Женьшень и рак Обзоры Клинические исследования Ginseng & cancer Review


PHARMACOKINETICS AND OVERDOSE-RELATED SIDE EFFECTS OF GINSENG



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PHARMACOKINETICS AND OVERDOSE-RELATED SIDE EFFECTS OF GINSENG


Pharmacokinetic studies of ginseng can not be directly conducted using the commonly-used analytical methods that we described [113, 172] because each ginseng specie contains various active ingredients in their roots, and the amount of each ingredient varies with different conditions. All these make it more complex and even impossible to directly conduct pharmacokinetics of ginseng itself. The practical way, however, to conduct ginseng’s pharmacokinetics is to measure individual ginsenoside’s absorption, distribution, metabolism, and elimination in animals and human beings. Pharmacokinetic studies conducted in rats revealed only 23% absorption of ginsenosides (Rb1) after a period of 2.5 h [173]. Very small recoveries of these ginsenosides were made in the liver (e.g., 0.25% dose) and heart (<0.1% dose), while the majority of the material was recovered in the small intestine. The bioavailability of bioactive ginseng constituents appears very limited, as evidenced by the low absorption rates for orally administered Rg1 (0.1% dose) and Rg2 (1.9% dose), and only little of the original ginsenoside material was recovered in the feces (<1% dose) [174]. In our view, people should not be surprised about the limited amount of ginsenosides recovered from tissues, urine, and feces in the ginseng’s pharmacokinetic studies because the total content of ginsenosides (saponins) in a ginseng is usually less than 5% of its weight [113]. Moreover, ginsenosides have poor oral bioavailability as demonstrated above mainly because of their extensive pre-systemic metabolism and poor membrane permeability. Ginseng has been used for treatment of hyperglycemia and insulin resistance, a common side effect of some HIV-1 protease inhibitors indinavir. In healthy volunteers, co-administration of indinavir 800 mg and American ginseng 1 g per 8 h for 14 days did not change the area-under the plasma-concentration-time curve of the HIV drug compared to indinavir alone (n = 13). Therefore, it was concluded that ginseng does not significantly affect indinavir’s pharmacokinetics [175].

In general, ginseng has a good safety record. The common adaptogenic ginsengs (Panax ginseng and Panax quinquefolia) are generally considered to be relatively safe even in large amounts. To many people, ginseng tastes a bit sweet and is usually well tolerated. The root of Panax ginseng appeared nontoxic to rats, dogs, and humans [176].


In mice, a lethal oral dose of purified ginseng was determined to be higher than 5 g/kg, the highest dose that can be orally given to a mouse and considered good practice at the maximal dose volumes without violating animal welfare. That level is equivalent to about 0.4 g/kg of oral ginseng given to an adult man [172]. In a 2-year human study, 14 out of a total of 133 subjects were reported to experience side effects attributed to long-term exposure of ginseng when consumed at levels up to 15 g/day [177]. The long-term side effects of ginseng are characterized

Защитные эффекты Азии пищевые товары на раки - соя и женьшень.


Диетические факторы рассматриваются как оказывает заметное влияние на рак развитие в различных органных площадках и в Азии есть особый интерес в потенциальных профилактическое воздействие продуктов питания, таких как соевые продукты и gingseng. Так называемые фитоэстрогены, как генистеин и daidzein в сое, могут связываться с рецепторами эстрогена и, следовательно, вмешиваться в действие эстрогенов себя, хорошо установленным фактором риска для рака молочной железы, яичников и рака эндометрия. Хотя не все результаты совпадают, существует достаточно доказательств, что защитное влияние соевых продуктов против всех трех этих видов рака. Кроме того, там было много докладов профилактическое воздействие в предстательной железе. С женьшень, будь то белый или красный, в комплекте полифенольных соединений и сапонины могут играть роли в различных органах, хотя профилактический потенциал, пожалуй, лучше всего документирована для желудка рак. Традиционные рационы питания в Восточной Азии, возможно, потребуется больше внимания в усилия по борьбе с растущей проблемой рака в этом регионе мира.

Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2008 Oct-Dec;9(4):543-8.



Protective effects of Asian dietary items on cancers - soy and ginseng.

Kim J.


Author information

  • Cancer Cohort Study Branch, Research Insitute for National Cancer Control, National Cancer Center, Goyang, Korea. jskim@ncc.re.kr

Abstract

Dietary factors are regarded as exerting major influences on cancer development in various organ sites and in Asia there is particular interest in the potential preventive effects of foodstuffs such as soy products and gingseng. The so-called phytoestrogens, like genistein and daidzein in soy, can bind to estrogen receptors and therefore interfere with the action of estrogen itself, a well-established risk factor for breast, ovarian and endometrial cancers. Although not all results are consistent, there is good evidence for protective influence of soy products against all three of these cancers. In addition, there have been many reports of preventive effects in the prostate. With ginseng, whether white or red, the included polyphenol compounds and saponins may play roles in many different organs, although preventive potential is perhaps best documented for gastric cancer. The traditional diets in Eastern Asia may need more emphasis in efforts to combat the growing problem of cancer in this region of the world.




Использование дополнительной и альтернативной медикаментозной терапии у пациентов с первичными опухолями головного мозга.


Использование дополнительной и альтернативной медицины (CAM) растет. CAM включает разума и тела вмешательств, биологически терапии, энергетической терапии, и тела на основе методов. Первичные опухоли головного мозга возникают в мозге и имеют плохой прогноз при злокачественных. Даже пациенты с доброкачественными опухолями страдают неврологических и системных симптомов в результате опухоли или ее лечения. CAM используется на 30% опухоли в головном мозге пациентов, которые часто не сообщают его применение с врачом. Травяные лекарственные средства могут влиять на метаболизм лекарств, или вызывать побочные эффекты, что может быть обусловлено другими причинами. У пациентов с системным рак, разума и тела формы, такие, как медитация и релакс-терапии было показано, чтобы быть полезным в снижении тревоги и боли, иглоукалывание и гипноз также может уменьшить боль и тошнота. Последние доклинические исследования показали, что женьшень, Scutellaria baicalensis, и Angelica sinensis могут стимулировать апоптоз опухолевых клеток или упражнения антиангиогенных эффектов. Необходимы дальнейшие исследования для оценки воздействия кулачка на симптом управления или опухолевого роста в этой уязвимой популяции пациентов.

Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep. 2008 May;8(3):264-8.



Use of complementary and alternative medical therapy by patients with primary brain tumors.

Armstrong TS1, Gilbert MR.



Author information

  • 1Department of Integrative Nursing Care, University of Texas Health Science Center School of Nursing, 6901 Bertner Avenue, Houston, TX 77030, USA. Terri.S.Armstrong@uth.tmc.edu

Abstract

The use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is increasing. CAM includes mind-body interventions, biologically based therapies, energy therapies, and body-based methods. Primary brain tumors arise within the brain and have a poor prognosis when malignant. Even patients with benign tumors suffer neurologic and systemic symptoms as a result of the tumor or its treatment. CAM is used by 30% of brain tumor patients, who often do not report its use to their physician. Herbal medicines may affect the metabolism of prescribed medications or produce adverse effects that may be attributed to other causes. In patients with systemic cancer, mind-body modalities such as meditation and relaxation therapy have been shown to be helpful in reducing anxiety and pain; acupuncture and hypnotherapy may also reduce both pain and nausea. Recent preclinical studies have reported that ginseng, Scutellaria baicalensis, and Angelica sinensis may promote apoptosis of tumor cells or exercise antiangiogenic effects. Further studies are needed to evaluate the impact of CAM on symptom control or tumor growth in this vulnerable patient population.





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