CONCEPTS CLEVERNESS AND FOOLISHNESS IN THE GERMAN AND ENGLISH LANGUAGE PICTURES OF THE WORLD
Relevance of this research is explained by necessity of profound study of ways of expression of language concepts in the conditions of progressing cross-cultural dialogue. Researchs of the beginning of the XXI century are characterized by increasing attention to the language concepts which are inevitably raising the questions, concerning mental abilities of the person. The purpose of this work is to reveal and describe a national originality of language concepts clevernessandfoolishness in the German and English language pictures of the world.
Linguisticsis thescientificstudy oflanguage.There are broadly three aspects to the study, which include language form, language meaning, and language in context. [1, р. 34].
Concept is an idea or a principal related to something abstract [2, р. 237].
The draught is also a basic concept of the cognitive linguistics. Cognitive linguistics refers to the branch of linguistics that interprets language in terms of the concepts, sometimes universal, sometimes specific to a particular tongue, which underlie its forms. It is thus closely associated with semantics but is distinct from psycholinguistics, which draws upon empirical findings from cognitive psychology in order to explain the mental processes that underlie the acquisition, storage, production and understanding of speech and writing.
Cognitive linguistics is characterized by adherence to three central positions. First, it denies that there is an autonomous linguistic faculty in the mind; second, it understands grammar in terms of conceptualization; and third, it claims that knowledge of language arises out of language use .
In studied languages concept cleverness means: "sharp mind, intelligence" and "clever behavior". The substantial minimum of concept cleverness is expressed as "high ability to think and understand". This ability is concretized in the following direction: 1) clever by nature, 2) clever owing to the acquired education and experience, 3) reasonable, 4) witty, 5) the cunning.
The frame of intellectual quality of the person is a model of the concentrated, understanding human. The clever person is capable to think quickly, easily to be trained, draw right conclusions, see an essence, be guided by common sense, behave carefully and prudently, be practical, be sensitive and understanding, wit and resourcefulness; he can deceive and play the hypocrite, behave unscrupulously and artfully, being covered with diplomacy and ostentatious goodwill.
Understanding of concept cleverness in consciousness of Germans and British is especially brightly expressed in use of phraseological units.
The concept cleverness in German express knowledge of native speakers about the world, forming so-called systems of codes in culture lies: toponyme : jmd. ist nicht aus/von Dummsdorf; zoological : glatt wie ein Aal, fitiny : Die Wurzel der Wissenschaft ist bitter und so süßer ihre Frucht; people and his part of the body, separate bodies : ein heller Kopf, Der hat mehr Verstand im kleinen Finger als ein anderer im Kopf.
Unlike the German phraseological units cleverness, English expressions contain facts about specific and invented people : as wise as Solomon; knowledge of folklore and mythology : as clever as a sin; and zoological codes : as cunning as a fox; as wise as a serpent; as wise as an owl.
The concept foolishness in German and in English has following means: "absence or limitation of mind", "inept actions", "silly judgments".
The substantial minimum of a concept foolishness in both languages is expressed as "limited ability to think and understand". This ability is concretized in the following directions: 1) pathologically silly person, 2) stupid, 3) behaving silly.
the following systems of codes lie At the heart of a concept foolishness in the German culture: 1) the zoological [4;5]: dumm sein wie Huhn / Gans / Ziege / Luder / Kamel / Riesenro /Rindvieh as these animals have glory of silly, uncontrollable and slaboobuchayemy beings; 2) the temporary : dumm wie die Nacht (as a rule, at night a little that it is possible to make); 3) fitony : dumm wie Bohnenstroh,; 4) the toponyme : von Dummsdorf sein; 5) die Farbe : na, so blau!
The following codes are actual for English culture: 1) the zoological : God’s ape, ass in grain; 2) artefactial : smb. has a bungalow – got nothing upstairs; 3) incompleteness of quality : be a button short, to have lost a button; 4) speed, mobility : have a slow wit; 5) nominal names: cousin Betty, Tom fool, Simple Simon.
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СONCEPT OF "BEAUTY” IN ENGLISH AND RUSSIAN LANGUAGES
Concept can be understood as a mental formation, which possesses a specific cultural value, and represents elements of the world for people in the course of communication [4, p. 82]. The study of concepts is important because it helps us identify the culturally specific world view of a certain lingual-cultural community. It also allows us to understand the word (as a lexical unit) in the context of culture, cognition, and communication.
"Beauty” is one of the key concepts in a culture, which has an existential significance both for an individual person and for a lingual-cultural community. The concept "beauty" can be found in every ethnic culture, its existence is universal [3, p. 35]. However, the conceptual representation of beauty relies on local, national, cultural, and historical traditions, and the religious beliefs of ethnic groups.
The aim is to compare and describe the concept of beauty in English and Russian.
To determine the conceptual aspects of the term beauty in the Russian language we studied explanatory articles of several entries in the explanatory dictionaries of the Russian language by Ozhegov, Dahl [1, р. 5]. The articles in dictionaries showed that the main meanings expressed by the concept are:
- a characteristic feature, ornament, delight;
- something that gives pleasure and joy to the senses (vision, hearing) or mind;
- an abstract notion;
- attractiveness due to pleasant appearance or inner world .
These characteristics are the conceptual core of the concept "beauty" in Russian.
In Russian language "beauty" is defined as harmony, a kind of feature that causes a person to experience positive emotions, satisfying the aesthetic needs of the person.
In our view, the results of the survey indicate that the conceptual meanings comprising the concept can be divided into 3 groups according to their relation to the core component:
1) those that specify the features contained in the conceptual core, detected by the analysis of dictionary definitions (referring to the nature or works of art that delight the senses and the mind);
3) those that comprise new conceptual features such as harmony, certain perceptions of the world, perfection, or ideal happiness.
In English the concept of "beauty” is determined as:
1) the combination of qualities that give pleasure and joy to the senses (vision and hearing) and mind;
2) as a set of qualities glorifying the soul;
3) as an especially good feature;
4) as an elegant, superb quality .
Such meanings of beauty as proportion, symmetry, beauty spot meaning a mole, beauty shop meaning a beauty salon make up the periphery of the conceptual core of the concept "beauty", as they do not occur that often [6, p.367].
Сonceptual core of the concept “beauty” in Russian and English match themselves on the grounds of the properties and qualities that bring delight to a person. However, it should be noted that the “internal” beauty, representing the inner, spiritual nature of a person is expressed more clearly in the conceptual core of the English concept and is accompanied by ethical evaluation (glorifying the soul) [6, p. 258].
Also in the conceptual core of the term expressed in English there is a sign of this phenomenon`s ethical evaluation intensity (an especially good feature), which is absent in the conceptual core of the Russian concept [2, p.126]. Peripherals and the far periphery of the conceptual aspect of long-range concepts of “beauty” did not match.
The far periphery of the conceptual aspect of the Russian concept is richer than the far periphery of the English concept, indicating a diffuse structure of the conceptual aspect of the Russian concept “beauty”.
In the Russian language "beauty” is personified as
a foe, causing nuisance, leading people to crime;
a beautiful thing that is bought and sold;
a living creature that emits gentle heat;
a living active substance that can save the world;
a deity, which requires certain sacrifices;
a human spiritual need and it is compared with food, without which man would perish etc.
In English there are the following types of visual images of beauty:
a political idea and emerging standards of beauty – as being imposed by some power outside the individual.
So the concept "beauty" has following features:
1) in the Russian language the updated metaphors that represent beauty are used in both negative and positive ways: beauty as the sphere of the living, the sacred - a living creature, flower, savior, god, spiritual food, hiding place, treasure, bright light and as the sphere of the evil - power, money;
2) the concept "beauty" in English is metaphorically realized without being marked axiologically (not including evaluations) - effort, work, sports.
Further, in general, in the linguistic consciousness of Russian and English speakers, beauty is associated with the assets belonging to the spiritual, moral, personal and social spheres, in English – it is associated more with the values from the emotional sphere; in Russian - with the spiritual, aesthetic, age and gender values [2, p.135].
In today's Russian community beauty is also compared with uniqueness. In the sphere of individual views, beauty in the context of Russian and English matched only aesthetic values and vital areas (nature, earth, life) [6, p. 210]. Associations with the values of society and gender (something sexy) and socio-aesthetic (i.e. "glamorous") were specifically Russian ones, while associations with the spiritual and sacred values turned out to be specifically British.
To summarize above-mentioned, we agree with A. Gumboldt who stated that different languages are different world views and alongside they are different concepts, which reflect the peculiar world view in the language.
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3. Nikitin M.V. Concept and metaphor/ M.V. Nikitin / / Studia linguistica-10: collection of articles. Problems of theory of European languages. - SPb.: Tripon, 2001. – pp. 16-49.
4. Neroznak V.P. From concept to word: the problem of Conceptualism Philology/ V.P. Neroznak // Questions of Philology and methods of teaching foreign languages. - Omsk: Omsk State University, 1998. – pp. 80-85.
5. Ozhegov S. Dictionary of Russian language /S. Ozhegov. – M.: Academy, 1986. - 797 p.
Significantly increased students' interest in the English language is due to the fact that the possibility of visiting the United States, Britain and the other countries where English is as official language occured As a result of these trips students have the opportunity not only to see a different culture and earn money, but also get a good language practice.
English language is considered the most "fashionable" and the most promising one to study among the youth. Many young people are familiar with it. That’s why many youth jargons are the words that are borrowed from English, but not translated into the Russian. These jargons are understood even by those people who had never learned English. For example: to videotape, to photograph, laptop, fifty-fifty (50 to 50); respect; exchange; loser; drink; people; crazy; price-list best; darling.
Another cause of popularization of the language is pop culture, e.g. fascination with the popular music of different trends and genres: pop-music, dark (heavy music), release, play-list, chart, face-control, dance, cool, remake, show business, club, fashion, and so on. films also lead to the fact that the main bulk of americanisms is firmly set in the Russian language. For example, a derivative from acronym OK pronounced as OKAY, and the famous phrase from the movie Terminator I'll be back has become popular.
Another reason of using anglicisms is the development of computer technology and social networking. In this connection there are words such as user, gamer, login, password, copy, paste, print, save, open, file. Years have passed, but young people still continue to use English words and terms which are related to computers and the Internet. The Internet has produced many popular anglicisms associated with the global network: smile, e-mail, online, connect, like, site, blog, blogger, chat, and more with young people Also, the sport is the popularization of using English words. Borrowings which are related with the popular sports are sportsman, fitness, bodybuilding, shaping, surfing. The active use of these words in the slang of today's youth is primarily due to the so-called "cult of the beautiful body," promoted in the modern world.
So the young people and students can not use English words in their communication, because some of these words have already come to the Russian language. On the one hand, the creation of new words significantly expands the vocabulary of Russian people, but on the other hand, leads to losing much of its unique beauty and originality.
Imitation of life of American youth has generated one of the largest groups of slang. There are the following words used the Russian youth in everyday life and standard daily situations as boy-friend, VIP, weekend, very good, public, ok, nice, lucky, hotel, go, party, super-girl, baby, ask, looser, hi, real, best and a huge number of words.
In conclusion it is necessary to note: slang will never disappear. Young people used slang many years ago, and will always use them. Without a doubt, slang changes in time, some words are dying, others - appear. However, many anglicizes which are penetrated to the Russian youth slang long before the XXI century will remain in their jargon forever adding new words every day.
Сумцова О. В. Причины использования англицизмов в русском молодежном сленге [Текст] / О. В. Сумцова // Молодой ученый. — 2012. — №4. — С. 247-250.
Англицизмы в современном русском языке [Електроний ресурс]. — Режим доступу: http://festival.1september.ru/articles/410377/
Сленг, или то, о чем не пишут в учебниках [Електроний ресурс]. — Режим доступу: http://engblog.ru/slang
УДК 811.161 (043) Кузьменко Дарина Геннадіївна
Synesthesia (also spelled synæsthesia or synaesthesia, plural synesthesiæ or synæsthesiæ), from the ancient Greek σύν (syn), "together", and αἴσθησις (aisthēsis), "sensation", is a neurological condition in which stimulation of one sensory or cognitive pathway leads to automatic, involuntary experiences in a second sensory or cognitive pathway. People who report such experiences are known as synesthetes. Recently, difficulties have been recognized in finding an adequate definition of synesthesia, as many different phenomena have been covered by this term and in many cases the term synesthesia ("union of senses") seems to be a misnomer. A more accurate term for the phenomenon may be ideasthesia.
In one common form of synesthesia, known as grapheme → color synesthesia or color-graphemic synesthesia, letters or numbers are perceived as inherently colored, while in ordinal linguistic personification, numbers, days of the week and months of the year evoke personalities. In spatial-sequence, or number form synesthesia, numbers, months of the year, and/or days of the week elicit precise locations in space (for example, 1980 may be "farther away" than 1990), or may have a (three-dimensional) view of a year as a map (clockwise or counterclockwise). Yet another recently identified type, visual motion → sound synesthesia, involves hearing sounds in response to visual motion and flicker. Over 60 types of synesthesia have been reported, but only a fraction have been evaluated by scientific research. Even within one type, synesthetic perceptions vary in intensity and people vary in awareness of their synesthetic perceptions.
Chromesthesia or sound-to-color synesthesia is a type of synesthesia in which heard sounds automatically and involuntarily evoke an experience of color . For the purpose of disambiguation, this article will refer to this chromesthesia in inducer-concurrent terms used to describe other forms of synesthesia. With sounds inducing color concurrents, chromesthesia is more accurately termed sound-color synesthesia. Individuals with sound-color synesthesia are consciously aware of their synesthetic color associations/perceptions in daily life . Synesthetes that perceive color while listening to music experience the colors in addition to the normal auditory sensations that would be triggered in the average person. That is, the synesthetic color experience supplements, but does not obscure real, modality-specific perceptions . As with other variations of synesthesia, individuals with sound-color synesthesia perceive the synesthetic experience spontaneously, and without effort, and in a way that the individual learns to accept as normal within their realm of experience .
The color associations, that is, which color is associated to which sound, tone, pitch, or timbre is highly idiosyncratic, but in most cases, consistent over time , . Individuals with synesthesia have unique color pairings. However, all studies to date have reported that synesthetes and non-synesthetes alike match high pitched sounds to lighter or brighter colors and low pitched sounds to darker tones, indicating that there may be some common mechanism that underlies the associations present in normal adult brains .
As with other variants of synesthesia, sound-color synesthesia can be divided into groups based on the way the colors are experienced. Those that 'see' or perceive the color as being in the external space are often called projectors, and those that perceive the color in the mind's eye are often called associators, but these terms can be very misleading in terms of understanding the true nature of the experience . For most synesthetes, the condition is not wholly sensory/perceptual .
Sound-color synesthesia is far more common than color-sound synesthesia, although there are reported cases where sounds and colors activate bidirectionally. One individual, JR, sees colors when she hears sounds and also hears sounds when she sees colors . This type of synesthesia interferes greatly with daily life. It is interesting to note that this individual's associations were highly consistent over time, but the associations were not necessarily the same in either direction .
There may be an effect of semantic mediation in some individuals with sound-color synesthesia. One subject, MH, self-triggered notes on a synthesizer and noted the color associations. When the synthesizer was transposed without her knowledge, she reported identical color associations to the notes that she believed she was hearing, rather than the absolute pitch of the tones .
The exact mechanism by which synesthesia persists has yet to be identified. Given that synesthetes and non-synesthetes both match sounds to colors in a non-arbitrary way, and that the ingestion of hallucinogenic drugs can induce synesthesia in under an hour, some researchers claim it is reasonable to assume that synesthetic experience uses pre-existing pathways that are present in the normal brain . The causality of synesthesia is also unclear at this time, although evidence points to a genetic predisposition. Synesthesia is known to run in families, though the condition may present idiosyncratically within a family. Additionally, synesthesia may skip a generation. However, there are cases of monozygotic twins where only one has synesthesia, indicating there may be additional factors involved.
Differences between synesthetic and non-synesthetic brains may reflect direct hard-wired connections between unimodal auditory and visual regions in the brain, or they may reflect feedback pathways from multimodal audiovisual regions to unimodal visual regions present in all brains .
First of all, vowels almost always fade into the background in the presence of consonants. They also tend to pick up some of the color of letters nearby. For example, the "A" in my name is overwhelmed by the strong green of the letters around it: DARINA
In longer words, the repetition of a single letter can even influence the other consonants, as in this case: SYNAESTHESIA
However, this is less often the case in a word that begins with a vowel. The letter "I" can give an entire word a luminescent quality, and the consonants often lose some of their power in its presence: ILLINOIS, INDIANA
The color effect has very little to do with the pronunciation of a word. It has everything to do with the spelling. The first letter in particular has enormous influence: EILEEN, AILEEN
The meaning of a word also has an undeniable influence on its color. For example, the word "banana" is as yellow for me as I imagine it is for anyone else, despite the fact that its letters are predominantly red. This fact was brought to my attention most recently when I encountered a new word: PHTHALOCYANINE
Later, when I learned what the word meant, its color changed accordingly. Phthalocyanine turns out to be the name of a vivid blue-green pigment used in paint. Now the word looks something like this: PHTHALOCYANINE
As I mentioned, I sometimes use my synaesthesia to help me remember difficult proper names. Here's a Thai chef who wrote a terrific vegetarian cookbook: VATCHARIN, BHUMICHITR
Unfortunately, this method can backfire too, because I confuse similarly-colored names easily: MIKE DAVE, DAN ROB.