Lecture 14. The essence of communication: its functions, sides, types, forms, barriers

The concept of communication and its role in the development of humanity

The psychology of communication is a huge layer of theoretical and practical knowledge accumulated thanks to the work of many psychologists and sociologists. Scientists have identified and continue to study the features, types, forms and structure of communication.

There are many theories and points of view on communication problems. Soviet scientists made a significant contribution to the study of this phenomenon, as well as to social psychology in general. Their experiments and experiences, carried out in the middle and second half of the last century, became classic examples of the peculiarities of communication and people’s perception of each other, as well as the scientific basis for subsequent scientific research.

Interpersonal and intergroup interaction is the area of ​​human activity in which psychological difficulties most often arise. It is extremely important for every person to be able to interact competently and effectively with the people around them.

Communication is a mutual action of two or more people with the goal of exchanging information, as well as a necessary component of work, educational, and play activities.

In addition, it can act as a separate, relatively independent occupation. After all, people do not always talk to each other with the goal of inventing, controlling, and carrying out a joint action.

The transmitted verbal or nonverbal signal can be both informational and affective-evaluative in nature. It is believed that it was the need of our distant ancestors to transfer knowledge to each other, not only through signs and shouts, that served as the main reason for the development of human speech. Animals interact with each other, but speech is unique to humans.

The characteristics of communication between different people and groups depend on the extent to which the subjects of interaction have a pressing need for social contacts. The need to be involved, to belong and to interact developed in the process of phylogenesis, the socio-historical development of humanity.

Interestingly, satisfying the need for social contact supposedly led to the birth of such a wonderful feeling as joy. Joy is still the leading motive that motivates people to interact with each other.

Features of communication that can bring pleasure and joy are its humanity and democracy. Rude, disrespectful interaction, ignoring and manipulation are immoral and do not fit into the principles of communication that usually guide a cultured person.


  • self-esteem;
  • respect for the interlocutor, recognition of his rights and interests;
  • tolerance, tolerance;
  • justice, honesty;
  • unbiased attitude towards people.

What creates the desire to communicate?

People are eager to communicate, you can call it a banal desire, but a more correct term is a need.

So, with a high probability we can say that in children communication is an innate need. It is formed under the influence of the activity exhibited by adults present nearby, and often occurs around two months.

But teenagers are convinced that they experience an irresistible desire to communicate. They are also convinced that they can do this as much as they see fit. This is why most teenagers protest against adults' attempts to control their need to spend time with friends, and therefore to have friendly conversations. At this stage, we should not forget about the basic functions of communication, which play a role in the formulation of communication skills.

In adults, the need for communication is also quite strong. Many men and women, having less contact with someone than they themselves want, begin to plunge into negativity.

The importance of communication in ontogenesis

In ontogenesis (individual human development), the role and characteristics of communication are no less important than in phylogenesis. The development of an individual is impossible without interaction with other people.

Newborn babies, not knowing how to speak, already react to the voice and affection of an adult, and later begin to smile back at him. Later, the so-called revitalization complex appears - the first form of interaction of a new person with his own kind.

Forms of communication that arise in the process of ontogenesis:

  • Directly emotional

When a baby develops a revival complex, he does not yet interact with his parents as an equal partner, but expresses his attitude through facial expressions and gestures: he cries and laughs, is surprised and frightened, and so on. Such forms of communication are characteristic of infants up to the first year of life.

  • Subject-effective

The child interacts with people by manipulating objects and playing. The baby extends his hand when he wants to take or give something, and understands that in order to establish contact he needs to get closer to the person. This form of interaction undergoes significant changes, but is generally maintained during the first six years of life.

  • Extra-situational intimate-personal

It appears by the end of preschool age, but the main forms of this communication develop already in the puberty period (puberty).

Forms of communication undergo changes as an individual grows and matures; they are combined and complemented differently in different individuals.

Without a child's contact with adults, he will not be able to develop as a person. The importance and necessity of communication between a child and his parents cannot be overestimated. Relationships with parents are the foundation, guideline and measure by which all subsequent connections of a person with people, society, and himself will be measured.

Correctly chosen methods of communicating and raising a child are the key to his successful socialization and self-realization.

Types and forms of communication are formed especially intensively in adolescence. This is the age of active interaction with peers, the time of first love and the formation of the self-concept.

The teenager’s activities become multifaceted, the content of communications and actions is enriched. A qualitatively new level of forms and types of interaction between young people contributes to the development of awareness, responsibility, independence and personality as a whole.

The structure of communication affects the structure of personality. Violation or lack of interaction with people invariably leads to a transformation of the individual’s “I”. Personality changes that are not for the better (including pathological ones) cannot but affect the ability to interact and understand other people and oneself.

Personality formation

At the stage of a person’s development as an individual, that is, from school years, communication with parents plays a particularly important role. Ideally, you should try to talk with them as much and as often as possible, share news and current events. It is extremely important when talking with parents not to deceive them, to be frank, sincere and honest. These are the goals of communication and their basic rules at this stage.

What seems incomprehensible to schoolchildren, for example, a parental ban, in most cases turns out to be the right decision. Just imagine if in our teenage years we were allowed absolutely everything. Probably, troubles would have followed us at every step, and we, being still children, would have had no idea how to get out of them.

The period of adolescence is especially important in the development of a person and his communication skills, in parallel with which the psyche develops. A person learns the essence of communication while he is growing up, studying at school, university. During this time, life’s baggage is replenished not only with scientific knowledge, but also with ordinary life skills, experience, both other people’s and one’s own. At this stage, for the most part, you have to be in contact with peers, but this incredibly helps the formation of personality. True, if only you adhere to the basic rules of human communication.

Three sides of communication

The structure of communication conditionally divides it into three processes that are interconnected and interdependent:

  • Social perception - the perception of an interaction partner

People perceive each other through their senses, evaluate their appearance, speech, behavior and draw conclusions about the possibility of continuing social contact. The first impression is especially important. How another person is perceived for the first time, when meeting for the first time, influences the willingness to exchange information and interact with him.

  • Communication – exchange of information

Contacts are meaningless if people do not know how to convey the necessary information, knowledge and experience to each other verbally and non-verbally.

  • Interaction – exchange of actions

A conversation without the ability to perform actions that affect the interlocutor and exchange actions with him would be ineffective and ineffective.

Description of communication models

The structure of communication determines the patterns of communication. Some people are more sociable, love to be in company and can talk for hours about nothing, while others are closed, prefer internal dialogues to external ones, talk little and only about business.

Sociability as a character trait develops, you can improve communication skills, the ability to objectively perceive people and interact effectively with them.

Communication patterns, as a rule, are formed in childhood or adopted from parents. Also, communication patterns can be determined by the specifics of the position held and even be a sign of professional deformation of the individual (for example, a teacher communicates with relatives, as well as with students).


  1. "Mont Blanc". Aloof, cold interlocutor. He focuses on the communicative side of interaction; he is not interested in interactions.
  2. "Chinese Wall". A person who considers himself higher and more significant than others. Perceives others as less successful/beautiful/smart people, which makes it difficult to interact with him.
  3. "Locator". A person who chooses a narrow circle of friends. Often one loved one or close friend is enough for him.
  4. "Grouse". A very uncommunicative person who creates only the appearance of communication and interaction. At the same time, the structure of Teterev’s internal communication with himself is preserved and oversaturated with dialogues and introspection.
  5. "Hamlet". Social perception is extremely important for this type of communication model. He tries to make the best impression, which is why he often plays to the public.
  6. "Robot". This person talks and acts “dryly”, unemotionally, always knows what, when and why to do or not to do.
  7. "Egoist". A person speaks only about himself, all his actions are aimed at obtaining personal gain.
  8. "Ally". The best form and type of communication, as it is two-way. The interlocutors are interested in productive interaction, take into account personality, strive to understand each other and come to an agreement.

Following simple rules

As a rule, conversations with family, friends and relatives do not cause us any difficulties. We experience the strongest desire to talk with such people, especially since we know very well about their reaction to certain statements, remarks, news. The desire to communicate with strangers is not so high, but often it is forced and necessary. You need to talk to strangers only in a positive way, showing only positive qualities and character traits, being friendly. It is better to do this with a smile on your face, following the existing rules of communication. It is even more important that the phrases you say are appropriate.

Finally, we bring to your attention several effective recommendations for competently building interpersonal relationships and interacting with others:

  • be sensitive and attentive to the inner world of your interlocutor;
  • remember, everyone deserves respect;
  • show interest in the interlocutor, find positive qualities in him;
  • do not pay attention to minor shortcomings, everyone has them; there are no ideal people;
  • develop your own sense of humor and self-irony.

Description of types of communication

The concept of “type of communication” is close to the concept of the model. Types of communication, as well as models, are used to indicate the characteristics of communication.

Types of communication:

  1. Mentorsky. With this type of communication, a person constantly teaches, instructs, and subjugates his interlocutor.
  2. Informative. A type of communication that is simply a relay of information, without the ability or desire to receive feedback.
  3. Inspiring. The individual participates in the fate of the interlocutor, supporting him, guiding him, helping him, advising him. With this type of communication, there is a productive dialogue, cooperation, and mutual assistance between the subjects of the relationship.
  4. Confrontational. Unlike other forms of communication, it involves discussion, dialogue with an opponent, constructive criticism with the goal of finding the truth through confrontation between personal subjective and objective views, reality.

Types of communication are needed in order to be able to select the most appropriate methods of communication in different situations: persuasion, suggestion, infection, request, coercion, ignoring and even manipulation.

Components of communication and its varieties

Components of communication are those components that are not included in the structure of communication.

These include:

  • content,
  • target,
  • facilities,
  • subjects (participants of interaction),
  • type of connection between subjects,
  • style,
  • tactics,
  • techniques, methods,
  • result.

Depending on the components, various types and forms of communication are distinguished:

  • emotional – exchange of emotions;
  • cognitive – knowledge sharing;
  • activity - exchange of skills and abilities;
  • motivational – exchange of desires and goals;
  • material – exchange of objects or products.

Types of social interaction can be defined as its levels. Level – certain behavioral manifestations of a personality that allow us to draw conclusions about a person and the ways of his interaction with other people. The types and levels of communication change as it becomes more complex from simple, primitive to complex, spiritual.

Why does a person need communication?

It doesn’t matter whether you are a sociable person or a withdrawn introvert who is used to being alone, everyone needs communication. The social need to talk with others like oneself is a natural need, and without its satisfaction it is impossible to feel complete.

Communication plays a vital role in human life. The difference may lie only in its quantity and frequency. So, for someone it will be enough to go somewhere with friends once or twice a week and talk with them in order to cheer up and improve their well-being, and for the rest of the days such a person may well be alone. But for some, communication plays a more important role - such a person cannot spend even 20 minutes alone with himself, begins to suffer from boredom and experiences an irresistible desire to contact someone. By the way, such a desire is more aimed at the process itself, and not at its final result.

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