PASSIVE CONSTRUCTIONS учебное пособие для студентов неязыковых специальностей
БК 81.2 Англ-923
А23 Международный казахско-турецкий университет им. Х.А.Ясави
Кафедра английского языка
Составители: доцент Андабаева К.Т., к.ф.н., профессор Ержанұлы М.Е.
Данное учебное пособие обсуждено на заседании кафедры английского языка и представлено на рассмотрение методического Cовета филологического факультета. Протокол №4 от 25.11.2011 г.
Данное учебное пособие рассмотрено и утверждено методическим Cоветом филологического факультета и представлено на обсуждение и утверждение учебно-методическому Cовету университета. Протокол №6 от 16.04.2012 г.
Рекомендовано учебно-методическим Советом Международного казахско-турецкого университета им. Х.А.Ясави
Редколлегия: Ташимов Л., Айнурал С., Ергобек К.,
Туртабаев С., Раимбердиев Т., Вурал И.
к.ф.н., проф. Р.Б.Таукебаева
к.ф.н., доцент Т.Абдуалиев
A23 Андабаева К.Т., Ержанұлы М.Е. Passive Constructions: Учебное пособие для студентов неязыковых специальностей. –Туркестан: типография «Туран», 2013. – 80 с.
Учебное пособие представляет собой вспомогательную часть к основному рабочему учебнику по английскому языку для студентов неязыковых специальностей в высшем учебном заведении. Оно может быть использовано и в качестве самоучителя для взрослых обучающихся продолжающего уровня обучения. Проработав данное учебное пособие, студенты имеют возможность приобрести навыки правильного использования предложений с глаголами в страдательном залоге в английской устной и письменной речи.
ПРЕДИСЛОВИЕ Настоящее учебное пособие представляет собой вспомогательную часть к основному рабочему учебнику по английскому языку для студентов неязыковых специальностей в высшем учебном заведении. Оно может быть использовано и в качестве самоучителя для взрослых обучающихся продолжающего уровня обучения. Проработав данное учебное пособие, студенты имеют возможность приобрести навыки правильного использования предложений с глаголами в страдательном залоге в английской устной и письменной речи.
Пособие состоит из четырех частей: 1-ая часть представляет теоретический грамматический материал по теме “Passive Voice” (страдательный залог), который изложен очень легким доступным английским языком. 2-я часть представляет собой комплекс разнотипных упражнений для закрепления теоретического материала, который способствует развитию навыков говорения, как в диалогической, так и в монологической речи. В 3-й части изложены английские пословицы и поговорки с использованием пассивных конструкций, которые способствуют выработке автоматизации в употреблении пассивных конструкций, а также способствуют приобретению знаний страноведческого характера. В данной части также изложены казахские и русские эквиваленты английских пословиц и поговорок. В 4-ой части представлен тест из 300 заданий по данной теме для самоконтроля. Также в конце пособия имеется приложение – таблица неправильных глаголов (с целью доступности употребления частотных глаголов).
Theoretical Point There are two voices in the English language: the Passive Voice and the Active Voice. Voice is an attribute of every verb. So every verb in English is either in the Active or Passive Voice. So in English we can talk about active and passive sentences, for example:
Helen washes dishes. (active) The dishes are washed. (passive)
In active sentences someone performs an action. In active sentences we have an agent. Agent it is a person or thing doing the action named by the main verb. The Active Voice it is when subject and agent are the same.
My friend made this painting.
But in a passive sentence the subject of the sentence does not perform an action, the subject receives an action. In a passive sentence we do not have a performer, but a receiver of the action. In passive sentences the subject is not the agent.
This painting was made.
Active sentences focus on performing an action. Passive sentences focus on receiving an action.
What is the Passive Voice? Grammar books call it either the Passive Voice or simply the Passive. The Passive Voice is a way of forming sentences so that the focus is on the person or thing receiving the action. This is a contrast to active sentences, which focus on the person or thing performing the action.
My son often sends messages. – Messages are often sent by my son.
So you see, that the sentences have the same basic information but they have different subjects because they focus on different things and the active sentence focuses on the performer of the action and the passive sentence focuses on the receiver of the action.
How is the Passive Voice formed? The formula of the Passive Voice is
Let’s analyze how the passive sentences are formed in different tenses:
a) Simple Present:to be (am / are / is) + Past Participle (or V3)
They deliver newspapers every morning. –
Newspapers are delivered every morning.
b) Simple Past:to be (was / were) + Past Participle (or V3)
He sent a message yesterday. –
The message was sent yesterday.
c) Simple Future:shall / will + be + Past Participle (or V3)
She will collect the coat from the dry-cleaner’s. –
The coat will be collected from the dry-cleaner’s.
a) PresentContinuous: tobe(am/are/is)+being+PastParticiple(orV3)
They are repairing the bridge. –
The bridge is being repaired.
b) Past Continuous:tobe(was/were)+being+PastParticiple(orV3)
She was typing the documents when I came. –
The documents were being typed when I came.
Future Continuous is not used in the Passive Voice.
a) Present Perfect:has / have + been + Past Participle (or V3)
He has lost his umbrella. – The umbrella has been lost.
b) Past Perfect:had + been + Past Participle (or V3)
He said he had repaired his car. – He said his car had been repaired.
Future Perfect Passive and Active are very seldom used in the English language.
Modals in the Passive Voice:
You must shut the door. – The door must be shut.
They can mend the roof. – The roof can be mended.
You should do it at once. – It should be done at once.
Butter is made from milk.
Butter was made from milk.
Butter will be made from milk.
Butter is being made from milk.
Butter was being made when I came.
Butter has been made from milk.
He said butter had been made from milk.
When a verb moves from active to passive it always gains one word – a form of “to be”. The form of the verb “to be” shows the tense. The sentences are the same, but the forms of the verb “to be” change. It is the form of the verb “to be” that shows us the verb tense. The Past Participle (or PP) remains the same.
In a passive sentence we can still name the person or thing that performs the action. We use “a by-phrase”, and it comes at the end of the sentence.
The Toyota car-company produces these cars. -
These cars are produced by Toyota car-company.
So “the Toyota car-company” is the person who performs the action.
Isendmessageseveryday. – Я каждый день посылаю сообщения.
1. In order to change the sentence into the passive we start the passive sentence with the subject “messages”.
2. The verb “send” in the active sentence is in the Present Indefinite tense so we need the form of the verb “to be” (am / is / are). The subject (messages) is in the plural form so we choose the form “are”.
Messages are _______________________
The Past Participle form of the verb “to send” (or V3) is “sent”.
Messages are sent ___________________
The personal pronoun “I” is changed into “by me” construction.
Messages are sent by me _______________
Adverbial modifier of time is used at the end of the sentence.
Messages are sent by me every day.
The difference between passive and active sentences is the focus. We can communicate the same information but focus on different things. The passive is always made with transitive verbs. Transitive verbs are verbs that take objects. Transitive verbs have objects. We can make passive sentences only with transitive verbs. The object of an active sentence can become the subject of a passive sentence. Here are some examples of active sentences which cannot be changed into passive:
She painted from morning till night.
The room looks bigger and brighter.
Ben will paint with watercolors.
Some active sentences can have two objects: direct and indirect.
Pete told me the story yesterday.
me : indirect object
the story : direct object
In this case we can make 2 types of passive sentences:
I was told the story by Pete yesterday.
The story was told me by Pete yesterday.
My friend gave me that book.
I was given that book by my friend.
That book was given me by my friend.
The negative form of passive sentences is used with “not” after the first verb:
Oranges are not grown in Kazakhstan.
The rooms haven’t been cleaned yet.
The roof wasn’t mended yesterday.
The film will not be shown tomorrow.
The interrogative forms of passive sentences:
Tea is grown in India.
Is tea grown in India?
Is tea grown in India or in Brazil?
Tea is grown in India, isn’t it?
What is grown in India?
Where is tea grown?
Why is tea grown in India?
Some of the English sentences when put into the passive require, or can have, a change of construction.
1. (a) Think, know, consider, believe, acknowledge, understand, find, say,claim, report, when used in the passive are often followed by the infinitive.
People say that he is a spy. - It is said that he is a spy.
or: He is said to be a spy.
People say that he was a spy. - It is said that he was a spy.
or: He is said to have been a spy.
There is normally no difference in meaning between the two forms and the infinitive construction, being neater, is often preferred.
(b) Suppose in the passive can similarly be followed by either of these constructions, but there is a difference in meaning here, because the present infinitive used after passive tenses of suppose usually conveys a sense of duty.
It is supposed that you know. - People believe that you know.
But: You are supposed to know. - It is your duty to know.
The perfect infinitive, however, does not necessarily convey this sense of duty.
‘He is supposed to have written it’ normally means:
People believe that he wrote it.
‘It is supposed that he wrote’ is much less usual and conveys a faint hint of doubt.
2. Note that an infinitive placed after a passive verb is normally a full infinitive, i.e. an infinitive with to.
and: We saw them enter becomes: They were seen to enter.
3. Sentences of the type: I got the garage to mend the puncture are most neatly expressed in the passive by the have + object + past participle construction.
I had the puncture mended.
Practical Point Exercise 1
Make up sentences using Simple Present Passive:
Model: coffee / Brazil - Coffee is imported from Brazil.
1. tea / India 2. beef / Argentina
3. wood / Sweden 4. wine / Spain
5. oil / Saudi Arabia 6. rubber / Malaysia
Answer these questions:
In your country what goods are imported?
Where are they imported from?
What things are exported from your country?
Put the verbs in brackets in the correct passive form:
Model: Clothes (to wash) at the laundry. - Clothes are washed at the laundry.
Films (to show) at the cinema.
Newspapers (to sell) at the newsagent’s.
Cars (to repair) at the garage.
Hair (to cut) at the hairdresser’s.
Photographs (to take) at the studio.
Bread (to sell) at the baker’s.
Money (to change) at the bank.
Holidays (to book) at the travel-agent’s.
Clothes (to clean) at the dry-cleaning.
Milk (to sell) at the dairy.
Coats and suits (to make) at the tailor’s.
Books (to borrow) at the library.
Read the following situations and fulfill the tasks given below. Pay attention to the use of Simple Past Passive.
Three cowboys were killed a long time ago in Cactus City. We do not know who killed them. All we can say is that Tom was hanged, Dick was shot dead and Harry was stabbed, all in 1877 (this is written on their tombs).
Correct the following sentences if it is necessary:
The cowboys were born in Cactus City.
They were killed a short time ago.
Two of them were killed.
Answer the questions:
What do we not know?
How do we know they were killed in 1877?
Ask questions: “How was … killed?
“When was …killed? Situation B
There was a terrible storm during the night. A lot of damage was done. Trees and telephone wires were blown down, windows were smashed and a roof was blown off. A car was even overturned. All this happened last night.
Model: Someone closed the window. - The window was closed by someone.
1. A lion killed him.
2. Mary won the first prize.
3. Somebody broke my mobile phone.
4. A loud noise woke me up.
5. Someone robbed the bank.
6. They changed the time-table.
7. They held the meeting last Monday.
8. He sent a message last night.
9. Someone broke the shop-window.
10. I cleaned my room an hour ago.
Make up mini-dialogues using Present Continuous Passive.
Model: letter – type
Where is the letter?
It’s being typed.
Oh, I don’t know. (By) someone in the typing pool, I think.
Or: (By) the secretary, I suppose.
1. article – print
2. documents – sign
3. car – repair
4. coat – clean
5. light bulbs – replace
6. chicken – fry
7. vegetables – chop
8. coffee – make
9. socks – wash
10. violin – tune
11. knife – sharpen
12. TV-set – repair
13. carpet – clean
14. shoes – polish
15. trousers – iron
16. dress – alter
17. washer – fix
18. documents – photocopy
19. presents – wrap
20. shirts – wash
You have a lot of different things at home. You know where they were made. Make up sentences as in the model:
My watch was made in Russia. The TV-set was made in Japan. Exercise 8
Read the following sentences and pay attention to the use of Present Perfect Passive.
This is a small house. It has been painted. The window has been mended. The garden looks better because some flowers have been planted. We do not know who did these things or even when they were done. All we can say that they have been done.
1. What has happened to the house? to the gate? to the windows?
2. Why does the garden look better?
3. There are two things we do not know: what are they?
Tom’s car has been damaged. He is telling a policeman about it.
- “Look! The bumper has been bent and a headlight has been smashed!”
- “Do you know when this was done, sir?”
- “No. All I know is the car was all right when I parked it here three hours ago.”
1. Does Tom know when the car has been damaged?
2. What is the policeman’s question?
3. What is the only thing Tom knows?
Arthur’s office was broken into this morning. Two typists are talking:
- “Have you heard? Mr. Tiger’s office has been broken into?
- “I know. It was broken into this morning.”
- “Was any money stolen?
- “I think so. I know some damage was done.”
1. How does the first typist begin the conversation?
2. What does the other say?
3. Ask and answer questions with these words:
a) when / the office; b) how much money; c) a lot of damage.
4. Imagine what kind of damage could be done else to the office. You can use the following words:
The walls should be repainted at once / immediately.
1. Your shirts need washing.
2. Your car engine needs repairing.
3. The carburetor needs cleaning.
4. My car needs servicing.
5. A bathroom washer needs replacing.
6. Light bulbs need replacing.
7. The TV-set needs fixing.
8. The carpet needs cleaning.
9. The kitchen needs modernizing.
10. Some important documents need copying.
11. The bathroom needs enlarging.
12. The garage door needs repainting.
13. New bookshelves need putting up.
14. Your car brakes need testing.
15. A new tyre needs fitting.
16. The flat need redecorating.
17. The lock needs mending.
18. The ceiling needs plastering.
19. The curtains need hanging.
20. The cooker needs replacing.
21. The floor needs sweeping.
Put the following into the passive voice. The agent should not be mentioned.
You should open the wine about three hours before you use it.
Previous climbers had cut steps in the ice and fixed a rope.
Somebody had cleaned my shoes and brushed my suit.
We heat the room by electricity.
You must not hammer nails into the walls without permission.
In some districts farmers use pigs to find truffles.
Someone switched on a light and opened the door.
Somebody had slashed the picture with a knife.
They are pulling down the old theatre.
Why didn’t they mend the roof before it fell in?
The local boys have broken all windows in the new library.
The librarian said that they were starting a new system because people were not returning books.
The police asked each of us about his movements on the night of the crime.
Someone will serve refreshments.
People must not leave bicycles in the hall.
Members may keep books for three weeks. After that they must return them.
The burglars had cut an enormous hole in the steel door.
I’ve bought a harp. They are delivering at this afternoon.
Someone has already told him to report for duty at six.
People threw rotten eggs and bags of soot.
No one can do anything unless someone gives us more information.
People are spending far more money on food now than they spent ten years ago.
The organizers will exhibit the paintings till the end of the month.
They will say nothing more about the matter if someone returns the stolen gun.
It is high time someone told him to stop behaving like a child.
A thief stole my dog and brought him back only when I offered $ 20 reward for him.
The judge gave him two weeks in which to pay the fine.
Moles make these little hills.
Aisha will send these books to her friend.
She is putting the books in the middle of the paper.
Put the following into the passive, mentioning the agent where necessary.
Where there is an indirect and a direct object make the indirect object the subject of the passive verb.
Model: They gave her a book. - She was given a book.
1. We feed the seals twice a day.
2. Who wrote it?
3. Compare clothes which we have washed with clothes which any other laundry has washed.
4. He expected us to offer him the job.
5. They showed her the easiest way to do it.
6. Lightning struck the old oak.
7. Titian couldn’t have painted it as people didn’t wear that style of dress till after his death.
8. A jellyfish stung her.
9. The author has written a special edition for children.
10. Judges used to carry sweet herbs as a protection against jail-fever.
11. What did he write it with? He wrote it with a matchstick dipped in blood.
12. An uneasy silence succeeded the shot.
13. Did the idea interest you?
14. The lawyer gave him the details of his uncle’s will.
15. Beavers make these dams.
16. They used to start these engines by hand. Now they start them by electricity.
17. Most people opposed this.
18. Students are doing a lot of the work.
19. The prime Minister was to have opened the dry dock.
20. They are to court-martial him.
21. The closure of the workshops will make a lot of men redundant.
22. Anyone with the smallest intelligence could understand these instructions.
23. We will not admit children under sixteen.
24. Boys of sixteen to eighteen are to man this training ship.
25. A rainstorm flooded the gypsies’ camp.
26. The howling of wolves kept him awake all night.
27. They think that a scientist should teach science but that any idiot can teach history.
28. Bears couldn’t have done this. Bears don’t eat people.
29. Aisha tied up the parcel with the string.
30. She has stuck the label on the parcel.
In this exercise most of the sentences contain a verb + preposition / adverb combination. The preposition or adverb must be retained when the combination is put into the passive. In most of the sentences it is not necessary to mention the agent.
1. The government has called out troops.
2. Fog held up the trains. (Agent required)
3. You are to leave this here. Someone will call for it later on.
4. We called in the police.
5. They didn’t look after the children properly.
6. They are flying in reinforcements.
7. Then they called up men of 28.
8. Every one looked up to him. (Agent required)
9. All the ministers will see him off at the airport. (Agent required)
10. He hasn’t slept in his bed.
11. We can build on more rooms.
12. They threw him out.
13. They will have to adopt a different attitude.
14. He’s a dangerous maniac. They ought to lock him up.
15. Her story didn’t take them in. (Agent required)
16. Burglars broke into the house.
17. The manufacturers are giving away an artificial rose with each packet of cereal.
18. They took down the notice.
19. They frown on smoking here.
20. After the government had spent a million pounds on the scheme they decide that it was impracticable and gave it up. (Make only the first and the last verbs passive.)
21. When I returned I found that they towed my car away. I asked why they had done this and they told me that it was because I had parked it under a No-Parking sign. (Four passives)
22. People must hand in all weapons.
23. The crowd shouted him down.
24. People often take him for his brother.
25. No one has taken out the cork.
26. The film companies were to have used the pool for aquatic displays, but now they have changed their minds about it and are filling it in. (Make the first and last passive).
27. This college is already full. We are turning away students the whole time. (One passive)
28. You will have to pull down this skyscraper as you have not complied with the town planning regulations.
Put the following sentences into the passive, using an infinitive construction where possible.
1. We added up the money and found that it was correct.
2. They claim that this engine is twice as powerful as the previous one.
3. Someone seems to have made a terrible mistake.
4. It is your duty to make tea at eleven o’clock. (Use suppose)
5. People know that he is armed.
6. Someone saw him pick up the gun.
7. We know that you were in town on the night of the crime.
8. We believe that he has special knowledge which may be useful to the police. (One passive)
9. You needn’t have done this.
10. It’s a little too loose; you had better ask your tailor to take it in. (One passive)
11. He likes people to call him ‘sir’.
12. Don’t touch this switch.
13. You will have to get someone to see to it.
14. It is possible to do this. (Use can’t)
15. Someone is following us.
16. They used to make little boys climb the chimneys to clean them. (One passive)
17. You have to see it to believe it. (Two passives)
18. You order me about and I am tired of it. (I am tired of …)
19. He doesn’t like people laughing at him.
20. You don’t need to wind this watch.
21. You can combat dandruff by frequent shampooing.
22. They say that the rocket travelled six thousand miles and landed in the target area.
23. People believe that he was killed by tribesmen.
24. They are to send letters to the leaders of charitable organizations.
25. We consider that she was the best singer that Australia has ever produced. (One passive)
26. We don’t allow smoking.
27. We know that the expedition reached the South Pole in May.
28. Before they invented printing people had to write everything by hand.
Turn the following sentences into the active voice. Where no agent is mentioned one must be supplied.
Model: School notice: This door must be kept shut. –
Students must keep this door shut.
1. Why don’t you have your eyes tested?
2. This speed limit is introduced gradually.
3. The runways are being lengthened at all the main airports.
4. It is now 6 a.m. and at most of the hospitals in the country patients are being wakened with cups of tea.
5. Byron is said to have lived on vinegar and potatoes.
6. Any sturgeon that is caught by British ships must be offered to the Queen.
7. This signpost has been tampered with.
8. The owners went away last March and since then their houseboat has been used continuously by beatniks. (Use a continuous tense and omit ‘continuously’)
9. The damaged ship was being towed into harbour when the towline broke.
10. Have a lift put in and then you won’t have to climb up all these stairs.
11. Last year a profit of two million pounds was made in the first six months but this was cancelled by a loss of seventeen million pounds which was made in the second six months.
12. Evening dress will be worn.
13. The ship was put into quarantine and passengers and crew were forbidden to land.
14. Someone will have to be found to take her place.
15. He was made to walk along a chalked line and repeat complicated tongue-twisters.
16. This rumour must have been started by our opponents.
17. My paintings are to be exhibited for the first time by the Arts Council.
18. This scientific theory has now been proved to be false.
19. The car which was blown over the cliff yesterday is to be salvaged today.
20. The house where the dead man was found is being guarded by the police to prevent it from being entered and the evidence interfered with.
21. Why wasn’t the car either locked or put into the garage?
22. It is being said that too little money is being spent by the government on roads.
23. Your money could be put to good use instead of being left idle in the bank.
24. For a long time the earth was believed to be flat.
25. This copy hasn’t been read. The pages haven’t been cut.
26. The stones were thrown by a student, who was afterwards led away by the police.
27. Carrier pigeons are said to have been used by early Egyptian and Greek sailors.
28. The referee was being escorted from the football field by a strong police guard.