Спирулина Spirulina Научные исследования Спирулина в клинической практике: доказательства, основанные на человеческих приложений



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4. Discussion


The outcomes of the present investigation have affirmed the presence of an oxidant-antioxidant imbalance in COPD patients when compared with healthy subjects (controls). Patients have high levels of MDA and low levels of antioxidants in comparison with controls. High levels of MDA in COPD patients have been one of the most consistent findings across several studies [3234]. In comparison with the controls, COPD patients have decreased serum content of GSH, Vit C and reduced serum activity of CAT, SOD, and GST. Similar enzymatic (SOD, CAT, and GST) and nonenzymatic (GSH, Vit C) antioxidant imbalance between COPD patients and controls have been described by Arja et al. [16]. The results of the present analysis clearly highlight the efficacy of spirulina as an MDA lowering agent as spirulina intervention, which for 30 days at (500 × 2) mg and (500 × 4) mg doses has resulted in 12.17% and 17.72% reduction in MDA level, respectively, and for 60 days at (500 × 2) mg and (500 × 4) mg doses has resulted in 20.89% and 35.71% reduction in MDA level, respectively (see Table 6). These outcomes are similar to the finding of Lu et al. 2006 [35]. The inhibitory effects of spirulina on lipid peroxidation are in accordance with the findings of Lee et al. [17]. With reference to antioxidant enzymes, namely, SOD, CAT, GST, and GSH, they were increased significantly after intake of spirulina. Supplementation with spirulina for 30 days at (500 × 2) mg and (500 × 4) mg doses has resulted in 4.98% and 11.08% increase in SOD level, respectively, and for 60 days at (500 × 2) mg and (500 × 4) mg doses has resulted in 12.84% and 20.19% increase in SOD level, respectively. Lu et al. [35] have described an increase in the activity of superoxide dismutase in their study relating to spirulina intervention. Increase in catalase activity is only significant at (500 × 4) mg dose for 30 and 60 days. Many animal and human studies have repeatedly reported the lipid-lowering effects of spirulina. Park and Kim [36] reported that the plasma levels of triglyceride, total cholesterol, and LDL-cholesterol in Korean elderly people were significantly decreased after spirulina supplementation. Also, spirulina supplementation to type 2 diabetic patients resulted in a significant decrease in plasma concentrations of triglyceride, total cholesterol, and LDL-cholesterol (Iyer et al.) [37]. The findings of our study regarding cholesterol and triglyceride reducing effect of spirulina supplementation are in accordance with the findings of Park and Kim [36] as well as Iyer et al. [37]. Supplementation with spirulina for 30 days at (500 × 2) mg and (500 × 4) mg doses has resulted in 1.48% and 3.25% reduction in TG levels, respectively, and for 60 days at (500 × 2) mg and (500 × 4) mg doses has resulted in 2.85% and 6.24% reduction in TG levels, respectively. Reduction in TG level is significant only at (500 × 4) mg dose for 30 and 60 days. Spirulina intervention for 30 days at (500 × 2) mg and (500 × 4) mg doses has resulted in 3.03% and 7.14% reduction in cholesterol level, respectively, and for 60 days at (500 × 2) mg and (500 × 4) mg doses has resulted in 9.05% and 15.84% reduction in cholesterol level, respectively. Reduction in cholesterol level is significant at both (500 × 2) mg and (500 × 4) mg doses for 30 and 60 days. Lee et al. [17] reported high density lipoprotein (HDL) increasing effect of spirulina intervention. In accordance with their study, spirulina supplementation in this study for 30 days at (500 × 2) mg and (500 × 4) mg doses has resulted in 1.2% and 2.26% increase in HDL level, respectively, and for 60 days at (500 × 2) mg and (500 × 4) mg doses has resulted in 2.94% and 5.88% increase in HDL level, respectively. But an increase in HDL level at (500 × 2) mg and (500 × 4) mg doses for 30 and 60 days is nonsignificant. Supplementation with spirulina for 30 days at (500 × 2) mg and (500 × 4) mg doses has resulted in 9.21% and 11.84% increase in the Vit C level, respectively, and for 60 days at (500 × 2) mg and (500 × 4) mg doses has resulted in 21.05% and 28.94% increase in the Vit C level, respectively. Vit C increase could be attributed to spirulinas good content of Vit C [38]. Intervention with spirulina for 30 days at (500 × 2) mg and (500 × 4) mg doses has resulted in 8.23% and 13.42% increase in GSH level, respectively, and for 60 days at (500 × 2) mg and (500 × 4) mg doses has resulted in 19.08% and 27.67% increase in GSH level, respectively. Various hypotheses have been proposed in an attempt to identify direct mechanisms responsible for the hypolipidemic and hypocholesterolemic potency of Spirulina. High gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) content of spirulina has gained the attention. Prostaglandin (PG) synthesis in our body requires GLA as a precursor. Regulation of a variety of basic biochemical functions in the body including the regulation of cholesterol synthesis requires the prostaglandin PGE1. An external food source of GLA such as spirulina, therefore, plays a crucial role in regulating the cholesterol levels [19]. In conclusion, spirulina intervention brought favorable effect against oxidative stress. Also, we have observed favorable effects of spirulina intervention on blood lipids and antioxidant status, in our targeted patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Our results also suggest that spirulina is a promising agent as a functional food for the management of COPD. Further studies with larger sample size and longer duration are required to ascertain the mechanism of spirulina actions on lipid profiles, oxidative stress, and antioxidant status.

Антиоксидантное действие Спирулины (Arthrospira) максимумов на хроническое воспаление, вызванные Фройнд полным Адъювантом у крыс.

Одним из основных механизмов в патогенезе хронического воспаления является избыточной продукцией активных форм кислорода и активных форм азота, и, следовательно, окислительный стресс. Спирулина (Arthrospira) Maxima обладает выраженными антиоксидантными активность ин виво и ин витро, а также противовоспалительной активностью в определенных экспериментальных моделях, Последняя активность, опосредованная вероятно, антиоксидантная активность этой цианобактерии. В настоящем исследовании хроническое воспаление индуцировали путем инъекции Фройнд полный адъювант (КФА) в крысы, получавшие ежедневно с Спирулина (Arthrospira) максимумы за 2 недели начала на 14 день. Совместное диаметра, температуры тела, и мощность двигателя оценивались каждую неделю. На дни 0 и 28, общее и дифференциальное количество лейкоцитов и сыворотки крови от окислительного повреждения определялись, последние, по оценке перекисного окисления липидов и белковых карбонильных Контента. В конце исследования, окислительное повреждение суставов была также оценена. Результаты показывают, что С. максимумов способствует повышенной мобильности, а также регуляцию температуры тела и количества циркулирующих лейкоцитов, лимфоцитов и моноцитов в образцах с КФА-индуцированное хроническое воспаление, а также защищает от окислительного повреждения и в суставной ткани, а также сыворотки. В заключение, защита, обеспечиваемая С. максимумов против развития хронического воспаления обусловлена его антиоксидантной активностью.



J Med Food. 2015 Jan 19. [Epub ahead of print]



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