Form and basic methods of directive management style

At what stage of task implementation is a directive management style required?

  • How to choose a personnel management style: characteristics of styles and methods
  • Management styles
  • Directive (authoritarian) management style
  • Authoritarian management style (directive)
  • Situational Leadership
  • Leadership style
  • What should be the management style of a company at different stages of its existence?
  • Team management style

How to choose a personnel management style: characteristics of styles and methods A boss or mentor is suitable for such an employee.
An employee needs control and setting clear goals, but somewhere he needs to encourage, suggest, explain, then the employee will have motivation and desire. Capable, but not determined “I can, but I don’t want to.” The employee has sufficient professional knowledge

Attention: I have experience. Motivation disappears

Communication styles: detachment

It is very difficult to attribute this manner to dialogue. Most likely this is a way of avoiding interaction. There are cases. When we have to have a conversation with a person who is unpleasant to us. He could be a client, a boss, or a random fellow passenger on a plane. The detached style has its own peculiarity - to reduce dialogue to a minimum. Below are examples of some simple tips on how to conduct dialogue “distantly”:

  1. Don't initiate the conversation. Whoever needs it will ask.
  2. Make a stone mask on your face. Emotions, facial expressions and gestures will be superfluous here. If anything, practice in front of a mirror.
  3. There should be extremely dry speech, excluding adjectives, jargon and diminutive expressions.
  4. Form monosyllabic answers like, yeah, yes, we’ll see, no, etc.
  5. Don't try to use this style with people who are of any importance to you. Although, if you want to get rid of them, then yes.

When is it effective?

There are a number of reasons why it is necessary to adopt an authoritarian leadership style. Among them, there are periods in an enterprise when the discipline of employees decreases, and along with it, the financial indicators of the organization itself and its income decrease. An autocratic director is required in order to improve the work of the team, albeit by taking tough measures. In extreme cases, the weakest links will leave their positions, and other employees will be hired to fill them. With characteristic management, an organization in decline will soon regain its previous position and strive for progress.

Note! Employees who have experienced a change in leadership style should remember that this is a temporary phenomenon. With maximum patience, obedience and skills, each team member will be able to become part of that historical moment when the organization emerges from the crisis

What should be the management style of a company at different stages of its existence?

If you fail at work, enthusiasm disappears, and burnout at work is possible. Self-confidence comes and goes. What is needed is a boss with a supportive management style.

It is important for an employee to receive support, praise, and to know that his opinion is listened to. And the ability to make decisions independently raises the employee’s self-esteem and motivates him to solve new problems.

Capable and determined “I can and I want.” Experience and knowledge at the highest level. The employee solves the task with ease. Motivated, confident.

Management styles On the other hand, there are tendencies to restrain individual initiative and one-way movement of information flows from top to bottom, and there is no necessary feedback. The use of an authoritarian style, although it ensures high labor productivity, does not create the internal interest of performers in effective work.

What is management style

Textbooks and manuals on marketing and management provide a huge number of definitions of the concept “management style” - long, complex, smart. But speaking generally and briefly, management style is the nature of the manager’s attitude towards employees, otherwise, how the boss behaves with his subordinates.

There are many classifications of leadership style created by both domestic and foreign managers, marketers, psychologists, and sociologists. But all of them can be reduced to four main types:

  • dictatorial or authoritarian,
  • bureaucratic or directive,
  • democratic or collegial,
  • liberal or personality-oriented.

The first two are usually classified as so-called hard leadership styles, the remaining two are considered soft. A “hard” management style implies clarity in setting tasks and monitoring execution with recording of all, even intermediate, results. The “soft” style, on the contrary, is more focused on self-organization and self-actualization of employees.

Ritual communication

Communication styles include ritual dialogue. He solves the main problem of maintaining a relationship with society, as well as presenting himself as a member of this community. What is important here is the presence of a partner during the dialogue as a necessary attribute to perform the ritual. Real life is filled with a huge number of different kinds of rituals, in which everyone’s participation is implied in the form of a kind of “mask”, which has certain properties preset. In such rituals, only one thing is required from their participants - familiarization with the rules of the game.

This style is distinguished by many contacts, in which, looking from the outside, and in some cases from the inside, there is no meaning or content, because at the first impression they do not carry any useful information and will not be able to achieve a certain result.

It seems that precious time is being wasted pointlessly, causing only irritability. But there are times when people enjoy such meetings.

Authoritarian leadership style

It is common for an autocrat to concentrate all work processes under his close attention: “Where he is not himself, there is a grave!” He always relies only on his own strength. Typically, an autocrat believes that his subordinates do not like to work, and that they must be forced to work like “little children.”

Gives orders and instructions, insisting on complete obedience. Violation of its requirements is punishable by sanctions. “Minimum democracy, maximum control.” All actions of personnel are clearly regulated by instructions, regulations and require the constant participation of management.

This leadership style in an organization is aimed largely at increasing the efficiency of the work process. It gives results such as: high productivity, profitability, exceeding the plan. On the other hand, the leader chooses a position outside the group, and does not always take into account the socio-psychological climate and collective interests. The subordinate ceases to be a person, but turns into a “bolt” of the bureaucratic system.

Such an advantage as a strong control function sometimes turns into a 25-hour workload a day for a manager! The strengthening of bureaucracy as the organization grows deprives management decisions of efficiency.

Not every manager can handle an authoritarian leadership style.

For an adherent of this style, it is important to “maintain authority” without stooping to permissiveness or arbitrariness. Planning tactics, strategies, focusing on results, and not blindly following prescriptions and instructions will help you avoid pitfalls.

An authoritarian leadership style is characterized by maintaining discipline at a high level, so in times of crisis and emergency situations it is simply necessary.

How to improve your management style

A few simple recommendations will help adjust the manager’s management style and help harmonize his relationship with the team for the benefit of the company’s goals.

Tip #1. Assess your role as a leader. Analyze what helped you get this position.

Tip #2. Eliminate your weak points. Subordinates sense the leader's inner doubts and insecurities and may begin to slack off.

Tip #3. Continuously improve your professional skills and level of specialized knowledge. The power of intellect is the most authoritative and reliable.

Tip #4. Get ready to work as a team with your subordinates. It is necessary to evaluate the team as a single organism, each person in which performs a unique function.

Tip #5. Show respect and empathy for the team's problems enough to ensure that the employee understands his value in the company.

Tip #6. Analyze what limitations may prevent you from successfully performing the management function and gradually eliminate them.

Tip #7. Improve communications with your subordinates. Without communication, effective leadership is impossible.

Tip #8. Be attentive to any criticism from subordinates. Dissatisfaction should not be ignored. This can lead to your credibility being undermined or significant mistakes being missed.

Tip #9. Accumulate group experience. Make it clear to your colleagues that their joint potential is much wider than they imagine and it is worth using it for personal and corporate success.

The leadership style in a real company should not be strictly divided into formal types; styles should be combined, innovation and personal experience should be introduced into them. If a leader can maintain a balance between authoritarian power and an extreme degree of liberalism, brings personal charisma to the process and follows at least some of the above advice, then it will become much more pleasant to work at an enterprise in any industry, go towards a common goal and tirelessly work on yourself and your tasks.


In general, they do not like to obey, since it is believed that this is the lot of the weak. By the way, the “submission” style is not described anywhere. People don’t like being led so much that sometimes they don’t even think about the fact that in life some people command, while others follow orders. But this is a wrong, ostrich position. It is necessary to be able to obey. A good specialist is able to establish relationships with the manager so that they are mutually beneficial.

The HR specialist needs to obey competently. Other employees should see a positive example of subordination and understand that they can communicate constructively with their superiors. By his behavior, hr shows that submitting does not mean humiliating yourself. It is rather the ability to understand another person and do as he wants. The boss is not a dictator, but a client. You need to communicate with him as with a dear guest: clarifying his needs and clarifying his desires. The opposite often happens. The manager gives an order, and the subordinate immediately puts forward arguments why he cannot carry it out. Imagine a hairdresser to whom a client comes and asks to do his hair: “Longer here, shorter here, and leave a ponytail here.” And in response he hears: “No, I can’t do that, it’s wrong and ugly.” Such a hairdresser is unlikely to last long on the service market.

To use the submission style correctly, you must adhere to the following rules:

1. Do not start the task until it is clear what the result should be. If the boss cannot articulate exactly what he wants, he needs help. Yes, this is not a very pleasant recommendation, but nothing can be done, sometimes you have to do the work for your superiors. If the manager cannot or is not able to provide specifics, then it is imperative to clarify when the task should be completed and what the result should be.

Example 3. Marianna S., a selection specialist, was given the task of finding a logistician for the transport and warehouse service. But the manager could not formulate what kind of specialist he needed: with or without experience, with higher education or with secondary specialized education. To all Marianna’s attempts to understand what kind of employee the manager wants, the latter answered: “I need him to work well.”

Then the recruiter did this: she made a list of all possible logistician skills (about 30 positions) and asked the head of the transport and warehouse service to leave only the 7 most important, from his point of view, qualities. Thus, she created a professional portrait of the candidate. Pretty soon the right person was selected and hired.

2. Eliminate flattery. There is no need to demonstrate over-readiness and devotedly “devour” with the eyes of the boss. The desire to receive bonuses through good personal relationships with management is understandable, but does not inspire respect.

3. If the task cannot be completed, you need to tell the manager about it, explaining the reasons. Delays, failure to fulfill, and empty promises are unacceptable. It’s better to “leave the game” right away and not get on each other’s nerves.

Opinion. Victoria Kharitonova, leading recruiter at Unity recruitment agency

Each person has a certain set of role models that he uses regularly. Some people do this consciously, others don’t.

If you look from a professional point of view, the most comfortable in communication will be the applicant/colleague who can change and adjust his communication style to specific people and situations. In this case, the interlocutor may feel that he is on the same wavelength with his opponent. And for business, this is the most effective form of interaction.

The most striking examples of the use of different communication styles emerge from everyday life. Moreover, they are connected precisely with the fact that people cannot or do not have time to rebuild. If an experienced teacher enters public transport, you can immediately notice him, for example, by a short dialogue with the conductor, by his demeanor, and authoritarian style of communication. It is also very easy to distinguish military people from the crowd based on their communication style.

Example 4. Business coach Andrey D. was asked to conduct training for the company’s sales staff. In addition to the traditional content (sales stages, establishing contact with the client, etc.), he also needed to develop an additional training module. Management called it a “motivational training block.” Andrey had to conduct “special exercises” that would increase the desire of managers and salespeople to sell more and allow them to love their company. The result had to be concrete - in the form of an increase in revenue by 12%. The business coach refused, since such “magic” techniques do not exist.

4. Change your attitude. As we have already said, the ability to obey is an indicator of professionalism, and not an expression of a humiliated position.

There are, of course, “contraindications”. The submissive style is designed to communicate with clients and managers. It is not suitable for talking with arrogant, aggressive people.

Correlation between management style and team productivity

A correctly chosen company management strategy, taking into account the personal potential of both employees and managers, allows you to “work miracles” in all areas of business. The main role in choosing a management style is always given to the subjective attitude of the manager towards the team, the ability to adequately assess the impact on employees using the chosen methods. But even in conditions of complete stability, errors are possible, which, as a rule, primarily affect labor productivity. In this regard, it can be emphasized that the issue of choosing a management style for a manager is a task that requires a primary solution.

Conversational style

Communication styles will also include conversational and everyday styles in their list. It is characterized by informal relationships that are connected not only with everyday life, family, circle of friends, but also with the professional environment. Conversational language is used in interpersonal communication. It is because of this that its manifestation in most cases takes an oral form during spontaneous dialogues. Pre-thinking what is said during such a conversation is not always acceptable.

Colloquial speech is also used for self-expression; with its help, the individual’s individual abilities are manifested, since it has an emotional connotation.

A large role here is given to non-verbal means of interaction and expressive signals of the body. Informal communication has also found wide application in everyday vocabulary:

  1. Vernacular.
  2. Words that have a subjective assessment.
  3. Expressive and emotional statements.
  4. In the form of abbreviations.
  5. In the form of colloquial and everyday phraseology.
  6. Variety of particles, etc.

The use of exclamatory and incentive sentences is also widely practiced. This style of speech is used only in some specific cases.


It would never even occur to such a manager to consult with employees if a certain decision needs to be made - he knows everything himself. Initiative on the part of subordinates is not necessarily punishable, but it also does not arouse enthusiasm in Ivan Ivanovich.

“Minus”: if you view work as a place of self-realization, you will simply wither away in an organization with a similar management style. So there are no options for “what to do?” a little: curb your ardor and ambitions and work under the command of such a know-it-all, or say goodbye in search of a more suitable place.

“Plus”: you are not responsible for serious mistakes and critical situations, because the boss voluntarily took on this responsibility.


  1. Exploitative - the planning system does not include the staff, who in turn get very angry. After all, the leader, even if he made a decision that turned out to be successful, did it without listening to the people around him, and they feel not only unappreciated, but completely useless and unnecessary. As a result, every slightest mistake causes them a storm of emotions, especially joy, because in this way they confirm their negative assessment of their superiors.
  2. Benevolent - a more lenient attitude, so much so that the boss can inquire not only about the affairs of his subordinates, but also clarify their opinion. Although he will still act in his own way, sometimes even demonstratively, to show once again who has the power here. This form is more loyal, at least it gives more freedom to show initiative and independence. This type also contains threats to increase motivation, but often it doesn’t come to fruition.

What is an authoritarian leadership style

It is believed that the method of sole leadership with the establishment of strict discipline is an authoritarian leadership style. Its main principle is absolute authority, the primacy of the leader. Authoritarianism is based on the ability to make quick decisions, on clear and clear orders, without allowing objections, as well as on the denial of any manifestations of initiative on the part of subordinates. This leadership style is considered effective in cases where the organization has reached a crisis in labor discipline. However, this particular management style is considered dangerous due to the occurrence of staff turnover.

In pedagogy

The preference for authoritarian leadership among teachers increases the external performance of their work. Such statistics can be traced to the achievement of a high level of discipline and student achievement.

However, this pedagogical approach has disadvantages - the socio-psychological atmosphere of such a class is unfavorable, since the student simply does not have the right to express his own opinion. Any initiative coming from a student is perceived by an authoritarian teacher as an act of self-will, which is unacceptable for the latter. Suppression of a student's will has a detrimental effect on his further socio-psychological development.

In personnel management

Management and personnel management is the area in which the authoritarian management method is most often used. In order to increase the efficiency of the work process and streamline the provoking behavior of employees, a decision is made to apply a directive style. Thus, the boss himself is responsible for the progress of work, excluding delegation of his powers in any form. An authoritarian leader gives clear instructions that staff members are obliged to follow unquestioningly.

Note! There are known cases when a manager abused power, which led the organization into decline - employees left their positions, as a result of which the activities of the organization as a whole suffered.

Sometimes managers abuse their power

Advantages and disadvantages

The democratic position of the leader, equally with the authoritarian and liberal positions, has its pros and cons.

The advantages include the following:

  • complete trust in the staff and mutual understanding;
  • involving employees in the life of the company;
  • team spirit unites and motivates the employee’s independence within the framework of his job responsibilities;
  • joint decisions do not cause much dissatisfaction among employees;
  • Non-standard approaches allow us to find answers to any given tasks.

The advantages include low staff turnover, job satisfaction and a favorable climate in the organization.

Attention! The decision-making procedure in a democratic leadership style (DSM) occurs at all levels of communication, both vertically (among managers) and horizontally (within the team). One of the disadvantages of a democratic leadership style is the frequent difficulty in making a common decision and its correctness.

In addition, the following can be considered as negative points:

One of the disadvantages of a democratic leadership style is the frequent difficulty in making a common decision and its correctness. In addition, the following can be considered as negative points:

  • inability to make quick decisions in emergency situations;
  • lack of strict centralization of control;
  • emergence of new requirements for management quality.

Improper management of a manager can lead to abuse of freedom and manipulation by subordinates.

Examples of authoritarian leadership type

One of the clearest positive examples of authoritarian leaders is Henry Ford. He was so careful in selecting employees that he literally studied all their ins and outs. Focus on structural details, efficient and thoughtful work allowed him to found a world-famous company.

Another example belongs to another automobile company, which was in crisis for some time. In the end, a specialist was invited who managed to combine authoritarian and democratic governance. As a result, this commonality of management orientations helped the company reach the global level.

Chrysler management combined democratic and authoritarian management styles

The authoritarian leadership style is characterized as contradictory. Many people consider this style to be cruel, since the opinions, experience and skills of subordinates are not taken into account. On the other hand, there are many examples where this type of government pulled organizations out of decline. One way or another, it has its place among managers; it is often resorted to in cases where the company is exposed to a crisis.

Three Methods of Guidance

Management methods are varied, but for scientific purposes they are divided into three main groups:

  • administrative-organizational, or command methods;
  • economic;
  • psychological methods.

An experienced manager, taking into account the situation and characteristics of the team, selects a set of the most effective measures from each group.

The choice of methods and the frequency of their use are influenced not only by objective reasons, but also by the personal preferences of the manager. “Favorite” skills generally leave an imprint on all business communication with colleagues. Team management styles are a set of methods and measures implemented by the manager.

Democrat, or Collegial management style

Unlike the previous option, the democratic management style involves a more creative approach. Leaders of this type prefer not unity of command, but a collegial way of solving problems. Only general tasks are set, and the manager hands over the development of specific steps for their implementation to the employees. The boss consults with employees, actively promotes all their initiatives, and delegates his powers to subordinates.

The democratic approach is often practiced by leaders of the “new format” - young, modern and, unfortunately, inexperienced. Lack of experience affects the results - the leader is not taken seriously, and a soft approach is taken for weakness. The team slides into anarchy and idleness. This can only be avoided by building a clear hierarchy and maintaining subordination.

Slogan: “Let's think together!”

Pros of the democratic style

  • Minimum errors in work. Still, the old proverb about the number of goals is very true. The more people involved in finding a solution, the more pitfalls can be avoided.
  • Team cohesion. Communication between all employees on equal terms contributes to team unification. This way people can work together for years and decades.
  • The ability to unite in difficult moments for the company. Even in times of crisis, such a team would prefer to be patient and wait it out rather than quit and look for a new place.

Disadvantages of the democratic style

  • Low level of discipline. And this is the main scourge of all “soft” control options. Creativity and discipline are a rare combination.
  • Low level of personal responsibility. The employee is not responsible for his mistakes, referring to the commonality of the decisions made - “we did everything together!”
  • Long hours of work even on simple tasks. The more people work on a problem, the longer the actual work takes. After all, collective discussion is a slow process.

Employee efficiency

Efficiency should not be confused with effectiveness.

A result is a completed action that is measured in specific units. Employee performance is important for both managers and business owners. Employees exchange their performance for salary.

Efficiency includes the methods and resources by which results are achieved. An employee’s effectiveness is determined by two components: professionalism and loyalty to the company. Professionalism includes the knowledge, skills, experience and competencies of an employee. Loyalty shows how involved an employee is in his work, whether he is results-oriented, and how motivated he is to achieve results for the benefit of the company.

If we measure professionalism and loyalty on a 10-point scale, then the employee’s effectiveness will be determined by the lowest score on one of them.

For example, a professional salesperson sells from the first call and exceeds plans (9 points on the professionalism scale), but he is not very interested in what will happen to the company (3 points on the loyalty scale). Its effectiveness will be 3 out of 10. A similar picture will be in the case of a super loyal employee who is willing to work on weekends and wear a T-shirt with the company logo, but at the same time does not understand the product he is selling and does not know how to talk to the client. He will be as effective for the company as he can sell.

A competent manager determines the personal effectiveness of each employee, chooses which management style is most effective for him and improves his weaknesses.

Your psychologist. The work of a psychologist at school.

Methods for resolving conflict situations
Techniques for understanding and directive communication
Aggression and aggressiveness. Technologies for neutralizing aggressive manifestations
Self-control of mastering the topic. Application
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Page 4 of 6

Techniques for understanding and directive communication

One of the criteria for effective communication is a person’s ability to use the technique of understanding or directive communication in accordance with the situation. The technique of understanding communication is aimed at understanding a partner and his problems, establishing psychological contact, studying his personal characteristics, finding out his point of view on the problem under discussion, etc. Open communication with a person will only occur when we are able to create a trusting relationship (climate, atmosphere, psychological contact). The essential conditions for creating such a climate of trust are the following: – understanding the thoughts, feelings, ideas and statements of the partner; – positive acceptance of the interlocutor’s personality; – consistency (congruence) of one’s own behavior when interacting with him. In order to more effectively understand your partner and develop psychological contact with him, it is advisable to adhere to a number of rules in communication: 1. Listen more, speak less yourself, “follow” your partner’s statements and emotions. 2. Refrain from your assessments, ask fewer questions, do not “push” your partner to discuss those issues that he “should” talk about from your point of view. 3. Strive first of all to respond to personally significant information that is most closely related to the needs and interests of your partner. 4. Strive to respond to the feelings and emotional states of the interlocutor. Techniques for understanding response: – simple phrases confirming the existence of contact (expression of attention and interest); – paraphrasing statements and openly expressed feelings of the partner (expressing attention and checking the correctness of understanding); – finding out the thoughts and feelings of the interlocutor that are not expressed openly (reacting to what, in your opinion, is in the mind of your partner); – probing the incompletely conscious emotional states of the interlocutor (“pulling” into the partner’s field of consciousness the causes of emotional states); – silence as a response technique (conscious use of silence during a conversation); – nonverbal reactions (conscious use of “body language” in communication); – interpretation (an option for probing the partner’s not fully conscious experiences); – summarizing (a variant of extended paraphrasing of a logically completed fragment of a conversation); – encouragement and reassurance (a way of confirming what you want to understand and accept without judging the thoughts and feelings of the interlocutor); – questions that clarify the position of the interlocutor (non-evaluative questions that are your reaction to what was said and expressed by the interlocutor in the conversation). Confident behavior in implementing a negotiation strategy includes the following skills: – confidently express your position; – argue for it; – be persistent in defending your rights; – protect your interests; – resist pressure; - ask for help; - take steps towards reconciliation. To implement them, it is necessary to skillfully use the skills and techniques of directive communication, which is aimed at exerting a direct psychological impact on the partner to achieve one’s goals. The directive communication technique is aimed at overcoming defensive-aggressive skills and habits and achieving your goals in interacting with people with greater efficiency. The directive approach is focused on the following: – open, direct and clear expression of one’s positions, intentions and goals; – open, active behavior and actions to achieve your goals; – direct and open refusal to perform actions that will not serve your interests; – effective and decisive protection of oneself from the aggressive behavior of a partner; – achieving your goals taking into account the interests and goals of your partner. Methods of directive response: – directive questions (orienting your partner to a problem that you consider appropriate to discuss in accordance with your goals); – open clarification of contradictions in the partner’s position (the partner’s orientation towards awareness of contradictions in reasoning and arguments); – expressing doubt about the interlocutor’s statements; – expression of agreement or disagreement (approval, disapproval); – advice, proposal, explanation (recommendations to the interlocutor in connection with the implementation of his goals); - belief; – coercion (a hidden or direct threat to your partner if he refuses to act in accordance with your intentions).


In a number of cases, to resolve and resolve controversial issues, they resort to negotiations with the participation of an intermediary - the mediation procedure. Mediation is currently one of the most promising technologies for constructive conflict resolution with the participation of a third, neutral, impartial party not interested in the dispute - a mediator. This special form of mediation is designed to assist the conflicting parties in bringing the dispute to a mutually beneficial and viable solution as quickly as possible, and the mediator only helps create the conditions for this, and does not make a decision in favor of one party or another. Mediation methods are based mainly on introducing negotiations into cooperation and focusing the conflicting parties on a “win-win” result. The mediation procedure is applicable in medicine. It allows a medical institution in a situation of conflict not to bring the case to court and thus “save face” and reputation. Reputation, as you know, is something that takes years to build up, but can be lost in 5 minutes after the court decision is announced. Unfortunately, bad news always travels faster than good news. Mediation helps resolve conflicts/disputes with patients, their relatives, colleagues or competitors, insurance companies, and helps resolve conflicts within medical institutions (intra-organizational mediation).


A doctor’s communicative competence presupposes the establishment of positive relationships and mutual understanding with patients, including “difficult” ones. The differences between the point of view of the doctor and the patient are natural and predetermined by their different positions and different roles. However, the doctor is obliged to ensure that these differences do not develop into deeper and more persistent contradictions that would jeopardize the relationship between medical personnel and patients and thereby complicate the provision of care to the patient (Konechny, R. Psychology in Medicine / R. Konechny, M. Bouhal, Prague, 1974). One of the most important rules of interaction between a doctor and a patient is that it is necessary to treat not the disease, but the patient, based on his personal characteristics. How to recognize a “difficult” patient? This is indicated by one of his behavior patterns: - attacks you, accuses you of not feeling any improvement, despite the treatment he is taking; – firmly adheres to his point of view; – does not follow your recommendations, does not take prescribed treatment; – constantly interrupts you; – manipulates you by resorting to threats or flattery; – rejects any of your proposals, constantly says “no”; – does not maintain distance when communicating; – overly emotional (cries, breaks into a scream). Peculiarities of interaction with various patients: 1. Tactics when interacting with an openly hostile patient: 1) first let “blow off steam” - listen; 2) make it clear that you understood what was said - repeat what you heard in other words; 3) reflect his feelings without reinforcing or agreeing with his complaints; 4) take a neutral position; 5) without questioning his rightness, calmly and confidently express your own point of view; 6) emphasize that now that the essence of the issue is clear, it is necessary to determine what to do next. 2. Tactics when interacting with an “angry child” or an “explosive” person: 1) give vent to emotions - let the person scream; 2) convince the person that you are listening to him; 3) let him know that he is in control of the situation; 4) when he calms down, behave as if there was no “explosion” on his part; 5) after such an outburst the person himself may be embarrassed - accept his apology if it follows. 3. A flattering patient is trying to distract you from your tasks and gain favor (“seduce”). It is better to ignore flattery, as this is one of the ways of manipulation. In this way the patient can try to get what he wants. 4. You should increase your distance with a familiar patient, that is, behave more formally than usual. 5. A crying patient - it is necessary to calmly and sympathetically accept the manifestation of his emotions; if necessary, give the patient a tissue and wait until he can speak. 6. You should be more active with a talkative or distracted patient so that the consultation time is not “eaten up” by insignificant details.

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Authoritarian-democratic style

The presence of undeniable advantages of collegial management does not mean that the authoritarian style has been “discarded.” In management practice, a combined leadership style is actively used - “authoritarian-democratic”, combining the advantages of the two styles.

A complex approach containing contradictions at its core. What should you prioritize: creativity (democratic methods) or discipline (organizational methods)? The selection of the main parameter for a particular situation is carried out by ranking factors or a combination of methods. For example, maintaining democracy in the decision-making process and authoritarianism at the stage of their implementation.

Management styles page 1 of 3

He does not listen to the opinion of the team; he decides everything for the team himself. The predominant management methods are orders, punishments, remarks, reprimands, and deprivation of various benefits.

Control is very strict, detailed, depriving subordinates of initiative. The interests of the business are placed significantly above the interests of people, harshness and rudeness predominate in communication.

The directive style is characterized by high centralization of leadership and the dominance of unity of command. The manager demands that all matters be reported to him and makes decisions alone or cancels them.

He does not listen to the opinion of the team; he decides everything for the team himself.

Dictator, or Authoritarian management style

The canonical version of the leader. Tough, confident, dominant, such a boss always knows what his subordinates are doing and what the employees are doing at the current moment. The “dictator” leader makes decisions alone, but is also solely responsible for them. The main distinguishing feature of a “dictator” is control, complete and comprehensive.

Slogan: “I’m the boss, which means I’m always right!”

Pros of an authoritarian style

  • Clear distribution of responsibilities. The manager, as a rule, breaks the assigned general task into several small ones and distributes them among his subordinates. But at the same time, employees often do not have a general, holistic picture of what is happening.
  • Discipline. The constant companion of total control is iron discipline in the team. Discipline and order.
  • Ability to quickly find a way out in stressful situations. Actually, this cannot be called stress - employees can only quickly carry out the boss’s commands.

Disadvantages of an authoritarian style

  • Unfavorable climate in the team. The strictly maintained distance between the manager and the employee does not leave the latter the opportunity to even complain about anything. On the other hand, such a situation is an excellent opportunity for the team to rally against the “tyrant boss.”
  • Lack of initiative from employees. A rigid approach to work simply kills all the creative initiative of employees.
  • Staff turnover. Not everyone is able to work for a long time under pressure from a “dictator.” As a rule, the most active and talented employees are the first to leave.

Typical mistakes of a manager

When identifying shortcomings in the DSR, the lack of strict control on the part of superiors was noted. Reliance on the independent actions of employees, without proper verification of task performance at all levels, leads to unpunished relaxation in the team.

Familiarity can reduce the authority of the boss and become an obstacle to establishing clear business relationships. Control is mandatory, but not direct, but indirect (through other channels, through immediate managers). Improper delegation of responsibilities leads to failure of the entire system.

Typical mistakes of a manager

The style of democratic management of a company does not depend on gender. An organization can be headed by either a man or a woman. The image of a professional leader is what employees see before them. Properly established communication with staff is expressed in the fact that feelings of duty and guilt towards colleagues motivate the “work through mistakes” of the guilty team member more than punishment.

Democratic collegial leadership style in the organization

Its characteristic features are the following:

  • the manager’s desire to develop decisions agreed upon with employees and deputies;
  • distribution of responsibilities and powers between subordinates;
  • stimulating employee initiative;
  • regularly and timely informing the team on all important issues;
  • friendly and polite communication;
  • the presence of a favorable psychological climate in the team;
  • Reward for employees is the achievement of a positive result by the company.

The manager always listens and uses any constructive proposal, organizing a wide exchange of information, involving subordinates in all matters of the organization. However, responsibility for decisions made will not be transferred to employees. The environment created by a democratic leader contributes to the fact that the manager’s authority is supported by his personal authority.

Consequences of an incorrectly chosen style

All people make mistakes, without this it is impossible to move forward. However, when it comes to choosing a leadership style, such failure can be costly to the company in every sense.

The chosen leadership style depends on:

  • Psychological climate in the team. Here, everything is usually fine with the leaders of the democrats, but the subordinates of the dictators, driven by fear, feel undervalued, lose interest, and work “from the fence to the dinner.”
  • Staff turnover. The first point leads to the second. The best employees, dissatisfied with the management style, leave, leaving mediocre opportunists, as well as retirees who are accustomed to the fact that the boss can be anyone since their youth.
  • Sabotage of tasks. This problem can occur with any leadership style, but it manifests itself in different ways. Subordinates of tough leaders are characterized by the ability to “roll what’s square and carry what’s round,” so to speak. They could come up with a much more efficient way, but they're just doing what they're told. With democratic leaders, some subordinates feel permissive and begin to answer any questions with endless “I’m already doing it” and “I’ll finish it tomorrow.”
  • The presence of new ideas that are necessary for the development of the company, like air. If they are generated by only one person (the director), they gradually lose their novelty. All this leads to the fact that the organization stands still. In conditions where competitors are running forward, this is actually equivalent to walking backwards.
  • The ability to pull together and act as one in difficult times. This usually arises with difficulties if the leadership style is too democratic. The right of the last word should always remain with the leader.

Features of manifestations and forms of mixing leadership styles

Firstly, the manager works with subordinates who differ in educational and cultural levels, worldview, personal and emotional make-up. Let us note one of the most well-known patterns. The lower the qualifications and level of culture an employee has, the easier he will accept an authoritarian leadership style. On the contrary, a subordinate who is democratic by nature, emotional and open in behavior, will not work well with a leader who prefers a tough management style and unquestioning submission.

Secondly, the management style is influenced by the specific prevailing conditions, the degree of maturity of the team and its cohesion. Thus, in a critical situation, a democratic manager will often be forced to use harsh methods of managing employees. At the same time, in a calm environment, he can let everything go on the brakes, using a liberal leadership style.

Thirdly, the presence of practical experience and the cultural level of a manager are often decisive when choosing the main areas of management. An authoritarian leader can often act friendly and open. On the contrary, a democratic person, due to insufficient upbringing or the inability to behave correctly in a team, is capable of disrespecting his subordinates. Very often, indecisive managers demonstrate passivity in their behavior and examples of a liberal leadership style. By acting in this way, they relieve themselves of responsibility for the results of the company's activities.

Varieties of dialogue styles

Communication styles are different, and for each individual situation the most suitable one is chosen, both in behavior and interaction. For any situation, it is common for a person to “present” himself in different ways. But with inadequate self-presentation, dialogue becomes difficult.

To bring some clarity to this issue, psychologists have proposed descriptions of four interaction styles, which consist of:

  1. Ritual
    . It depends on the culture in which a person is destined to live. This could include greetings and questions asked during the meeting, as well as responses.
  2. Imperative
    . It is an authoritarian, directive way of communication. The imperative style achieves control over the interlocutor’s behavior, bends his attitudes, or forces him to take certain actions and make decisions. This is achieved through orders, regulations and demands. Typically, the imperative style is used in the army, in relations between superiors and subordinates, and also in working with extreme conditions.
  3. Manipulative
    . If in the imperative style everything is extremely clear and open, then in the manipulative style the interlocutor exerts a secret influence. But the goal remains the same: to take control of your opponent’s behavior and thoughts.
  4. Humanistic
    . This method has all the varieties of dialogue. Here there is already equal communication, the purpose of which is to achieve mutual knowledge and self-knowledge. There is no place for imperatives, and deep mutual understanding is achieved.
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