Міністерство освіти І науки україни маріупольський державний університет рада з науково-дослідної роботи студентів, аспирантів, молодих вчених дебют збірник тез доповідей студентів



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Literature

  1. «Building the Empire State» by Carol Willis Public Press 1982

  2. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Empire_State_Building

  3. «Empire State Building: The Making of a Landmark» by John Tauranac Broadway Editors 2001

УДК 378(71)(043)=111 Чебурахіна Валерія Вадимівна



EDUCATION IN CANADA: U15

In Canada, the constitutional responsibility for higher education rests with the provinces of Canada.

Education in Canada is a provincial responsibility and there are many variations between the provinces. Some educational fields are supported at various levels by federal departments. For example, the Department of National Defense includes the Royal Military College of Canada, while the Department of Indian and Northern Affairs Canada is responsible for the education of First Nations. Vocational training can be subsidized by the Learning branch of Human Resources and Skills Development Canada (a federal department) [1].

Divisions by religion and language. The Constitution of Canada provides constitutional protections for some types of publicly funded religious-based and language-based school systems. In practice, this guarantee means that there are publicly funded English schools in Quebec, and publicly funded French schools in the other provinces and the territories [1].

Length of study. Most education programs in Canada begin in kindergarten (age five) or grade one (age six) and go to grade twelve (age 17 or 18), except in Quebec, where students finish a year earlier. After completion of a secondary school diploma, students may go on to post-secondary studies [1].

The higher education systems in Canada's ten provinces include their historical development, organization (e.g., structure, governance, and funding), and goals (e.g., participation, access, and mobility). Each of the three territories in Canada (i.e., Nunavut, Northwest Territories, and Yukon) has separate higher education systems that reflect territorial history, organization, and goals in the context of geographical challenges [2].

Those governments provide the majority of funding to their public post-secondary institutions, with the remainder of funding coming from tuition fees, the federal government, and research grants. Compared to other countries in the past, Canada has had the highest tertiary school enrollment as a percentage of their graduating population. Nearly all post-secondary institutions in Canada have the authority to grant academic credentials (i.e., diplomas or degrees).

The U15 is a group of 15 leading research-intensive universities in Canada. The group originally formed in 1991 as an informal group of executive heads of 10 universities. Currently, U15 consists of 15 of Canada's most research-intensive universities. The U15 describes itself as bringing "distinguished minds to bear on the most challenges our nation and our world face" [3].

History. The core of the U15 began with a group of five Ontario universities (McMaster University, Queen's University, the University of Toronto, the University of Waterloo and the then-University of Western Ontario), which formed an association in the mid-1980s to advance the interests of their research-intensive institutions. In 1991, the universities formed a Group of Ten/Le Group de Dix: McMaster, Queen's, Toronto, Waterloo, Western, UBC, Alberta, McGill, Montreal and Laval. The group's purpose was to serve as a Canadian equivalent to the Association of American Universities.

In 2006, the organization expanded to include Dalhousie University, the University of Calgary and the University of Ottawa. It became the Group of Thirteen, or the G13. In 2011, the group grew to its current size and membership with the addition of the University of Manitoba and the University of Saskatchewan, becoming pan-Canadian. The group renamed itself the U15 [4].



U15 today. The U15 fosters world-class scholarship that shapes and realizes national and global public policy goals, informs strong industry partnerships, creates social, cultural, economic and environmental innovation and advances Canada's international influence and effectiveness. At the same time, U15 institutions affirm and support curiousity-driven research whose aim is to expand knowledge.

Through the member universities' educational programs, the U15 identifies and nurtures talent and seeks to fulfill the potential of the next generation of Canadian and world leaders.

U15 institutions undertake 80 percent of all competitive university research in Canada, rank among the world's premier institutions, and represent a research enterprise valued at more than $5 billion annually. Collectively, they produce more than 75 percent of all doctorates awarded in Canada.

The U15 functions under the direction of university executive heads and has organized itself into four committees: academic affairs, consisting of provosts of member universities; research, consisting of vice-presidents for research at all of the institutions; the data exchange network consisting of data exchange specialists at the institutions; and a data exchange steering committee. The committees' purpose is to advance the cause of Canada's leading research universities in the development of research and academic policies at the national level [3].



Literature

  1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Education_in_Canada

  2. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Higher_education_in_Canada

  3. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/U15_(universities)

  4. http://www.u15.ca/

УДК 687.12.01-051(73)(043)=111 Яковенко Анастасія Олександрівна



FAMOUS AMERICAN DESIGNERS

Versace, Gucci, Prada ... the names that we hear announced as models walk down the catwalk are all too often Italian names or the names of other designers who have made their careers in Europe. There is no denying that there are amazing fashion designers in Italy and throughout the rest of Europe. But it shouldn't go unnoticed that there are also some really amazing - and well-known - fashion designers working right here in America. It is brief look at ten of the best American fashion designers [2].



Marc Jacobs is a fashion designer who is well-known for his work with the French fashion house Louis Vuitton. However, Marc Jacobs is an American fashion designer who has produced lines of clothing out of New York which are well-respected in the industry.

Vera Wang is an American fashion designer who is best known for her wedding dress collections. Hers is the kind of name that gets regularly mentioned in pop culture (think Sex and the City or Lipstick Jungle and you'll think Vera Wang). She is also embedded in the culture of Hollywood because of the fact that she has made wedding dresses for a number of celebrities including Mariah Carey, Jennifer Lopez and Sharon Stone [5].

Oscar de la Renta is one of those fashion designers that many people have no idea where he came from. He was originally born in the Dominican Republic and he has worked in fashion design all over the world. He is famous for some of the fashion design work that he did throughout Europe. However, if you have to get down to the basics, he is actually an American designer since his citizenship is here [1].

Calvin Klein is a brand name that has changed a lot of the years. It was first launched as a line of coats for both men and women. It became famous as a brand of jeans that were high-end and oh-so-hot. these days when you look at a Calvin Klein billboard you are probably going to see a super attractive model in Calvin Klein underwear. Throughout all of these changes, Calvin Klein has remained an American brand name[6].

Kate Spade is one of the trendiest young designers out there. She is best known for her line of handbags but what is really cool about Kate Spade is that she's got accessories and raincoats and personal organizers and makeup and even a home furnishings collections. She's a do-it-all kind of gal for those DIY girls out there. she was born in Middle America, working now out of New York[4].

Ralph Lauren is best known for his Polo collection but he's produced a lot of different designs that always get attention because he is a leading international designer. He is also a designer that works from America and his brand is an American brand. He has over thirty five boutique stores that carry his clothing all over different parts of America [1].

Anna Sui is an American fashion designer whose designs are so popular throughout the world. She has boutiques in a number of different countries and her work is particularly well-known and well-liked in Japan. However, despite this international appeal of her work, Anna Sui is very much an American designer. She was born in Michigan and has had a highly popular boutique store in Los Angeles for more than ten years. In addition to clothing design, Anna Sui has dabbled in shoe design and a fragrance collection [2].

Donna Karan is the "DK" in the famous American fashion brand "DKNY". She was born in New York and continues to work in aspects of the company that she spent years developing. Her brand is recognized all around the world and is particularly popular here in the United States [5].

Todd Oldham is a fashion designer born in Texas; what's a more American place than that? He is a unique designer whose most famous work might be the line of clothing that he produced in conjunction with the Batman Forever movie. In addition to his fashion design experience, he has experience in design for the home [3].

Bill Blass is one of the most famous fashion designers to have ever come out of America and he came right from the heart of the country - Indiana. He has won numerous awards throughout the years for his many designs and even attained a lifetime achievement award at the end of the twentieth century. He died of cancer in 2002 but his designs continue to be important and influential to the industry to this day [4].

These are just ten of the famous American fashion designers who have done a lot of their best work in America. What they have in common is not just that they are from the United States but that they have chosen to continue to keep their brand an American brand even though they have gained international attention. They may have fans and boutique stores and even additional jobs in other countries but all of these fashion designers remain, at heart, American fashion designers [6].

In addition to these famous names, there are also thousands of independent fashion designers working in America today. Head to any major urban area in the United States and you will find it easy to find small clothing stores where creative people are putting their clothing designs on the rack for sale to others who like their style. This independent business spirit thrives in America and it allows for the American fashion design scene to differ greatly from the fashion scene of European and other countries throughout the world. The famous American designers cited above are people who give credibility to the American fashion scene but it is all those people working behind the scenes and on a smaller level who really drive the American fashion world [1].

Literature

1. Breward, Christopher, The culture of fashion: a new history of fashionable dress, Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2003

2. Hollander, Anne, Seeing through clothes, Berkeley: University of California Press, 1993

3. Hollander, Anne, Sex and suits: the evolution of modern dress, New York: Knopf, 1994

4. Kawamura, Yuniya, Fashion-ology: an introduction to Fashion Studies, Oxford and New York: Berg, 2005

5. Lipovetsky, Gilles (translated by Catherine Porter), The empire of fashion: dressing modern democracy, Woodstock: Princeton University Press, 2002

6. Steele, Valerie, Fifty years of fashion: new look to now, New Haven: Yale University Press, 2000
УДК159.925.001(73)(043)=111 Якушенко Анна Володимирівна

THE BEST HUMAN LIE DETECTOR IN THE WORLD 

Is it true that modern human lies three times in ten minutes of conversation? Just imagine that it's true. What could it mean? Many of those with whom you communicate during the day constantly deceive you, starting with small things, but also touching the important things. It may be your relatives, children, friends, work colleagues, business partners. Not many of us are able to recognize the deception only by words or expression of voice, especially when we are dealing with an experienced "professionals". But it would be great to know exactly where the interlocutor is insincere or dissembles.

I would like to know the answers. That’s why I was interested in Paul Ekman’s analysis.

Paul Ekman is an American psychologist who was a pioneer in the study of emotions and their relation to facial expressions; he has created an “atlas of emotions” with more than ten thousand facial expressions, and has gained a reputation as “the best human lie detector in the world”. His most significant discovery is the micro-expression, which shows up on our faces for fractions of a second as an indicator of emotion.

P. Ekman says that it is almost impossible to hide a lie. Even if the liar really tries to hide it, micro-expressions and micro-gestures, that are inherent in human from very birth, will grass him up.  

Paul Ekman found that facial muscular movements that created facial expressions could be reliably identified through empirical research. He also found that human beings are capable of making over 10,000 facial expressions; only 3,000 relevant to emotion.[1]

Through a series of studies, Ekman found a high agreement across members of diverse Western and Eastern literate cultures on selecting emotional labels that fit facial expressions. Expressions he found to be universal included those indicating anger, disgust, fear, happiness, sadness, and surprise.  Findings on contempt are less clear, though there is at least some preliminary evidence that this emotion and its expression are universally recognized.[2]

Ekman demonstrated that certain emotions were exhibited with very specific display rules, culture-specific prescriptions about who can show which emotions to whom and when. These display rules could explain how cultural differences may conceal the universal effect of expression.[3]

In the 1990s, Ekman expanded his list of basic emotions, including a range of positive and negative emotions that are not all encoded in facial muscles. The newly included emotions are: amusement, contempt, contentment, embarrassment, excitement, guilt, pride in achievement, relief, satisfaction, sensory pleasure and shame.

Ekman's famous test of emotion recognition was the Pictures of Facial Affect (POFA) stimulus set published in 1976. Consisting of 110 black and white images of Caucasian actors portraying the six universal emotions plus neutral expressions, the POFA has been used to study emotion recognition rates in normal and psychiatric populations around the world.

Ekman has contributed to the study of social aspects of lying, why we lie, and why we are often unconcerned with detecting lies.[4] In a research project along with Dr. Maureen O'Sullivan, called the Wizards Project, Ekman reported on facial “micro-expressions” which could be used to assist in lie detection. After testing a total of 20,000 people[5] from all walks of life, he found only 50 people who had the ability to spot deception without any formal training. These “naturals” are also known as “Truth Wizards”, or wizards of deception detection from demeanor.

Ekman’s research on deception inspired the television series, called “Lie to Me”, in which he served as a consultant. This was an excellent opportunity for Ekman to spread his work on micro-expressions, while not directly accredited for his work, his work did eventually become part of pop culture to some extent as a result of the show.

As this serial created a furore in Ukraine, I decided to interview some people and to find out their opinion about such ability as uncover lie. More than 20% of interviewed people consider that this ability is something supernatural, such as telepathy; over 60% believe that everyone can get such ability by hard practicing, and the others don’t believe at all that it is possible.

Paul Ekman has spent on researches more than 50 years. He has published over 10 books. These facts make me belong to that 60% of people who believe.


Literature

  1. YouTube [Електронний ресурс]. – Режим доступу: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=m72bqvf_qDg

  2. Matsumoto, David (1992) "More evidence for the universality of a contempt expression". Motivation and Emotion. Springer Netherlands. Volume 16, Number 4 / December, 1992

  3. Ekman, Paul (1989). H. Wagner & A Manstead, ed. Handbook of social psychophysiology. Chichester, England: Wiley. pp. 143–164.

  4. Ekman, P., 1996: Why don't we catch liars.

  5. Camilleri, J., "Truth Wizard knows when you've been lying", Chicago Sun-Times, January 21, 2009.


Секція

Соціолінгвістичні проблеми німецькомовних країн
УДК 821112.2-343(043)=112.2 Ghoglo Еlena Аleksandrоvna

DIE INTERESSANTEN LEGENDEN DEUTSCHLANDS

Es gibt Wälder, Seen und Berge, die sind von einer magischen Aura umgeben. Das dachten sich schon unsere Vorfahren und so haben sie begonnen, sich Geschichten zu erzählen, um dem magischen Ort einen Namen zu geben. Die Geschichten wurden im Laufe der Jahrhunderte zu Legenden und entwickelten eine weitere Funktion: Die in mündlichen Erzählungen und Liedern weitergegebenen Sagen wurden zu einem wichtigen Bestandteil unserer Kultur. Die deutschen Sagen reichen zurück bis ins frühe Mittelalter, es gab sie schon lange vor dem ersten Buch [1, 153]. Heute ist sogar das Buch ein veraltetes Medium, nutzen wir doch zunehmend das Internet, um uns einander mitzuteilen. Grund genug, ein Stück mittelhochdeutscher Kultur in das allerneueste Medium unserer Zeit zu integrieren. Ich präsentiereIhnen 5 deutsche Legenden, Sagen oder Mythen. Ich habe meinen Vortrag in fünf Teile gegliedert.

In der ersten Legendemöchte ich über Lorelei erzählen. Dort, wo der Rhein am tiefsten ist, wohnte einst ein wunderschönes Fräulein auf einer Klippe. Abends kam sie oft heraus, um den Sonnenuntergang zu sehen. Währenddessen sang sie mit einer solch lieblichen Stimme, dass die jungen Schiffer unten auf dem Fluß gebannt mit der Arbeit innehielten, um ihr zu lauschen. Viele Männer wurden wegen ihrer Unachtsamkeit in die Fluten gerissen und starben. Dieser Sage nach war Loreley die Tochter eines edlen Ritters. Eines Tages kam ein junger Ritter und machte dem jungen Mädchen den Hof. Doch der junge Mann war ein Schürzenjäger. Kaum in seine Burg zurückgekehrt, machte er schon einer Anderen den Hof und kehrte nicht zu Loreley zurück. Diese wartete bis zu ihrem Hochzeitstag vergeblich auf dessen Rückkehr. In jedem Schiff, das sich stromaufwärts näherte, vermutete Loreley den Liebsten. Doch sie täuschte sich jedes Mal. Ihr Herz war so gebrochen, dass sie sich vom Fels in die dunklen Fluten stürzte. Ihr alter Vater starb vor Trauer um sein kleines Töchterlein und seine Burg wurde von einem Unwetter bis auf die Grundfesten zerstört. Seither sucht Loreleys Geist den Felsen heim. Treulose Männer werden durch die sanften Klänge ihres Gesangs angelockt und von dem gefährlichen Strudel abgelenkt, der sich vor ihnen im Rhein auftut, um sie in den Tod herabzuziehen. An der Stelle, wo Loreley einst ihr Leben verlor [2, 169].

Die zweite Legende heißt „Der Rattenfänger von Hameln“. Der Sage nach wurde Hameln während des Mittelalters, um 1284, von einer Rattenplage heimgesucht. Die Stadt war nicht in der Lage, sich alleine gegen den Ansturm der Nager zu wehren. Eines Tages kam ein fremder, bunt gekleideter Mann in die Stadt, der von sich behauptete, Rattenfänger zu sein. Der Fremde holte eine Flöte aus der Tasche und spielte darauf eine Melodie, die alle Ratten aus den Häusern und Gassen hervorholte und ihm folgen ließ. Der Rattenfänger führte die Tiere aus der Stadt heraus bis zur Weser, wo sie ertranken. Die Bürger der Stadt waren jedoch ein geiziges Volk. Als sie sahen, dass der Rattenfänger seine Arbeit so leicht erledigt hatte, wollten sie ihm den versprochenen Lohn nicht mehr zahlen [3, 123]. Daraufhin verließ der Mann wütend die Stadt. Einige Zeit später kehrte er in Gestalt eines Jägers zurück. Als er sah, dass die Bürger in der Kirche zur Andacht waren, holte er abermals seine Flöte heraus. Dieses Mal aber waren es keine Ratten, die der lustigen Melodie folgten, sondern die Kinder derjenigen, die ihn zuvor nicht hatten bezahlen wollen. Sie folgten ihm aus der Stadt heraus bis zu einem Berg, in dem er mit ihnen verschwand. Keins von ihnen kehrte je wieder zurück.

Der Titel der dritten Legende lautet „Die Heinzelmännchen“. Gab es eine Sorte Hausgeister in Köln, die nachts, wenn alles schlief, liegengebliebene Arbeiten der Menschen erledigten. Die Heinzelmännchen kamen still und heimlich und verschwanden genauso unerkannt wieder, wenn ihre Arbeit vollbracht war. Die Kölner waren ihnen sehr dankbar, denn so konnten sie ruhigen Gewissens abends schlafen gehen [4, 221]. Die Frau des Schneiders jedoch war sehr neugierig und wollte die kleinen Männlein zu gerne einmal sehen. Darum verteilte sie Erbsen auf den Stufen und als die Heinzelmännchen die Nacht darauf wiederkamen, um zu helfen, rutschten sie der Reihe nach auf den Erbsen aus und polterten die Treppe hinunter. Die Frau des Schneiders hatte sie erwartet und sah sie unten an der Treppe liegen. Sie lachte und verspottete die hilflosen Heinzelmännchen. Die Hausgeister jedoch verschwanden traurig in die Nacht hinaus und kamen nicht wieder. Als die Kölner am nächsten Morgen ausgeruht in ihren Stuben erschienen, war die liegengebliebene Arbeit nicht verrichtet. Auch an den folgenden Tagen mussten die Bürger ihre Arbeit ganz alleine erledigen, denn die Heinzelmännchen kehrten nie wieder zurück.

Es gibt noch eine Legende, die heißt „Die weiße Frau von Hohenzollern“. Einst wohnte auf der Plassenburg Gräfin Kunigunde, die Witwe des Grafen Otto von Orlamünde mit ihren zwei Kindern. Sie hatte sich in den Sohn des Nürnberger Burggrafen, Albrecht den Schönen, verliebt. Albrecht erzählte ihr, er würde sie heiraten, wenn nicht vier Augen im Weg stünden. Mit den vier Augen meinte Albrecht seine Eltern, die eine solche Heirat nicht genehmigen würden. Kunigunde wusste dies jedoch nicht und bezog die Nachricht auf ihre beiden kleinen Kinder, die sie daraufhin beide mit einer Nadel in den Kopf stach und tötete. Als ihr geliebter Albrecht davon erfuhr, brach er den Kontakt ab. Kunigunde pilgerte zum Papst nach Rom und bat ihn um Vergebung ihrer Sünden, die sie mit der Auflage erhielt, ein Kloster zu stiften und dort zu dienen. Mit den Knien rutschte sie zur Buße von der Plassenburg in das Tal hinab und gründete das Kloster Himmelkron, in welchem sie auch starb. Fortan erschien die weiße Dame den Hohenzollern alle Jahre wieder, um Todesfälle oder andere Unglücke anzukündigen. Zwar erschreckte sie durch ihr Erscheinen die Menschen, aber sie blieb weitgehend friedlich, bis Markgraf Georg Friedrich I. die Plassenburg in Besitz nehmen wollte. Das war der weißen Frau zu viel. Sie rasselte mit Ketten, tobte umher, erschreckte die Burgfräulein und schließlich erwürgte sie den Koch des Markgrafen. Der Markgraf verließ daraufhin die Burg.

In der fünften Legende es geht um „Die Lilie“. Einst gab es einen Edelmann, der Köpfe abhauen und wieder aufsetzen konnte. Weil dies nicht mit rechten Dingen vor sich gehen konnte, beschloss er, dieses Kunststück nicht mehr aufzuführen. In einem Gasthaus ließ er sich doch noch mal dazu überreden, doch niemand unter den Anwesenden wollte seinen Kopf dafür hinhalten, aus Angst, ihn nicht mehr wiederzubekommen. Letzten Endes meldete sich der Hausknecht freiwillig; der Edelmann musste ihm versprechen, dass nichts schief gehen würde. Der Kopf war schnell ab, aber das Wiederaufsetzen funktionierte nicht [5, 154]. Da sagte er zu den Gästen: „Es ist einer unter euch, der mich daran hindern will. Ich warne und ermahne ihn, dies nicht zu tun.“ Er versuchte wieder dem Knecht seinen Kopf aufzusetzen, aber es ging wieder nicht. Er ermahnte und warnte die Anwesenden erneut. Die Warnung brachte nichts, der Kopf ließ sich auch jetzt nicht wieder aufsetzen. Also ließ der Mann auf dem Wirtshaustisch eine Lilie wachsen. Er schlug der Blume die Blüte ab. Plötzlich fiel einer der Gäste hinter ihm von der Bank, ohne Kopf. Der Verräter war entlarvt. So kam der arme Knecht seinen Kopf wieder, und der Edelmann floh aus der Stadt, bis Gras über die Sache gewachsen war.


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