Drawing for making a muffler for a carbine

It is quite obvious that we will be talking about a weapon with which you can make an unnoticed shot. Silent prototypes have been known around the world for more than 100 years. But the narrow range of applications and the secrecy of the project brings many tales about these mechanisms.

Any weapon equipped with a special device to reduce sound levels is called silent. Or, as they say in the modern world, with suppressed sound. Moreover, this term is conditional, since it is impossible to fire a shot completely without sound. How a weapon silencer works began to be studied back in the 19th century, after the advent of smokeless gunpowder. At the same time, two methods of sound suppression were immediately identified: cutting off the gases from the combustion of gunpowder and blocking them in the barrel, and pre-increasing and cooling the gases before release into the atmosphere.

Firearms appeared several centuries ago and sound was considered the norm until our century. The roar of firing was accompanied by thunderous noise, sparks and haze. And all this was considered an indicator of good weapons.

In the modern world, silencers are used not only by the military, but also by hunters and athletes. Over its long history, it has been modernized and optimized many times.

The history of the creation of “silent” weapons

The very first attempts to create a device to reduce shooting noise were made a couple of years after the invention of smokeless gunpowder. Since the appearance of the shot had disappeared, it became necessary to reduce the sound. The first suppressors came out at about the same time. Registered in Sweden in 1894. In 1898 it was invented by France. In 1899, Denmark patented its multi-chamber suppressor. But for mass production, a device was used that was patented by British gunsmiths at the beginning of the 20th century.

History of development

In Russia, the first patented suppressor appeared in 1916, thanks to the developments of the gunsmith-engineer A. Ertel. But it couldn’t get much demand, since it was used preferably for an artillery gun. But the device gained its greatest popularity around 1920, due to its popularity not with the military, but with hunters. They were the very first to realize the importance of silent shooting. And literally 10 years later this device was banned for use by civilians. Due to high demand not only in hunting, but also in criminal cases of citizens.

In the modern world, many countries have allowed the use of a suppressor in hunting and sport shooting. This is what increases the demand for new models. All production is aimed at minimizing the sound of firing, while improving the quality of accuracy and speed of fire. But still, to purchase this device, you need a purchase permit with a medical examination.

Silencers have no place here

Attempts to make a convenient silencer for smoothbore shotguns were made in the 30s of the 20th century, then in the 60s, and now under the influence of the Coen brothers’ film “No Country for Old Men.” The main problem with this type of muffler is its disgusting appearance. They are so big that they look completely ridiculous. Such a muffler can only be attached to the choke thread. And if you accidentally hit it against something, and this happens often when hunting, the cut trunk may be damaged. It is extremely inconvenient for a hunter to walk through the forest with a gun with an attached silencer - 250-350 mm of extra length will cling to everything. Stand-up athletes, especially, do not need such a silencer - the balance of the weapon changes beyond recognition, and it is the balance of the gun that is responsible for the speed of aiming and the accuracy of the shot. A niche for rifle silencers was found in semi-automatic systems. They have one barrel and are often relatively short, and the muzzle with a choke thread is stronger than that of a double-barreled shotgun. This is exactly the system with which Anton Chigurh walks around in the film “No Country for Old Men.” But the silencer does not add aesthetics or convenience to the shotgun, so you can only see it in the film and in pictures.

Advantages and disadvantages

This device has very few disadvantages:

  • price;
  • difficulty of design;
  • difficulty in obtaining permission to purchase (confirmation of use by type of activity is required.
  • But there are many more advantages that can be identified:
  • weapon balancing;
  • high maneuverability;
  • ergonomics;
  • significant reduction in shot noise;
  • muzzle brake compensator function
  • increased strength;
  • Style (a weapon equipped with a suppressor looks more powerful).

Advantages and disadvantages of use

Now let's look at the advantages and disadvantages of a muffler for pneumatics. The sound moderator's cat cried a lot of cons:

  1. price;
  2. complexity of manufacturing (although there are simple solutions);
  3. problems with legality (it is problematic to draw the line between a silencer and a sound moderator).

Why do many hunters strive to equip their pneumatic guns with similar toys? Rifles equipped with sound moderators benefit from balance, maneuverability and ergonomics. There are other advantages:

  1. noticeable absorption of noise from a shot;
  2. DTK (muzzle brake-compensator) function;
  3. increasing the safety margin of the barrel;
  4. aesthetics (pneumatics with a muffler look more impressive).

The extreme ease of operation of this rifle makes it indispensable for learning to shoot. We advise you to familiarize yourself with other features of the Smersh air rifle, the device and the available models. Advantages and disadvantages of this weapon. A brief overview of the Crosman 1077 air rifle can be found here. Description and characteristics of the rifle.

Muffler device

The standard version of the device has a classic look. This is a muzzle mechanism that is applied to various variations of firearms. It is fixed on the barrel or is a continuation of the design provided by the manufacturer. The main task of the device is to reduce the sound level and reduce the volume of fire from the combustion of gunpowder, to ensure the shooter's secrecy.

This feature is very important for military operations, because there is no particular need for a hunter in the forest or a shooter in the field to hide. And for a military man, it is very important not so much to reduce the noise of shooting as to hide sparks and flashes in the dark. With the help of flashes of light, the shooter is very easy to detect and will become an excellent target for the enemy. The suppressor also has a number of useful advantages, such as shooting intensity. There is also minimal gun recoil.

The suppressor looks like a cylinder made of metal materials: steel, copper, aluminum, a durable plastic mass can be used. Inside it there are cells in which the powder gas is removed. Most often, the device is attached to the end of the barrel using a special thread.

At the instant of the shot, gases penetrate the compartments and lose speed in them.

The chambers can also be filled with materials that absorb heat: aluminum mesh or shavings, copper wire. In this case, the gases cool themselves when the filler is heated and reduce their pressure. But such fillers are difficult to clean and are simply replaced. The noise level can also be affected by the material from which the partitions are made. If you replace steel parts with aluminum ones, the sound of shooting will be significantly lower. But such designs also have disadvantages. During a long series of shots, the pressure in the compartments increases, the cooling parts heat up and the productivity of the mechanism decreases. Subsequently, the main task and benefit of the device will be lost. Designers advise firing one salvo at a time with a large period of time between them so that the structure has time to cool down.

Pistol silencer device

All silent shooting devices are divided into two types:

integrated - are part of the weapon barrel

tactical - screwed onto the muzzle using a special thread or secured with clamps

Tactical silencers are the most common. They also come in several types and differ in internal structure. The most common are:

The simplest one consists of a cylindrical expansion chamber, with a connecting nut and a slot closed at the front by a rubber membrane. Since the chamber is larger than the barrel bore, the gases in it expand, losing speed, and come out of it after the bullet with less energy.

Expert opinion

Tarasov Dmitry Timofeevich

Master of Sports in mountaineering. Author of scientific articles on the topic of survival in the wild

Over time, the membrane wears out (it is designed for about 100 shots) and must be replaced periodically or use a solid rubber plug.

With seal - also consists of an expansion chamber and two rubber or ebonite seal plugs between which a spacer sleeve is located.

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Two-chamber eccentric - has a chamber with a partition and acts almost like a simple one.

With heat absorption - the principle is based on the absorption of heat, and therefore energy, using copper or brass wire or aluminum shavings. The disadvantage of such models is the need to frequently change absorbers.

Multi-chamber - they operate on the principle of the simplest, but since they have several chambers with partitions instead of membranes, there is no need to replace them, which means their service life is longer.

With flow breaker – consists of an internal perforated sleeve and a flow breaker helix.

Silencer for various weapons

Every man is interested in how a pistol silencer works. The speed of a bullet leaving such a weapon is approximately 300 meters per second, which means that it does not exceed the speed of sound. It also has less energy, which means noise reduction is easier. But the big disadvantage is the reduction in the already low penetration ability. Most modern pistols are designed so that the entire bolt covers the barrel. To fit the suppressor, it was necessary to change the structure of the bolt and cut a special protrusion on the barrel. A standard example of such a pistol is the Chinese Type-64, in which the suppressor is integrated with the barrel, and the cells are located under and around it. Each compartment contains a mesh to absorb heat.

Reducing the noise of a firing revolver is much more difficult, since gases escape between the drum and the muzzle of the barrel. In the case of submachine guns, it’s a little easier. The forend and the damper are one piece. Suppressors for shotguns were developed specifically for bodyguards.

Weapon silencer. Types of silencers for small arms

Details Category: Accessories Date of publication November 29, 2013 20:26 Author: Super User shooting device (device) or PBBS - silent and flameless shooting device) is a mechanical device that significantly reduces the sound of a shot from a small weapon.
In addition, such a device hides the flame of powder gases emanating from the barrel, which prevents the shooter from unmasking. A weapon equipped with an effective silencer is called silent: throughout the world it is considered as such only if the volume of the sound of the shot does not exceed the volume of the sound of a shot from an air gun.

The sources of sound when fired are:

— pop, caused by the instantaneous expansion of powder gases after exiting the barrel (they move at a supersonic speed of about 555 m/s); - shock wave created by a bullet (if its speed is higher than the speed of sound); - clanging of moving parts of the weapon (trigger on the firing pin, firing pin on the primer, bolt on the barrel and butt plate).

Today, there are three main effective ways to reduce the sound level when firing :

Method 1 . Limiting the rate of flow of powder gases from the barrel bore. Method 2 . Limiting bullet speed to subsonic (no more than 330 m/s). Method 3 . Blocking of powder gases inside the cartridge case.

Let's consider these methods in more detail.

The principle of operation of the muffler

At a certain distance from the muzzle there is a wide rubberized membrane. Gases move between the cartridge and the walls of the barrel and are stopped by a membrane, from where they enter the compartments, and only after that they are released into the atmosphere with a significantly reduced pressure and temperature. Such a tool can last up to 200 volleys without replacing the washer. The shape of the washer can be either straight or curved. In the latter case, the powder waste is deflected towards the edge of the damper and does not advance ahead of the cartridge. The same effect is obtained when using a helical partition.

The suppressor is a fairly voluminous element that changes the balancing of the weapon and complicates the aiming process. This can be avoided through a peculiar arrangement.

More details about types

Different types were used at different times. Depending on the required functionality.


The first suppressors were muzzle-type and multi-chamber. They were constructed from an attachment to the gun barrel, in which partitions divided the cavity of the device into separate expansion compartments.

The extended device type has gained more popularity. They are based on reducing the temperature of the gas by reducing its pressure. Also, by increasing the number of cells, the main task of the device increases.

By separating the chambers with rubberized washers, efficiency increases significantly. But due to the process of breaking through the membrane, the speed of the bullet is significantly reduced. The intensity of shooting also decreases. Such washers have low wear resistance. When using a damper, the hum is practically inaudible and is barely audible in a quiet place. This remedy is also called “yelping puppies” because of their faint sound.

Some devices used two cells with a soft rubber gasket. In the first compartment there was a cut-off valve, and in each of the compartments there were valves for releasing gas. During a shot, the cartridge passes through these chambers in turn. Passing through the first cell, the powder combustion waste wastes pressure and slowly exits through the hole. Those who make it to the second exit into the atmosphere in the same way.


Such dampers were a natural improvement to the classical mechanism - they were combined with the carrier into a single weapon. There are several holes in the barrel, through which gases pass into the damper located at the rear of the body. And in front there is the simplest chamber compartment.

Thanks to this design, the noise level is reduced even further. The length of the entire gun becomes significantly shorter, since there is no need to attach an additional device. But the biggest benefit is increased efficiency. If several principles are used simultaneously, maximum suppressor performance can be achieved.

The downside is the length does not correspond to the geometric dimensions. After all, to increase the speed of a bullet, you need sufficient space for acceleration.


This type is used very rarely. In it, noise is suppressed mechanically. But in them, energy is lost due to compression of springs or other elements, which greatly affects the speed and intensity of fire. One of the few advantages was the compactness of this device. But the disadvantages, unfortunately, greatly exceed the advantages.

Development and improvement

Today, the most important task in improving a suppressor is to further suppress sound, reduce dimensions, increase accuracy and intensity of fire, because every gunsmith knows how a silencer for a weapon works. Until now, suppressors are special-purpose items without the possibility of mass production. In recent years, to reduce the volume level, it has been recommended to purchase special cartridges.

The productivity of the devices is increased due to complex calculations of the rotation of the gas flow. This is possible through the use of complex profile partitions and turbulent eddies. Particles of powder elements collide with each other, quickly losing their energy.

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