Міністерство освіти І науки україни маріупольський державний університет рада з науково-дослідної роботи студентів, аспирантів, молодих вчених дебют збірник тез доповідей студентів


УДК 378.4(410)(043)=111 Антоненко Крістіна Валеріївна



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УДК 378.4(410)(043)=111 Антоненко Крістіна Валеріївна

  1. NEW EXAM REFORMS IN THE UK


Nowadays a lot of European countries face a lot of problems, closely connected with education. The knowledge and qualifications of the twentieth century will no longer equip modern society with the necessary skills and knowledge needed for the twenty-first century. That’s why “educational reforms are not only necessary, they are essential” [2]. And now direct your attention to Michael Gove’s new exam reforms which improve the quality and rigour of examinations (for the last time the British educational system was changed in the 1960s).

  1. The Department for Education in England announced plans to overhaul General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE) in 2015.

  2. The changes will apply to GCSEs in English language, English literature, Mathematics, Physics, Chemistry, Biology, History and Geography.

  3. For GCSEs certificating from 2014, modules will be replaced with the end of the course exams.

  4. GCSE exams will take place in May/June. However, there will be an additional opportunity to take GCSEs in Mathematics, English and English language in November because of the importance of these subjects for entry to further education and employment.

  5. The exams – which will first be taken for Maths and English in 2017 – will end the use of A to G letter grades in favour of a numbered scale from nine to one, with nine being the highest grade.

  6. Ministers want schools to increase the amount of time devoted to Maths to drive up standards of numeracy and put England on par with the world’s top performing countries. The education secretary, Michael Gove said: "On average, secondary schools in England spend only 116 hours per year teaching mathematics, which international studies show is far less time than that spent on this vital subject by our competitors. Just one extra lesson each week would put England closer to countries like Australia or Singapore, who teach 143 and 138 hours a year of mathematics respectively." [1].

  7. The new Maths syllabus, which is aimed at pupils, aged 14 to 16, will place a greater focus on solving “real world problems”, including financial mathematics, and include new sections on ratio, proportion and rates of change to ensure the area s covered in greater depth.

  8. English language exams will include more marks for accurate spelling, punctuation and grammar.

  9. English literature courses will require pupils to study at least one Shakespeare play, a 19th century novel, Romantic poetry and contemporary British fiction from 1914 onwards. The exam will also feature “unseen texts” to encourage wider reading.

  10. The arguments for reform have already been made forcefully by business leaders such as Simon Walker, Director General of the Institute of Directors, who has stated: ‘We welcome Michael Gove’s new exam reforms. This announcement will undoubtedly help to shore up confidence in the British education system. Business leaders want a stronger curriculum and more rigorous exams, and these measures are welcome progress towards delivering that." [3].

  11. A spokesman for the National Union of Teachers criticizes recent and impending changes to the UK's national curriculum. Kevin Courtney says the number and speed of changes and the lack of trials are damaging education. He says teachers suspect government motives in changing from eight A-G grades to a 9-1 grade system.

  12. Opponents of educational reform cannot ignore the force of public opinion in demanding change. According to a YouGov poll taken in June 2012, 60 per cent of the public think it has got easier to get a good GCSE in recent years, compared to only six per cent who think it has got harder.

  13. Forty-seven per cent of Labour voters think it has got easier to get a good GCSE in recent years, compared to only seven per cent who think it has got harder. And it's not just the public who have little confidence in the current system. According to the latest Ofqual survey, just 51 per cent of students in 2011 had confidence in the GCSE exam system [2].

In conclusion it should be said that raising educational standards is needed to ensure the workforce not only in England but also in Ukraine. Our pupils and students can become more highly skilled and compete economically with the increasing number of skilled workers in other countries. “We must recognize that if we do not reform our education system, we will be letting down future generations of pupils who will be competing in this modern, international world. This is why we need reforms and why it is wrong to bow down to the forces of educational conservatism.

Literature

1. Daily Mail [Електронный ресурс]. – Режим доступу: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2325272/Forget-A-C-Gove-wants-GCSEs-graded-plan-fix-level-people-recognise-achievement.html

2. The Telegraph[Електронный ресурс]. – Режим доступу: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/education/educationopinion/9839334/Education-reform-is-not-only-necessary-it-is-essential.html

3. The Guardian [Електронный ресурс]. – Режим доступу:www.theguardian.com/education/2013/nov/01/new-gcse-curriculum-maths-more-demandingектронный ресурс]. – Режим доступу: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/education/educationnews/9549524/GCSEs-axed-True-test-to-restore-faith-in-exam-system.html -michael-gove

4 The Telegraph [Електронный ресурс]. – Режим доступу: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/education/educationnews/9549524/GCSEs-axed-True-test-to-restore-faith-in-exam-system.html
УДК 811.111’373.43(043)=111 Вознюк Світлана Валеріївна

NEOLOGISM AS A LINGUISTIC PHENOMENON

New words are constantly entering the lexicon to describe new concepts and technologies and what they mean to us. A neologism is defined as a new word or expression which has come into a language [1, 356]. The term was itself coined around 1800 A.D. A neologism can also refer to an existing word or phrase which has been assigned a new meaning. Neologisms are especially useful in identifying inventions, new phenomena, or old ideas which have taken on a new cultural context. In linguistics, a neologism refers to a recently created (or coined) word, phrase or usage which can sometimes be attributed to a specific individual, publication, period or event.

The researches point out the types of neologisms: old words with new senses, new coinages, derived words, abbreviations, collocations, eponyms, phrasal words, acronyms and pseudoneologisms [2].

Various theorists have addressed the problem of neology, although the focus of each of them is different. Some have attempted to explain the reasons that enable the occurrence of neologisms in a language system. J. Aitchison says that their occurrence is justified by three causes: fashion, foreign influence and social need [2]. R. Wardhaugh says that a new lexicon can be adopted either by utilization of elements already present in the language or by borrowing lexicons from another language [2].

Neologisms as a linguistic phenomenon can be seen from different aspects: time (synchronic), geographical, social and communicative. Thus, neologism is a unit of the lexicon, a word, a word element or a phrase, whose meaning, or whose signifier – signified relationship, presupposing an effective function in a specific model of communication, was not previously materialized as a linguistic form in the immediately preceding stage of the lexicon of the language. This novelty, which is observed in relation to a precise and empirical definition of the lexicon, corresponds normally to a specific feeling in speakers. According to the model of the lexicon chosen, the neologism will be perceived as belonging to the language in general or only to one of its special usages; or as belonging to a subject-specific usage which may be specialized or general [2].

Often neologisms are the result of the opening up of new areas of art, science or technology. Considering the influence digital technology has had on society, it is not surprising then that lexicographers have found that science and technology are by far the most prolific sources of neologisms in recent times. The Internet and computers in particular have spawned a large and specialized jargon. For example, the prefix “e-” is particularly productive in generating new terms such as e-mail, e-commerce, e-solution, e-vite, e-newsletter, e-book, e-publishing, e-politics and e-government, to name just a very few e- can be added to almost any term to create a reference to the online computer world. The prefix e- is also unique in that it is only a single letter. “e-” is obviously a clipping of “electronic”: e-business, e-learning and e-crime [3].

The kinds of neologisms vary according to the field they first occur in. Generally speaking, we can mention the following types of neologisms:

1) Scientific neologisms are words or phrases created to describe new scientific discoveries. They can be exemplified in the following: prion which is an “infectious protein particle: an infectious particle of protein that, unlike a virus , contains no nucleic acid, does not nucleic acid, does not trigger an immune response, and is not destroyed by extreme heat or cold”.

2) Political neologisms: they are words or phrases created to make some kind of political or rhetorical point. Some political neologisms, however, are intended to convey a negative point of view. They can be exemplified in the following: brutalitarian.

3) Pop-culture: they are words or phrases evolved from mas s media content or used to describe popular cultural phenomena (these may be considered a subsection of slang), e.g. , carb.

4) Imported neologisms: words or phrases originating in another language. Typically, they are used to express ideas that have no equivalent term in the native language, e.g. , tycoon.

5) Trademarks: they are often neologisms to ensure they are distinguished from other brands . If legal trademark protection is lost, the neologism may enter the language as a generalized trademark, e.g. , Kodak.

6) Nonce words: they are words coined and used only for a particular occasion, usually for a special literary effect.

7) Inverted neologisms: they are words that are derived from spelling (and pronouncing) to form a standard word backwards , e.g. redrum.

Dictionaries lag behind changes in languages. New words, figurative words and phrases, slang and nonce words are coined in the language so swiftly that no dictionary can and should register them immediately. Indeed, the number of neologisms appearing in mass media during a year amounts to tens of thousands in developed languages.

The following neologisms have been pointed out, entitled English for Mass Media:



  1. Podcasting: it is a form of distributing digital audio and video files over the internet, typically for convenient use on a portable media device (PMD) such as an MP3 player.

  2. Blogging: the frequent, chronological publication on the Web of personal thoughts and opinions for other Internet users to read.

  3. Advertorial: it is an advertisement in an editorial form, i.e. , an advertisement in a publication that looks like one of its normal articles.

  4. Narrowcas ting: it aims at specialized audience, i.e. , to aim a radio or television transmission at a limited group of people such as cable subscribers or a specialized audience.

  5. Newswire: it is an internet news service, providing the latest information on current events.

  6. Skype: Skype is a software application that allows users to make voice calls over the Internet.

Thus, we coin new words to describe new things. The words we invent to describe our experiences of the world inherently and concurrently reflect our attitudes about the world in which we live. The study of neologisms or neology is a valuable tool for uncovering cultural changes as they occur.

Literature

  1. Каталог: Nauch
    Nauch -> Геометрия в абстракции
    Nauch -> Фитонимическое пространство в языковой картине мира: словообразовательный и мотивационный аспекты
    Nauch -> Отчет о научной деятельности Учреждения Российской академии наук Уфимского научного центра ран за 2010 год
    Nauch -> Технология глубокой очистки нефтесодержащих сточных вод объектов железнодорожного транспорта с использованием активированного алюмосиликатного адсорбента
    Nauch -> Аворска справка за научните приноси по темата на конкурса на доц д-р Евгени Семков
    Nauch -> Научное общество как форма организации проектной деятельности младших школьников в Менделеевской школе-саде
    Nauch -> Научные сообщения Әож 62-523=512. 122
    Nauch -> Лингвостилистическая специфика комического в литературной сказке
    Nauch -> Творческая работа педагогов


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