through the verb-predicate forming a logical centre in the sentence. For example:
The General Assembly shall Збори всіх членів Організації'
consist of all the Members of the Об'єднаних Націй створюють United Nations. (Charter of the Генеральну Асамблею. United Nations)
The Journal of the General As- Вісник Генеральної Асамблеї
sembly shall be used in the OOH публікується робочими
working languages. (Ibid.) мовами.
It should be added in conclusion that in other cases the use of the modal verb shall is restricted to formal or even archaic speech style. In some context the meaning of shall may coincide with that of the modal verb dare as in the following sentence:
«After such a picturesque love «Після такої колоритної
affair in high society, who shall say любовної пригоди у вищому that romance is dead?» (Dreiser) світі хто наважиться сказати.
що романтика вмерла ?» В. Willas a modal verb together with the infinitive, with which it forms a word-group, may also express different meanings, the main of which are volition, insistence, determination, intention. The modal verb willis used with all persons in singular and plural, never losing its auxiliary function (to express the future tense). In a number of cases the modal meanings of will may coincide with those expressed by its past form would. As a result, their lexical equivalents in Ukrainian may be close or even identical as well.
The modal verb willmay be endowed in different contextual environment with various meanings, the main of them being the following:
1. Volition, demand or assurance which is expressed in Ukrainian through the corresponding verb, stative or logical/emphatic stress:
«I will not have these repeated «Яне хочу/меніне треба, щоб
scenes within hearing of the serv- розігрувались ці сцени і щоб їх
ants.» (В. Sha w) слухала/чула прислуга/челядь».
«І will be another kind ofpresi- «Я буду/обіцяю бути зовсім
dent,» said Constantinescu. (Kyiv іншим президентом», - заявив
2. Will as well as assurance or promise:
Mrs.Warren: «And you'll be Miccic Воррен: «І за це ти
good to your poor old mother for будеш добре ставитися до
it, won't you?» своєї сердешної старої матері.
Trench: «I will save you the Тренч: «Я вже допоможу вам
trouble.» (Ibid.) вибратися з цієї халепи.»
The answer of Vivie / will contains assurance and promise for the future, because of which its explicit form in Ukrainian is only Обіцяю. A similar construction is displayed in the second sentence in which Trench assures (promises) the poor man (Sartorius) to relieve him of his trouble.