Женьшень и рак Обзоры Клинические исследования Ginseng & cancer Review

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This pilot trial evaluated Wisconsin ginseng in a heterogeneous group of patients with cancer, ranging from those with localized resected disease to those with advanced incurable cancer. Overall, this study suggested that Wisconsin ginseng, at a dose of 750 mg/day, did not provide any benefit over that seen with a placebo. However, the two highest doses of Wisconsin ginseng (1,000 and 2,000 mg/day) did appear to decrease fatigue more than did a placebo, as measured by various scales of fatigue, vitality, and well being.

Perhaps the most compelling preliminary evidence from this current trial is that more than twice the patients who were on the higher doses of ginseng perceived a benefit for their fatigue, with 40% of patients who actually completed treatment with the 1,000- and 2,000-mg doses perceiving a moderate to very much better benefit as compared to 17% of the participants who were on the placebo arm. If the magnitude of benefit suggested by this pilot trial experience is observed in a larger more definitive trial, Wisconsin ginseng has the potential to help over 220,000 survivors based on conservative estimates from the literature that 30% to 60% of cancer survivors experience fatigue through at least 1 year past diagnosis and the fact that there was an estimated 1.4 million people diagnosed with cancer in 2006.

In this study, there were no significant toxicities apparent in the active arms compared to the incidences seen in those taking the placebo. This was true despite the fact that many of these participants had advanced disease and were taking cytotoxic treatment for their disease.

It is curious that there was not a clear trend for a linear dose effect on all endpoints. Further study is needed to clarify this issue. The reason for the variability in this may be due to the challenges in measuring fatigue or may be due to the heterogeneous sample. However, the effect sizes seen are consistent with the potential for meaningful clinical activity and, coupled with low toxicity, suggest that this herb be studied further.

One of the difficulties in studying herbal or dietary supplements is the lack of regulation and hence standardization of product. Plant products are affected by growing conditions including climate, soil, fertilizers, and pesticides [21, 37]. In addition, the harvesting and processing of plants can alter their biologic viability. In any one crop of ginseng, the percentage of ginsenosides can vary and can be further influenced by the manufacturing process. There is evidence to suggest that the strength of effect of ginseng may be related to the percentage of ginsenosides [49]. This principal was supported in this study in that there was suggestion of a dose response that is that with more ginsenosides, a greater effect was observed.

The precise pharmacokinetic activity of Wisconsin ginseng is not yet known [21]. Ginsenosides, the active constituents of ginseng, are steroidal saponins. Therefore, each ginsenoside, as well as other nonginsenoside constituents of ginseng such as polysaccharides and peptides, may have more than one effect on any given tissue [21]. There are animal model studies suggesting that Wisconsin ginseng can directly affect the brain through activating intracellular steroid receptors [21], regulating gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABAergic) neurotransmission [50] and/or providing neuroprotection in various brain regions [51]. The ability to modulate important neurotransmitters, such as dopamine, noradrenalin, serotonin, and GABA may be one explanation for how ginseng may help cancer-related fatigue.

Thus, given the multiple potential effects of Wisconsin ginseng and the present, very preliminary, data suggesting that the higher doses studied may be helpful in cancer-related fatigue, it appears worthwhile to more clearly and definitively evaluate the benefits of the effects of Wisconsin ginseng in a larger, more definitive, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Such a trial is actively recruiting patients in the North Central Cancer Treatment Group.

[Эффект клеточного иммунного поддерживающее лечение на иммунитет карциномы пищевода у больных после современных двух-поле лимфатических узлов].

Клеточного иммунитета, подавление отмечен у больных карцинома пищевода, которые могут быть в результате временно от хирургической травмы. Данного исследования было оценить влияние клеточного иммунного поддерживающее лечение на клеточный иммунитет больных карцинома пищевода.


В общей сложности 60 пациентов с торакальной карцинома пищевода, получил два поля диссекции, были рандомизированы в контрольную группу и судебного разбирательства (иммунной поддерживающее лечение) группы. Пациенты в исследуемой группе вводили Shenqi инъекции после операции, пациенты контрольной группы получали никакой иммунной поддерживающее лечение. Образцы периферической крови были получены до операции и на 3 и 9 дней после операции. AgNOR (argyrophilic ядрышкового организатора регионов) деятельность в периферической крови Т-лимфоцитов измеряли опухоли иммунной microphotometry. T подмножеств клеток измеряли с помощью проточной цитометрии.


Пропорции CD3+CD4+ и CD4+/CD8+ клеток были значительно выше в исследуемой группе, чем в контрольной группе на 3 сутки после операции (P < 0,05). Сумма AgNOR и пропорции CD3+, CD3+CD4+, CD4+/CD8+и CD4+CD25+ клеток были значительно выше в исследуемой группе, чем в контрольной группе на 9-е сутки после операции (P < 0,05). Не было никаких существенных различий в 1-летняя выживаемость между 2 группами (P > 0,05).


Shenqi инъекций может явно улучшить клеточный иммунитет карцинома пищевода у больных после современных двух-поле диссекции.

Ai Zheng. 2007 Jul;26(7):778-81.

[Effect of cellular immune supportive treatment on immunity of esophageal carcinoma patients after modern two-field lymph node dissection].

[Article in Chinese]

Wang JY1, Ma GW, Dai SQ, Rong TH, Wang X, Lin P, Ye WF, Zhang LJ, Li XD, Zhang X, Yao GY.

Author information

  • 1Skate Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Guangzhou, Guangdong, 510060, P. R. China.

Cellular immunity suppression is marked in patients with esophageal carcinoma, which may be resulted temporarily from surgical injury. This study was to evaluate the effect of cellular immune supportive treatment on cellular immunity of patients with esophageal carcinoma.


A total of 60 patients with thoracic esophageal carcinoma, received two-field dissection, were randomized into control group and trial (immune supportive treatment) group. The patients in trial group were injected with Shenqi injection after operation; the patients in control group received no immune supportive treatment. Peripheral blood samples were obtained before operation, and 3 and 9 days after operation. AgNOR (argyrophilic nucleolar organizer regions) activity in peripheral blood T lymphocytes was measured by tumor immune microphotometry. T cell subsets were measured by flow cytometry.


The proportions of CD3+CD4+ and CD4+/CD8+ cells were significantly higher in trial group than in control group at 3 days after operation (P < 0.05). The amount of AgNOR and proportions of CD3+, CD3+CD4+, CD4+/CD8+, and CD4+CD25+ cells were significantly higher in trial group than in control group at 9 days after operation (P < 0.05). There was no significant difference in 1-year survival rate between the 2 groups (P > 0.05).


Shenqi injection could obviously improve cellular immunity of the esophageal carcinoma patients after modern two-field dissection.

Воздействие солнца женьшеня на субъективное качество жизни онкологических больных: a double-blind, плацебо-контролируемое пилотное испытание.

Женьшень , как сообщается, увеличение умственных и физических способностей, улучшению настроения и укреплению здоровья в целом и благополучие. Целью настоящего исследования явилось изучение влияния солнца женьшень (SG) на качество жизни онкологических больных.


Рандомизированное, двойное слепое, плацебо-контролируемое пилотное исследование было выполнено в течение 12 недель. Пятьдесят три пациента были рандомизированы для SG 3000 мг в день (n = 32) или плацебо (n = 21) в соотношение 3 : 2. Пациентов диагнозы были гинекологического рака (n = 28), гепатобилиарной рак (n = 13) и другие онкологические заболевания (n = 12). Качество жизни оценивалось с помощью Всемирной организации здравоохранения оценка качества жизни-Bref (WHOQOL-BREF) и опросник общего состояния здоровья-12 (ставки-12).


После 12 недель терапии, психологической домен " оценка WHOQOL-BREF был значительно улучшилась у пациентов, рандомизированных для SG, по сравнению с теми, рандомизированных плацебо (P = 0,02). Наблюдалась тенденция SG улучшить " физическое здоровье " (р = 0,06) и " окружающая среда " (P = 0.07) домена баллы WHOQOL-BREF, по сравнению с плацебо. На ставки-12 общий балл был значительно улучшилась у пациентов, получавших ИК, чем в тех, кто с плацебо (P < 0.01). Без существенных побочных явлений наблюдались в обеих группах больных.


Солнце женьшень был найден, чтобы быть полезным в улучшении некоторые аспекты психического и физического функционирования после 12 недель терапии у онкологических больных, которые были, в основном, с диагнозом гинекологических рака или гепатобилиарной рака. Необходимы дальнейшие исследования, чтобы оценить долгосрочные последствия SG на несколько аспектов качества жизни в различных онкологических больных.

J Clin Pharm Ther. 2006 Aug;31(4):331-4.

Effects of sun ginseng on subjective quality of life in cancer patients: a double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot trial.

Kim JH1, Park CY, Lee SJ.

Author information

  • 1Department of Psychiatry, Gil Medical Center, Gachon Medical School, Namdong-gu, Incheon, South Korea.

Ginseng has been reported to increase mental and physical abilities, improve mood and promote general health and well-being. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of sun ginseng (SG) on quality of life in cancer patients.


A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot trial was performed for 12 weeks. Fifty-three patients were randomly assigned to SG 3000 mg a day (n = 32) or placebo (n = 21) in a 3 : 2 ratio. Patients' diagnoses were gynecologic cancer (n = 28), hepatobiliary cancer (n = 13) and other cancers (n = 12). Quality of life was assessed using the World Health Organization Quality of Life Assessment-Bref (WHOQOL-BREF) and the General Health Questionnaire-12 (GHQ-12).


After 12 weeks of therapy, the 'psychological domain' score of the WHOQOL-BREF was significantly improved in patients randomized to SG, compared with those randomized to placebo (P = 0.02). There was a tendency for SG to improve the 'physical health' (P = 0.06) and 'environment' (P = 0.07) domain scores of the WHOQOL-BREF, compared with placebo. The GHQ-12 total score was significantly improved in patients treated with SG than in those with placebo (P < 0.01). No significant adverse events were observed in both groups of patients.


Sun ginseng was found to be beneficial in improving some aspects of mental and physical functioning after 12 weeks of therapy in cancer patients, who were mainly diagnosed with gynaecologic cancer or hepatobiliary cancer. Further studies are required to evaluate the long-term effects of SG on multiple facets of quality of life in various cancer patients.

[Клинического наблюдения на shenmai инъекций для профилактики и лечения побочных реакций химиотерапии на advanced non-small cell lung cancer].

Наблюдать эффективность Shenmai инъекций (SI) в профилактике и лечении побочных р азработка химиотерапии на advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).


Сорок пять пациентов с НМРЛ в III б-IV стадии были случайным образом разделены на две группы, в контрольной группе, получавших химиотерапию в одиночку и в группе, получавшей лечение с химиотерапией и SI. Терапевтическую эффективность оценивали после 3 циклов лечения.


Не было никаких существенных различий в краткосрочный эффект между двумя группами (P >0,05), в то время как он показал заметную разницу в Карнофски баллов и массой тела (P < 0,05). Обработанная группа показала лучший эффект, чем в контрольной группе уменьшение побочных реакций, таких как снижение лейкоцитов и гемоглобина (р < 0,05), в то время как в аспектах совершенствования тромбоцитопения и снижение возникновения тошнота/рвота и облегчение травмы печени и почек, он только показал меньшее значение в группе, получавшей лечение, но без существенных различий по сравнению с контрольной группой (P >0,05).


SI не могли поднять эффективность химиотерапии НМРЛ, но улучшить качество жизни, поднять массы тела пациентов и облегчить побочные реакции химиотерапии как миелосупрессии так как для повышения толерантности организма к химиотерапии.

Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi. 2006 Jun;26(6):550-2.

[Clinical observation on shenmai injection in preventing and treating adverse reaction of chemotherapy on advanced non-small cell lung cancer].

[Article in Chinese]

Cao Y1, Li P, Tan KJ.

Author information

  • 1The First Hospital Affiliated to Guangzhou University of TCM. doctorcaoyang@163.com

Author information

  • 1Cancer Center of Sun Yat-Sen University of Medical Sciences, 510060.

To observe the effect of radiotherapy (RT) combined with Ginseng polysaccharide (GSP) injection in treating nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) and its influence on immune function.


One hundred and thirty-one NPC patients were randomly divided into two groups, 64 cases in the RT-GSP group treated with RT-GSP and 67 in the control group treated with conventional therapy, to observe the local cancer remission rate, 1-year total survival rate, no tumor survival rate and no remote metastasis survival rate. Moreover, the changes of T-lymphocyte subsets, natural killer (NK) cell activity and lymphocyte activated killer (LAK) cell activity before and after treatment were observed.


Clinical examination conducted 3 months after treatment showed that the complete remission rete in the RT-GSP group was 96.6%, and in the control group 93.3%, the complete remission rate of cervical node metastatic tumor in the two groups was 85.7% and 78.0% respectively, and the NPC CT remission rate 60.3% and 51.7% respectively. Re-examination carried out 1 year after RT treatment showed that the total survival rate in the two groups was 100% and 96.5%, no tumor survival rate 84.4% and 74.6%, and no remote metastasis survival rate was 93.8% and 88.1% respectively. The activity of NK cell and LAK cell as well as T3, T4 value in peripheral blood increased significantly in the RT-GSP group (all P < 0.05) after treatment, while in the control group, activity of NK cell and LAK cell changed insignificantly after treatment, and T3, T4 value lowered significantly (P < 0.05). No toxic-adverse reaction of GSP was found.


GSP has certain improving immune function effect in NPC patients during RT, it could also eliminate the occurred adverse reaction to RT and the general condition of patients.

[Эффекты Shenmai впрыска на иммунную функцию в желудке рака пациенты после химиотерапии].

Шестьдесят три случая с желудка рак были рандомизированы и наблюдал, результаты показали, что количество Т-лимфоцитов в химиотерапии в сочетании с Shenmai инъекций (SMI) группы возросла, в то время как в контрольной группе она снизилась, разница была существенной (P < 0,05). Результаты также показали, что количество OKT4 клеток и соотношение OKT4/OKT8 снизился после химиотерапии, но в SMI group обоих параметров увеличилось в advence, которые были выше в 4-й недели после химиотерапии, чем до химиотерапии. Тем не менее, число OKT1 клеток и соотношение OKT4/OKT8 были по-прежнему на низком уровне. Сыворотке крови интерлейкина-2 рецепторов (sIL-2R) уровень также снизился (P < 0,05), в то время как деятельность естественных киллерных клеток (NK) и медиатор клеточного иммунитета, который активированных киллеров (LAK) уровень увеличился (P < 0,05) в SMI group. Хотя sIL-2R уровне было никаких изменений, как НК и лак уровень снизился в контрольной группе. Кроме того, разница IgA, IgM, IgG на уровне не были значительными между этими двумя группами. Это позволило предположить, что ГИУ может улучшить иммунную функцию, чтобы облегчить химиотерапии больных желудка рак.

Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi. 1995 Aug;15(8):451-3.

[Effects of Shenmai injection on immune function in stomach cancer patients after chemotherapy].

[Article in Chinese]

Lin SY1, Liu LM, Wu LC.

Author information


Sixty-three cases with stomach cancer were randomized and observed, the results showed that the count of T lymphocytes in chemotherapy combined with Shenmai injection (SMI) group increased, while in control group it decreased, the difference was significant (P < 0.05). The results also indicated that the count of OKT4 cells and the ratio of OKT4/OKT8 decreased after chemotherapy, but in SMI group both parameters increased in advence which were higher in the 4th week after chemotherapy than that before chemotherapy. However, the count of OKT1 cells and the ratio of OKT4/OKT8 were still in low level. Serum interleukin-2 receptor (sIL-2R) level also decreased (P < 0.05), while activities of natural killer cell (NK) and lymphokine activated killer cell (LAK) level increased (P < 0.05) in SMI group. Although the sIL-2R level had no change, both NK and LAK level decreased in control group. In addition, the difference of IgA, IgM, IgG level were not significant between these two groups. This suggested that SMI might improve human immune function to facilitate the chemotherapy of patients with stomach cancer.

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