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S.KIimowiecz's long poem Roksolaniya (about Ukraine and the Ukrainians) translated from the Polish original.

Some Ukrainian translators specialize in turning prose works of West Slavic literatures into Ukrainian. Thus, Y.Popsuyenko (b. 1940) has translated novels and narratives of the following Polish authors: S.Lem, J.Korczak, J.Przymanowski, S.Dygata, B.Czeszka, B.Prus, R.Liskowacki, Z.Posmicz, B.Orkan, M.Warnenska, Y.Parandowski and others. D.Andrukhiv (b. 1934) translated a number of prose works by prominent Polish, Czech and Slovak authors. Namely, Polish: Y.Stawinski, W.Zelewski, L.WantuI, H.Auderska, B.Prus; Slovak: P.llemnicki, H.Zelinova, A.PIawka, W.Zamorowski, M.Figuli, L.Yurik, M.Diurickowa; Czech: F.Flos, I. Marek, I. Toman, MTomanova, M.Pasek, B.Nemcova, E.Petiska, M.Majerova, J.Kadlec, I. Mares and others.

A number of masterpieces from former Yugoslav belles-lettres were translated by Ivan Yushchuk (b.1933), who brought into Ukrain­ian more than ten novels and narratives of Serbian, Croatian, Slovenian and Macedonian authors. No less active and prolific is also Will Hrymych (b. 1925), who has translated several novels and narratives of Slovenian (C.Kosmac, A.Diklic, A.lnhoiic), Czech and Slovak (A.PIudek, P.Hanus, J.Neswadba, M.Pasek, P.Jasek), Serbo-Chroatian, Estonian, Uzbec and other authors. He also translated a number of plays of French, Italian, German and Serbo-Croatian play­wrights whose works were staged in Kyiv theatres.

Prose and poetic works from West Slavic literatures were also skilfully translated into Ukrainian by V.Strutyns'kyi. Among them from Polish: J.SIowacki, A.Mickiewicz, M.Konopnicka, C.Norwid, J.Tuwim, E.Orzeszkowa, J.Kraszewski, S.Zeromski; from Czech: J.Neruda, V.Nezval, K.Capek, M.Majerova and others. Apart from Slavic literary works Strutyns'kyi also translated poetic works of Lithuanian, Bielorussian, Armenian, Azerbaidjan and other poets.

Belles-lettres works of several Chinese and Japanese classics and contemporary authors became known to Ukrainian readers only in the late 1950's and mainly thanks to two translators - Ivan Chyrko and Ivan Dzyub. Ivan Chyrko (b.1922) has translated some of the best prose works of the Chinese authors as Lu Sin, Mao Dun, Lao Sheh, Sian-Dsy, Ba Dsin, Pu Soon Lin, Arysim Takeo and several others. Ivan Dzyub (b.1934) acquainted our readers with the prose works of the Japanese authors K.Abe, R.Akatahava, YKavabata, N.Soseki, M.Kita, K.Saotome, TFukunaha as well as with Japanese fairy tales.

Apart from these, Dzyub turned into Ukrainian works of some Italian (G.Rodari, E.Vittorini) and Spanish (F.Basulto) authors.

Translations directly from some modern Indian languages and from Sanskrit into Ukrainian were produced, most likely, for the first time in the late 1920's - early 1930's by Pavlo Ritter (1872-1939), a Kharkiv University professor of Indian philology. Ritter was also victim of the Stalinist terror (going mad and died after constant torture in prison). This translator acquainted the Ukrainian readers with some Vedic hymns (the Ftihveda and Arharveda), with works of Kalidasa (circa 5 AD) and also with works of the great contemporary Indian poet R.Tagore (1861 -1941). A few works from Sanskrit and those of Asiz ud Dina Ahmad were translated into Ukrainian by the linguist O.Barannyk(ov) (1890-1952). A major contribution to present-day Ukrainian belles-lettres from Indian literatures, however, was made by S.Nalyvaiko (b. 1940), who translated from Hindi, Urdu and English prose works of Premchand, K.Chandar, B.Sahni, A.Desayi, P.K.Naraian and some others. Besides these, Nalyvaiko translated into Ukrainian Indian fairy tales, proverbs and sayings.

The list of prolific translators would be incomplete without the names of such masters of the pen as Yevhen Kovhanyuk (1902-1982), who carried out a number of translations from Polish (H.Sienkiewicz, S.Zeromski, B.Prus, Y.lwaszkiewicz, M.Warnenska and others). He also translated from Russian (M.Sholokhov, A.Tolstoy, N.Ostrovskyi, M.Gorki, A.Herzen, I.Goncharov, I.Turgenev, I.Dubynskyi, YTynyanov and some others). No less successful a translator of Russian literature and other national authors was Diodor Bobyr (1907-1980). A noted Ukrainian author himself, he faithfully turned into Ukrainian many poetic and prose works of A.Pushkin, M.Lermontov, A.Prokofyev, V.Soloukhin, and others. Bobyr also left behind exemplary translations of H.Heine's and B.Nusic's works as well as some theoretical articles on the theory and practice of poetic and prose translation.

Apart from the above-mentioned modern masters of the pen, who accomplished many faithful prose and poetic translations, there are several more brilliant contemporary translators worth mentioning here. Among them should be named the Stalinist concentration camp victim Ivan Svitlychnyi (1929-1992), a prominent figure of the Sixties Movement. He translated into Ukrainian works of different authors: Czech (V.Nezval, F.Halas, J.Mahen, J.Hanzlik), Slovak (M.Rufus) and French (J.de la Fontaine, P.-J.de Beranger, C.Baudelaire), The Tale of the Host of Ihor and other works into Ukrainian. Of note is also


Y.Kryzhevych (1937-1985), the translator of J.F.Cooper's and C.Marlowe's works. To these notables belong also the diaspora translators I.Kachurovskyi (b.1918), who turned into Ukrainian French, English, German and Italian poetry and I.Kostetskyi (1913-1983), who translated into Ukrainian Shakespeare's sonnets (1985), and King Lear(1969), T.S.Eliot's poetry, P.Verlaine's poems (1979), E.Pound's works (1960), F.G.Lorca's poems (1971) and other works. Many poetic works of Bulgarian literature (C.Zidarov, Y.Yovkov, I. Vazov, D.Metodiev, H.Dzhaharov, A.Todorov, N.Nikolayev, LLevchev and others) were translated by Dmytro Bilous (b. 1920). Another poet D.Cherednychenko (b. 1935) translates from Lithuanian (M.Vainilaitis, A.Maldonis, M.Martinaitis, Y.Martsinkyavichus) and from Slavic languages. Works of Georgian and Turkish authors (V.Pshavela, T.Chiladze, A.Sulakari, R.Hiuntekin, N.Khikmet, S.Dervish, O.Polat, O.Leonidze and others) became known to Ukrainian readers due to the efforts of H.Khalymonenko (b. 1941) and O.Synychenko (b. 1931). The latter translated several works of Georgian (E.Ninoshvili, D.Shenhelaya, I.Chavchavadze, N.Dumbadze, K.Lordkipanidze, K.Hamsakhurdia, Plvanishvili) and of German authors (E.Panitz, LFeuchtwagner and several others).

Actively participated in the process of enrichment of Ukrainian literature via translation also some professional poets as I. Vyrhan (1908-1975). He translated the poetic works from many languages: German (J.W.Gothe), Spanish (PNeruda), Armenian (A.lsaakyan), Georgian (A.Tsereteli), Lettish (Y.Rainis), Russian (A.Pushkin, M.Lermontov, F.Tyutchev) and some others. Rather active among the present-day poets and translators is D.Pavlychko (b. 1929), who successfully versified a number of poetic works from English (Shake­speare's sonnets), Spanish (I.Marti), Bulgarian (Kh.Botev, N.Vaptsarov), Slovak (PHviezdoslav) and other languages. No less active is also I.Drach who has translated works by Polish, French, Italian, Latvian, Georgian and some other poets.

It is necessary to note in conclusion, that despite the constant restrictions, persecutions, unceasing terror and even executions of translators in Soviet times, the process of artistic translation in Ukraine was never interrupted for long or brought to a complete standstill, as it was during 1942-1944. Only because of the persistent and devoted work of our most prominent translators from the older and succeeding generations could our Ukrainian belles-lettres have been tremendously enriched with many masterpieces of world literature. Ukrainians now have a true opportunity to become acquainted with a large number of

faithful Ukrainian versions of the best prose and poetic works of all major European, American and the main Asian literatures both of present times as well as of previous periods. As a result, Ukrainian belles-lettres walk in step qualitatively with the rich and developed West European and Asian contemporary literatures.

Alongside of the literary translation proper, there also developed literary criticism which was initiated in the nineteenth century by PKulish, I. Franko and Lesya Ukrainka. Literary criticism in the domain of trans­lation began to be especially felt in the 1920's and early 1930's during the heated controversies against M.Zerov and the Neoclassicists. Taking part against M.Yohansen, P.Fylypovych, O.Burhardt, M.Ryl'skyi and others were Communist supporters of the officially introduced theory of «socialist realism» B.Kovalenko, Ya.Savchenko, V.Koryak, S.Shchupak and others. At the same time with the ideological controversy some truly scientific works on the theory and practice of translation were published in the 1920's and early 1930's. The most scientifically grounded among them were Zerov's theoretical works on poetic translation, which remain topical up to now, H.Maifet's works on translation of T. Shev-chenko's poems into English (1927) and French (1928), English and German (1928); V.Derzhavyn's solid reviews of Ukrainian translations (in 1929, 1930, 1931), a theoretical work on translation of O.Finkel (1929) and several reviews of current poetic and prose translations from foreign languages, which often appeared in those years in various journals of Ukraine.

The Stalinist terror and reprisals of the 1930's undermined trans­lation and all scientific activity in this field for some years. As a result, the real scientifically well-grounded criticism in Ukrainian translation began only in the mid 1950's with the appearance of O.Kundzich's critical articles (1956), which were mainly directed against literalism in Ukrainian translation. His articles were followed by critical and review­ing articles of M.Ryl'skyi and V.Koptilov's thesis on T.Shevchenko as a translator of David's Psalms, R.Zorivchak's and O.Novikova's works. One of the most common forms of literary criticism were in the 1960's and later on critical reviews dedicated to prominent works of literature translated by outstanding writers such as Lukash, Kochur, Lisnyak, Dotsenko, Popovych and some others. Besides, there were often pub­lished in some journals (Vsesvit, Inozemna Filologia, Vitchyzna) theo­retical articles on different linguistic problems and methods/ways of solving them in the process of translating belles-lettres from the source language into the target language. These and other works together with many highly qualified translations of prose and poetic works of world

literature helped create in the end the national school of Ukrainian artistic translation. A particular role in it belongs to the Vsesvit journal which deserves a more thorough elucidation in modern history of Ukrainian translation.




The gaining of independence by this country in 1991 awoke an unknown before increase in the employment of both oral and written translation, which became needed for the establishment of interna­tional relations with the rest of the world. These two types of transla­tion provided the newly independent country in its first years with the mass of the official international texts of diplomatic and legal nature (treaties, agreements, memoranda, etc). Due to the active employ­ment of written translation and translation in viva voce Ukraine could successfully establish and maintain its international ties and good relations with the outside world as a whole and not only with the countries that recognized it.

The required level of the necessary international relations with the help of translation as well as interpretation had been achieved by Ukraine already in 1993-1994.

It was not so, however, with the artistic translation. The eco­nomic and financial crisis that followed after the collapse of the Soviet Union forced all major publishing houses of Ukraine to temporarily or completely suspend their operations. As a result the belles-lettres translation in state publishing houses during the second half of the 1990's came practically to a standstill.

The only functioning organ except some small capacity private publishing houses, which continued to publish the works of foreign literatures in Ukrainian translation unabated at the close of the twentieth century remained the Vsesvit journal. During its forty-two years of active and fruitful participation in the literary process of Ukraine the journal has succeeded in publishing thousands of belles-lettres works - novels, narratives, short stories and poetic works of classics and promising foreign authors, poets and playwrights from one hundred and ten foreign languages. The Ukrainian reader has received mostly high quality artistic translations of works by many foreign classics

and mostly prominent contemporary authors/poets, whose works have never been published in Ukrainian before or which were published only in shortened versions. Hence, our readers had an opportunity to get acquainted with the latest achievements of most national literatures of the world. Beginning from its rebirth in 1958, the Vsesvit journal had regularly published apart from belles-lettres works of mainly noted authors, poets and playwrights also several adventure and detective stories of all known authors from European, Latin and North American, Asian, Australian and African countries. Among the translators, who have greately contributed to the recognition of the journal as a reliable source of foreign literature and who are partly obliged to it as their nursery, which made them later known in Ukrainian literature, were M.Pinchevs'kyi, V.Mytrofanov, V.Pasichna (a prolific translator from Czech, Slovak and Polish literatures) and some others. Closely collaborated with the journal in some years also our well-known translators M.Lukash, H.Kochur, I. Steshenko, BorysTen, Yu.Lisnyak, A.Perepadya, Y.Popovych, O.Senyuk, H.Filipchuk, M.Lytvynets', O.Mokrovolskyi, M.Moskalenko, V.Shovkun, to name but a few. It was this journal that gave a chance to the literary critics D.Zatons'kyi and V.Skurativs'kyi as well as to each of its editors-in-chief to establish closer contacts with many national literatures of the world. A prominent place among them belongs to the English language authors both from the British Commonwealth countries and from the USA.The German language works were represented by several noted authors and poets from the Federal Republic of Germany, Austria and Switzerland. No less often published in this journal were also the works of several French language authors and poets from France itself as well as from Switzerland, Algeria and some former French colonies. An equally rich representation had also different Spanish language authors both from Spain and from all Latin American countries. A noticeable place on the pages of the journal has always been occupied by the classical and contemporary authors and poets from Italy, Portugal, and Brazil. Often published in Ukrainian translation during the second half of the twentieth century (and not only in this journal) were works from all Scandinavian, Western Slavic and Baltic countries. Ukrainian readers were given an unprecedented opportunity to get acquainted with some classics and contemporary authors of the Arab, the Near Eastern, the Far Eastern, the South Asian and some young literatures of Central and Equatorial Africa. It is therefore only natural that the numerous staff of translators from various publishing houses not only well under-


stood each other but also cooperated with one another. Consequently, their aims in elaborating common approaches to the methods of faithful translation never differed in the main. As a result, due to the social requirements and on the ground of the long practice and rich experience of the preceding and present (post-war) generations of belles-lettres translators, there were elaborated and unanimously (though tacitly) agreed upon, and naturally employed in the publishing houses of Ukraine, some basic principles of artistic translation. The main of these principles, which may equally be applied, at least partly, when translating any other type of written matter, may be defined as follows:

  • To maintain in the target language version all the structural pe­culiarities of the matter/work under translation.

  • To hold strictly to the author's conception and render faithfully the content of the source language matter/work under transla­tion.

  • To maintain in the version of the target language the main pecu­liarities/features of the syntactic organization and stylistic means of expression of the source language matter/work.

  • To maintain in the version of the target language the fidelity in the means and ways of the author's depicting the artistic im­ages and expressiveness pertained to the source language matter/work.

  • To avoid deliberate omissions and any other forms of free inter­pretation/rendering unless required of the source language mat­ter/work.

  • To restrain in the process of translation of a text/work from any deliberate shortening or enlargement of it, as well as of any embellishment of its stylistic or artistic qualities in the target language version.

e To render/maintain as fully as possible in the target language variant the ease of expression pertaining to the source language matter/work.

• To render/maintain in the target language version the pragmatic

intention/orientation of the author and his force of influence on
the reader.



  1. Translation and interpretation in ancient countries of the Near East.

  2. The first European translations and appearance of two different ways/principles of translation.

  3. Deliberate violations of the second (sense-to-sense) way/prin­ciple of translation by Horace and Apuleius and their conse­quences in the Middle Ages and later periods.

  4. Translation of ecclesiastic and secular works in the Middle Ages England and Spain.

  5. Factors favouring the revival of translation during the period of European Renaissance.

  6. Ways and methods of translation of ecclesiastic and secular works in France and Germany in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries.

  7. Translation in the periods of Classicism and Enlightenment (sev­enteenth - eighteenth centuries).

  8. The epoch of Romanticism and protests against the unrestricted freedom of translation in England, Germany and France. J.Herder and the birth of the principles of faithful translation.

  9. Translation of ecclesiastic and secular works in Ukraine - Rus' in the tenth - eleventh and twelfth -thirteenth centuries.

  10. The revival of translation in Ukraine in the fourteenth-sixteenth centuries (translation of the Bible and other ecclesiastic works).

  11. The Kyiv Mohyla Academy (1633-1801) and development of translation in the seventeenth-eighteenth centuries Ukraine (I.Maksymovych, F.Prokopovych, D.Tuptalo, H.Skovoroda).

  12. I.Kotlyarevskyi's free interpretation of Virgil's Aeneidand its in­fluence on the methods of translation of P.Hulak-Artemovskyi, Ye.Hrebinka, L.Borovykovskyi, P.Bilets'kyi-Nosenko in the first half of the nineteenth century.

  13. M.Shashkevych, I. Vahylevych, Y.Holovats'kyi and the begin­ning of translation in Halychyna in the 1830's.

  14. P.Kulish, O.Navrots'kyi, P.Nishchyns'kyi, S.Rudans'kyi, I.Franko, M.Staryts'kyi, Lesya Ukrainka, P.Hrabovs'kyi, B.Hrinchenko with his family as translators. Their contribution to Ukrainian belles-lettres during the Tsarist prohibitions of the Ukrainian language, literature and culture in the second half of



the nineteenth century - the first decades of the twentieth cen­tury.

  1. The level of artistic translation in Ukraine before and during the years of independence (1917-1921) and in the first decades of Soviet rule. O.Burhardt, M.Lysychenko, O.Baikar (Shtan'ko), M.Ryabova, H.Kasyanenko, M.lvanov, V.Samiylenko as belles-lettres translators.

  2. The political persecutions of M.Zerovand his adherents/Neo-classicists together with other most promising translators in themid1920'sand1930's.

  3. The most often employed methods of translation and the artis­tic level of translation of classical British, American, French, German and Italian prose/poetic works during the 1920's and 1930's.

  4. The revival of Ukrainian translation after World War II in the mid and late 1940's (M.Ryl'skyi, M.Tereshchenko, M.Bazhan, M.Lukash, LPervomaiskyi).

  5. The return of some prominent translators (V.Mysyk, H.Kochur, Borys Ten, D.Palamarchuk and others) from the Stalinist con­centration camps during mid 1950's-1960's and the public de­mand for raising the artistic level of Ukranian post-war belles-lettres translation (critical articles of O.Kundzich, M.Ryl'skyi and others).

  6. The role of the renewed Vsesvitjournal in fostering the post-war translators of poetic and prose works (M.Pinchevs'kyi, O.Terekh, V.Pasichna, V.Mytrofanov, H.Filipchuk, A.Perepadya, O.Mokrovol'skyi, Ye.Popovych, P.Sokolovs'kyi and others).

  7. The historical circumstances and preconditions of birth and de­velopment of Ukrainian criticism of literary artistic translation in the 20th century.

  8. The main established principles of faithful translation and their realization in the practice of conveying the poetic and prose works by the outstanding translators (M.Zerov, M.Ryl'skyi, V.Pidmohyl'nyi, V.Mysyk, M.Lukash, Borys Ten, Ye.Popovych, Ye.Drobyazko, Yu.Lisnyak, D.Bobyr and others).


As it has been pointed out in chapter I, the process of written or oral translating presents in reality different forms of decoding or trans­formation which the source language units undergo at the phonetic, morphological or syntactic levels: Cf.: ambition [aembijn] амбіція, geologist геолог, metaphor метафора, participate брати участь, negotiable те (той), що піддається погодженню; рученьки beautiful little hands, лісовик (mythology) wood goblin, etc. No lingual, i.e., structural or semantic identity have in the target language many English and Ukrainian specifically national notions of lexicon (culturally biased words), which are also to be decoded, i.e., transformed Cf.: Number 10 Downing Street Даунінґ Стріт №10 (резиденція прем'єр-міністра Великої Британії), haggis зварений у жирі овечий кендюх, начинений вівсяною кашею впереміш із посіченими потрохами; кутя cooked peeled wheat, barley or rice mixed with ground poppy seeds, raisins and parceled kernels of nuts, honey and a little boiled water, etc.

Neither are there in the target language direct semantic or struc­tural equivalents for many idioms and stable expressions of the source language. Hence, they must be decoded, i.e., transformed, Cf.: Tom, Dick and Harry перший-ліпший (з), будь-хто (з), to go to the altar одружуватися, виходити заміж; клепки не вистачає nobody home, he has got a screw loose, etc.

A considerable number of other source language units, how­ever, may maintain their lingual form little changed or unchanged in the target language, as in many proper names and genuine internationalisms: Д/ггес/Альфред/Ельфред, Robert Frost Роберт Фрост, Boston Бостон, president президент, affix афікс, phoneme фонема, moforMOTop, cybernetics кібернетика, export експортувати, social соціальний, nationally національно, etc. Such and the like words are, in fact, not translated in the true sense of the word but fumed into the target language in their phonemic (sometimes also in their orthographic) form/structure. These and some other problems, which are of academic interest not only for the beginning translator but also for the teacher constitute the subject-matter of the succeed­ing chapters of this work.

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