Внимание студентам 1 курса. Вам предоставляется возможность с помощью данного лексико-грамматического материала успешно подготовиться к плановым контрольным мероприятиям и зачетам.
Задания для самоподготовки и самопроверки. Задание№1. Choose the correct answer. Only one answer is correct. Ronald and Mary .. 1 .. along a .. 2 .. country road in Southern England. They were .. 3 .. to Westberry. It was .. 4 .. midnight. «Ron! Look over there! There is .. 5 in the sky. What is it?» —«I don’t know .. 6 .. . It.. 7 .. a plane.» — «I don’t think .. 8 .., it’s too big and too bright.» —«Oh, no!» —«What’s the matter?» —«The engine .. 9 .. .» — «Why has it stopped?» —«I don’t know. I must find a garage. Is there one .. 10 .. here?» —«Yes, there is one in the ..11.. village. I am not sure .. 12 ... It’s very late.»
Suddenly .. 13 .. a loud noise and a big bright silver object flew low .. 14 .. their car. It stopped in mid-air, turned round, then flew straight up into the sky and disappeared.
«Oh, Ron! What was that?» —«Don’t ask me. I’ve got .. 15 .. idea what it was.» —«I am .. 16 .. . Let’s go.» —«We can’t. The engine .. 17 .. .» —«Try it again.» —«That’s strange! It’s O.K. now. .. 18 .. why it was not working.» — «Do you think it was a UFO (unidentified flying object)?» — «I don’t know. I .. 19 .. don’t. We should phone the police.» —«Ron! Do you think .. 20 .. believe us?»
1. A were driving 2. A silently 3. A in the way
В driven В quiet В at the way
С had driven С still С on the way
4. A nearer 5. A nothing 6. A what it is
В close В something В that it is
С nearly С anything С what is it
7. A should 8. A so 9. A has stopped
В must В such В stopping
С is probably С as С had stopped
10. A nearly 11. А next 12.A is it open
В near В follow В if it’s open
С next С around С if open it is
13. A there was 1 4. А at 15. А any
В was В up В no
С it was С over С some
16. A frightened 17. A isn’t working 18. A There is wonder
В feared В don’t work В It’s wonder
С happy С didn’t work С I wonder
19. A really 20. A it will
В indeed В they will
С in fact С he will
Задание№2. Choose the correct answer. Only one answer is correct. 1. Mark’s father is furious ... he has had an accidient with his new car.
A because В so С although
2. Some parrots can ... .
A tell В talk С say
3. He didn’t like the comedy .. 1 .. because he didn’t un-derstand it .. 2 .. .
а) know to operate b) know how operate с) know how operating d) know how to operate
13. It is worth ... with this company.
a) to get in touch b) getting in touch с) if уou get in touch d) that you get in touch
14. On rainy days there аге ... people in the streets.
а) little b) not much с) smaller d) fewer
15. The examination was ... than we had expected.
а) more easy b) more easier с) а lot easier d) much easy
16. Neither Paul nor Kate ... on holiday.
a) isn't b) is с) аге d) aren't
17. Не was sure that if he ... that picture he would have no money problems.
а) would sell b) sold с) was sold d) would have sold
18. I want to have my luggage ....
а) weighed b) weighing с) to weigh d) weigh
19. I am thirsty. I would like ... cup of tea.
а) more b) other c) another d) else
20.... child in the world loves the story of Cinderella.
a) Each b) All c) Both d) Every
21. Everybody realised the danger, ...?
a) didn't they b) didn't he с) did they d) did he
22. … already dark outside.
а) There was b) It was с) There had been d) It had been
23. You ... do it now, you can do it tomorrow.
a)mustn't b) can't с) needn't d) may not
24. Which book shall I give you? ... book will do.
a) Some b) Any с) Anything d) No
25. This is ... useful advice.
а) such b) such а с) so d)so a
Задание№5. London is an ancient city It grew up around the first _________ where the Roman invaders found The Thames narrow _________ to build а bridge. They then founded a small Celtic settlement there __________ аs Londinium and by 300 A.D. tumed it into а port and an important ________ centre with a wall which __________ the homes of about 50000 people.
Under the Roman's London increased in importance as а centre of commerce and was
________ christianised. А massive wall, 12 feet thick and about 20 feet in height, was built __________ the city probably towards the end of the fourth century, for at that time _________ Picts and Saxons were growing more and more _________ and considerable fragments of this monument of Roman London survive to this day. They are to be seen at the Tower of London; on the east side of Trinity Square; in London Wall House ________ to the north; in the street called the London Wall; on the side of the General Post Office.
Manufactured, to protect, trading, little, point, enclosing, enough, enclosed, known, traded, gradually, both, aggressive, a little, calling
Задание№6. In the early 19th century Oxford and Cambridge were the ________ two universities in England. The ________ of education at these universities was sо high that only the sons of the wealthier classes could afford ________ . But _________ restrictive still were the religious tests: only Church of England members could attend. It was necessary ________ these limitations and in 1827 "University College" was founded. Its _________ years were years of struggle for survival against hostile forces of the Church and State. The "godless" college was opposed by the Duke of Wellington, who in 1831 opened а ________ institution - Kings College. In 1836 these two institutions, University College and King’s through a typically English _______, joined forces, though _________retained the control of its own internal organization, faculty and teaching. Thus was born the University of London. Today the University has much the _________ form of organization adapted to ,accommodate its increased size and complexity.
Rival, opposing, every, more, to attend, first, money, compromise, same, only, cost, each, to overcome, organizing, to restrict
Задание№7. New York is one of the ________ cities in the world. It was founded 300 years ago at the ________ of the Hudson river. The centre of New York is Manhattan Island. In 1626 it was bought from the Indians for а ________ of trinkets that cost 24 dollars. Today Manhattan is the centre of business and finance. Numerous skyscrapers ________ banks and offices of American business. Broadway begins here. Very ________ people live in Manhattan, though the __________ work here.
New York is inhabited by people of almost all nationalities and races. At the _________ of 20-th century а lot of people came to the USA from many countries of the world. New York is one of the leading __________ cities in the world. The most important industries are those producing paper __________ , vehicles, glass, chemicals. New York has а heavy traffic. The sea encircles __________ of the city areas and the ships go over or under New York traffic routes.
Задание№8. THANKSGIVING DAY Thanksgiving day is a legal holiday in the United States. It comes on the fourth Thursday in November. This is a day when families get together. Many people go to church in the morning and at home they have a big dinner at which turkey is served.
Thanksgiving is a harvest festival and is one of the oldest and most popular celebrations in the world. The first celebration in the United States was held in 1621 after the first harvest in New England. The people had sailed across the Atlantic Ocean on the «Mayflower» arriving on the 21st of December 1620. Only half of them survived the terrible winter. The Indians gave the new settlers some seeds of Indian corn and the first harvest was very good.
Later, Thanksgiving Days following harvest were celebrated in all the colonies of New England, but not on the same day. It was during the third year of the Civil War, in October 1863, that President Abraham Lincoln proclaimed a national Thanksgiving. In 1951, the United States Congress named fourth Thursday of November a Thanksgiving Day.
Choose the best answer to each question or the best way to finish the statement. 1. Thanksgiving Day is now celebrated
A on the 21st of December.
В on the 4th Thursday in November.
С after a very cold winter.
2. The first Thanksgiving celebration in the United States
A in 1951.
В during the Civil War.
С after the 1st harvest in New England.
3. Which of the following is not true?
A The first settlers crossed the Atlantic Ocean in May. В The corn seeds were given to the new settlers by the Indians. С The winter of 1620 was very cold and many people in New England died.
4. Which of the following is true?
A A national Thanksgiving was proclamed by the United States Congress.
В President Lincoln proclaimed a national Thanksgiving in 1951.
С After the Civil War in the United States Thanksgiving was celebrated on the same day.
Задание№9. THE LOSS OF THE «TITANIC» The great ship «Titanic» sailed for New York from Southampton on April 10th, 1912. She was carrying 1316 passengers and crew of 891. Even by modern standards the «Titanic» was a colossal ship. At that time, however, she was not only the largest ship that had ever been built, but was regarded as unsinkable, for she had sixteen watertight compartments. The tragic sinking of this great liner will always be remembered, for she went down on her first voyage with heavy loss of life.
Four days after setting out, while the «Titanic» was sailing across the icy waters of the North Atlantic, a huge iceberg was suddenly spotted by the captain. After the alarm had been given the great ship turned sharply to avoid a direct collision. The «Titanic» turned just in time, narrowly missing the great wall of ice which rose over 100 feet out of the water beside her.
Suddenly, there was a slight trembling sound from below, and the captain went down to see what had happened. The noise had been so faint that no one thought that the ship had been damaged. Below, the captain realized to his horror that the «Titanic» was sinking rapidly, for five of her sixteen watertight compartments had already been flooded! The order to abandon ship was. given and hundreds of people plunged into the icy water. As there were not enough life-boats for everybody, 1500 lives were lost.
Choose the best way to finish each statement 1. The tragic sinking of the «Titanic» will always be remembered because
A it was the largest ship of that time.
В it was the voyage with heavy loss of life.
С it was regarded unsinkable.
2. No one thought that the ship had been damaged seriously because
A the alarm had been given in time.
В the captain had noticed the iceberg in time.
С the noise had been faint.
3. 1500 people drowned because
A they couldn’t swim.
В there were not enough life-boats.
C it was too late to save themselves.
In the year 400 BC the ancient Romans had only а small area of land in the centre оf Italy, but during the next 700 years or so they conquered and spread over а great territory. Then the Roman Empire declined and fell. There has been much argument about what this could have been caused by.
The mostpopular idea used to be that the Romans, who had been strong, very moral and full of courage, became soft, lazy, immoral and degenerate because they had slaves and foreigners to do all the work and fighting for them while they lived а life of comfort and pleasure.
However, modern studies suggest that the Romans must have been so much weakened by disease that they по longer had the strength or the numbers to resist their enemies abroad. Iп АD 165, soldiers who had been fighting in Mesopotamia brought а new illness, almost certainly smallpox, back home. The Romans had по natural immunity to it, and it killed as many as one third of hе inhabitants in parts of the homeland in Italy.
So long as humans were still nomadic, they would not have been attacked by пилу diseases, because they never stayed in one place long enough to allow parasites to spread. But when people began to settle and to cultivate crops, parasites must have been allowed to spread in the dirty water that the people used again and again. However, when а population is large enough for some people to live through an epidemic, things get better, because those who remain alive have immunity to the disease, во the disease cannot spread any more and it dies out.
InRome, the result of these diseases was а big fall in the population, especially on the borders of the Empire. The Roman citizens were forced to allow foreigners to live on land that had become empty, or nearly empty, as а result of deaths from disease, in exchange for military service, to defend the borders of the Empire from attack.
But these foreigners proved to be either unwilling or unable to defend the Roman Empire as strongly as it would have been defended before, so that its enemies outside were able to come in and destroy it, bringing civilisation in Europe to an end for hundreds of years, until it was brought ш again &отAsia and Africa.
Nomadic – кочевой
1. THE RОМАN EMPIRE DECLINED АND FELL, BECAUSE:
А slaves and foreigners became soft, lazy and immoral. С the Romans couldn’t resist epidemics.
В because the Romans' enemies were very strong. D the borders were poorly guarded.
2. EPIDEMICS WERE RАRЕ AMONG NOMADIC PEOPLE BECAUSE:
А they had natural immunity to epidemics. С they used fresh drinking water.
В bacteria (microbes) need time and water to spread. D they knew а lot about medicine.
3. HOW DO PEOPLE GET IMMUNITY TO A DISEASE?
А When the disease cannot spread. С When the disease dies out.
В Ву getting it and not dying. D By talking
4. THE ROMANS LET FOREIGNERS LIVE ОN THEIR BORDERS BECAUSE:
А so many Romans had been killed by disease:
В the Romans preferred to live а life of comfort and pleasure in the centre of Italy;
С they had no strength to resist their enemies;
D in return foreigners could do fighting for them.
5. WHAT WAS ТНЕ RESULT OF THE FALL OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE?
А European civilisation stopped existing for а long time.
В People were brought into Rome from Asia and Africa.
С European civilisation was brought into Asia and Africa.
D There was а big fall in population.
Задание№11. For thousands of years people have been interested in comets. Why?
Often because they have been afraid of them; they have thought they were signs of terrible
things to come, and they were afraid they might hit the earth. In fact, small pieces of comets do
from time to time fall on our earth in the form of mеtеоrs, some of which аге quite large pieces of
solid material. One can see examples of these in some museums.
What is а comet? It is а body that goes round our sun, not in а circle like the planets, but in
Страничка для любознательных. Мы продолжаем знакомить вас с некоторыми впечатлениями Михаила Голденкова, проработавшего долгое время переводчиком в Англии и Америке.
LESSON № 7,
в котором вы узнаете, что слово “FAIR” делает с другими словами
“It’snotfair. — Это нечестно”,— хнычет маленький Боб. Слово fair употреблено здесь в своем основном значении, как и в случае с FairPlay, что переводится как "честная игра”.
Но вот FairGame уже будет переводиться как “излюбленная тема”:
— Ourpresidentisfairgameforthecartoonists. — Наш президент — излюбленная мишень для карикатуристов,— говорит Джон, листая журнал и с любопытством разглядывая карикатуры на Билла Клинтона.
Ну, a FairSex, между прочим, будет обозначать наш (мной) любимый слабый пол, прекрасный пол. Но это мы его так называем, а американцы милых сердцу женщин почему-то нарекли оппозиционерами — OppositeSex. Не знаю почему, но у американцев это не столько слабый, сколько честный пол (что, конечно же, не всегда верно). Помню, в Нью-Йорке, когда один французский студент выдавал мне свои познания в русском (а это был, кстати, отборный мат), я ему сказал: “ Well, that'srightbutbetternotusethatinfrontofamemberofthefairsex. — Все правильно, но лучше при женщинах это не употреблять”.
Следующее выражение. Fair-weatherfriend—“друг-на-то- время-когда-это-ему-удобно”. Думаю, вы меня поняли...
Fair-hairedboy — сразу хочется перевести как “русоволосый мальчик”. Мальчик может быть и рыжим, и брюнетом, и нечесанным, но он все равно будет fair-haired — “русоволосым” — если он любимчик, фаворит, кумир...
Ну вот, примерно, все основные выражения с этим словом.
LESSON № 8,
где все кувырком и против правил
- Ifshedon х Idoesn ’t - шутят лингвисты, когда речь заходит об американских новаторствах в английской грамматике ... Но все по порядку.
Году в 1989-м, на третьем курсе, я здорово увлекался Элвисом Пресли. Как музыкантом, естественно. Два раза на различных инязовских шоу я, в клетчатой рубашке и широких брюках в стиле пятидесятых, исполнял под гитару попурри из его песен. Слов толком не знал и половину сочинял тут же, перед микрофоном. Потом мне, видимо, стало стыдно, что я так фривольно трактую классику рока, и, когда мне в руки попался американский журнал с текстами песен Пресли, то я усиленно принялся его изучать. И вот в песне “Гет-то”, где поется о том, как в гетто родился мальчик и его мама плачет, так как это ужасно — нечем малыша кормить, я увидел следующий вариант этих слов: Causethisonethingthatshedon’tneed, it’sanotherhungrymouthtofeed... Почему, собственно, shedon’t, думал я , когда всем известно, что после третьего лица единственного числа всегда будет doesn’t? Но внутренний голос подсказывал мне, что это не опечатка. Тогда я прослушал запись песни. Действительно, Элвис Пресли явно пел shedon’tneed. Получается, раскидывал я мозгами (недалеко раскидывал, должен сказать), что достаточно простая грамматика спряжения глаголов у янки упрощается до предела. Don’t используется со всеми лицами подряд. Хм, вот это уже интересно. Но пригодно ли это в живом разговорном языке? На сей вопрос я сумел ответить только через два года, оказавшись в Америке. Don 7 после she и he у них там употребляется так же часто, как и yeah вместо yes или sick вместо ill. Да уж, американец в иняз явно не сдаст вступительных...
ВНЕ КОНСПЕКТА “Разве shit по-английски не “черт”?”,— удивилась одна моя знакомая, когда я ей сказал, что это слово переводится как, извините, “дерьмо”. Нет, дорогие мои, shit — это совсем не “черт”. Просто у англичан и американцев это слово вырывается в те моменты, когда мы, русские, говорим “вот блин!”.
Oh, shit!—комиссар Ле Пешен еле успевает увернуться от дырокола, который бросает ему сержант Майкл по его же просьбе...
Oh, shit! — с досадой рубит рукой воздух Джон, наблюдая, как Мик в падении все же не достигает базы, и его выбивают мячом из игры...
Getup, Michael, it’stime, — будит меня мой супервайзер, когда я сплю без задних ног после трудной смены на кухне. Я вскакиваю и ору:
Это словцо из меня до сих пор машинально вылетает, и я ничего поделать не могу. Так что, если увидите на улице парня, чертыхающегося по-английски, когда гангстеры открывают по нему пальбу или когда в его “линкольн” врезается на полном ходу чей-то “форд”, то знайте: это, скорей всего, я.
LESSON № 9,
где есть стрельба, погони, секс...
Самое неприятное — попадать впросак. Помните, как много глаголов заменяет toget? И understand, и to have, и даже to find, и to find out. Но будьте осторожны, если вы употребляете toget по отношению к одушевленным лицам, где наш старый и добрый toget приобретает уже совсем другие значения. .