What is total radiation?

Radioactive radiation surrounds us everywhere; to some extent, all objects and even the person himself have it. It is not the radiation itself that is dangerous, but when its value exceeds certain values. It is one thing if a person has been exposed to radiation for a short time, and quite another thing when it is exposed to it for a long time, for example, living in a contaminated apartment. Looking ahead, we will say that for humans the safe rate of radiation is defined within 30 microroentgens per hour (μR/h). There are several other units of measurement. We will discuss other norms and units of its measurement below.

What is radioactivity

What is radiation

Radiation is a type of radiation from charged particles. Such radiation, affecting surrounding objects, ionizes the substance. In the case of humans, it not only ionizes cells, but also destroys them or causes cancer.

Most elements of the periodic table are inert and harmless, but some are unstable. Without going into details, you can describe it like this. The atoms of some substances disintegrate due to weak internal bonds. This decay is accompanied by the release of alpha, beta particles and gamma radiation.

Such a release is accompanied by the release of energy with different penetrating abilities and having different effects on the tissues of the body.

Types of radiation

Radiation can be of several different types, each of which is characterized by its own damaging factors. The radiation background that is present on Earth is divided into natural (of natural origin) and artificial (of man-made origin). So, any person is constantly in the field of one or another source of radiation.

The nuclear fission reaction is widely used to produce energy. All nuclear power plants are built on its basis. Nuclear fuel has amazing efficiency and energy intensity. So, to heat 100 tons of water, you need a radioactive isotope weighing only 1 g.

Radiation waves are divided into:

  • alpha waves;
  • beta waves;
  • gamma waves;
  • neutron radiation.

Alpha radiation occurs during the nuclear decay of heavy chemical elements, including uranium, radium, thorium and others. Their affected area is limited to a small distance from the point of origin: in the air - approximately 8-10 cm, in biological media - only 0.01-0.05 mm.

Alpha waves cannot penetrate even a sheet of ordinary paper and keratinized epithelial cells. However, if the particles do enter the human body, for example, through areas of the skin with impaired integrity of the integument or through the oral cavity, then, having penetrated the bloodstream, they will spread throughout the body and settle mainly in the endocrine glands and lymph nodes, which will lead to internal poisoning, the severity of which will depend on the dose received.

Beta radiation is the flow of electrons from the nuclear decay of radioactive elements. Beta particles are capable of penetrating into the human body at a distance of up to 20 cm. Beta radiation has found wide application in radiation therapy in the treatment of cancer.

Neutron radiation is a stream of electrically neutral particles. It is characterized by the greatest strength and depth of penetration. These waves are used as an accelerator of other particles for scientific purposes at industrial enterprises, as well as in various laboratory studies.

Read also Gamma radiation: danger to humans and benefits

Gamma radiation also has a fairly high penetrating ability. It does not carry charged particles and, therefore, is not affected by magnetic and electric fields. Applicable in the following areas:

  1. Medicine: radiation therapy.
  2. Food industry: canning.
  3. Branch of the space industry.
  4. Geophysical research.

Gamma particles can cause acute radiation sickness (ARS) with single large doses of radiation, and chronic sickness with prolonged exposure to an ionizing factor.

Types of radiation

There are several types of radioactivity, which can be divided into non-hazardous, low-hazardous and dangerous. We will not dwell on them in detail, but rather to understand what you might encounter indoors. So this is:

  1. alpha (α) radiation;
  2. beta (β) radiation;
  3. gamma (γ) radiation;
  4. neutron;
  5. X-ray.

Alpha, beta, and neutron radiation are particle irradiations. Gamma and X-rays are electromagnetic radiation.

In everyday life you are unlikely to encounter X-rays and neutrons , since they are specific, but you can with the rest. Each of these types of radiation has a different degree of danger, but in addition, the amount of radiation a person has received must be taken into account.

How is radiation measured?

There are several units of measurement for radiation, but generally the preferred unit at the user level is the X-ray associated with it. They are shown in the table below. We will not consider them in detail, since if it is necessary to find out the radioactive background in the apartment, perhaps only 2 will be needed.

Types of radiation

  1. Sievert – equivalent dose. 1 Sv = 100 R = 100 BER = 1 Gy.
  2. Renten is a non-systemic unit - C/kg. 1 R = 1 BER = 0.01 Sv.
  3. BER is an analogue of the sievert, an outdated non-systemic unit. 1 BER = 1 R = 0.01 Sv.
  4. Gray – absorbed dose rate – J/kg. 1 Gy = 100 Rad.
  5. Rad – dose of absorbed radiation J/kg. 1 rad is 0.01 (1 rad = 0.01 Gy).

In practice, the most commonly used system unit is sievert (Sv), mSv - millisievert, μSv - microsievert, named after the scientist Rolf Sievert. The sievert is a unit of measurement for equivalent dose, expressed as the amount of energy received per kilogram of mass J/kg.

The expression of radiation in Roentgens is also used, although less widely. However, converting roentgens to sieverts is not difficult.

1 Roentgen is equal to 0.0098 Sv, but usually the value in sievert is rounded to 0.01, which simplifies the conversion. Since these are very large doses, in reality they use much lower values ​​of m - milli 10-3 and mk - micro 10-6. Hence 100 µR = 1 µSv, or 50 µR = 0.5 µSv. That is, a multiplier of 100 is used. When you need to convert microsieverts to microroentgens, you need to multiply some value by one hundred, and if you need to convert roentgens to sieverts, you need to divide.

The level of radiation that a person can receive during procedures and life

Supervision and regulations

Supervision in this area is carried out by Rospotrebnadzor with special services. Monitoring of the state of radioactive contamination of the natural environment is carried out by the Russian Federal Service for Hydrometeorology and Environmental Monitoring, and the level of radiation safety of the population is carried out by the bodies of the Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation.

In Russia, radiation doses for humans are established by SanPiN “Radiation Safety Standards NRB-99/2009” and OSPORB-99. According to them, the maximum permissible dose of radiation for humans is no more than 5 mSv or 0.5 BER, or 0.5 R per year .

Norms for humans

Over many years of radiation research, safe and maximum doses have been determined. Unfortunately, not only experimentally, but also in practice. Events such as Hiroshima and Chernobyl were not in vain for the planet. Years of radiation observations have shown that exceeding the permissible dose of radiation leaves an imprint on all subsequent generations.

Physical quantities in which radiation is measured

Radiation background

4.5 billion years have passed since the birth of the earth, during which time radioactivity, which was simply gigantic during its formation, has disappeared almost to nothing. The existing natural background, which in our country is 4–15 microR per hour, consists of several components. This:

  • Natural, up to 83%. Residual radiation from natural sources - gases, minerals.
  • Cosmic radiation - 14%. The most powerful source of radiation is the sun. As the earth's magnetic field decreases, the overall background will increase, which can lead to an increase in cancer and mutations. The second factor that reduces radiation is the atmosphere. Airplane fliers and climbers receive an increased dose.
  • Technogenic – from 3 to 13%. 75 years have passed since the first atomic explosion. During the testing of atomic weapons, a huge amount of radioactive substances were released into the atmosphere. In addition, man-made accidents - Chernobyl, Fukushima. Extraction and transportation of such substances, as well as operating nuclear power plants. Everything contributes to the overall background.

The dose of radiation that a person receives during the year.
The norm of background radiation is a value of up to 0.20 μSv/hour or 20 μR/hour. Acceptable background is considered to be a level of up to 60 μR/hour or 0.6 mSv. It is set differently for each country, for example, in Brazil the safe radioactive background is 100 microR per hour.

Safe dose

A safe dose of radiation for humans is the level at which one can live and work without consequences for the body. This level is defined up to 30 μR/h (0.3 μSv/h).

Permissible dose

The permissible dose of radiation is slightly higher than the safe dose and indicates the level at which the body is exposed to radiation, but without negative consequences for health.

The permissible level per year is up to 1 mSv. If we divide this value by hours, we get 0.57 μSv/h.

This dose is also used to calculate the average value of radiation received over several years. For example, a person should receive 5 mSv for 5 years in a row, but working in hazardous production, he received an annual salary of 3 mSv. For the next 4 years, he should not receive more than 1 mSv in order to equalize the values ​​and reduce the risk of developing radiation sickness.

When flying at altitudes above 10 km, the radiation level will be up to 3 μSv/h, which is 10 times higher than the norm. It turns out that in 4 hours you can get a maximum total dose of up to 12 μSv.

Radiation that can be treated in flight

Lethal level of radiation

A dangerous dose can be taken at a level of 0.75 Sv. With this value, a change occurs in a person’s blood and although there are no deaths immediately, the likelihood of cancer in the future is quite high.

As noted above, organs (liver, lungs, stomach, skin) perceive radiation unevenly. Radiation sickness begins with a dose of 1–2 Sieverts and for some this is already a lethal dose. Others will easily survive the infection and recover.

Based on statistics, a dose higher than 7 Sieverts or 700 roentgens will be lethal.

Dose. sievert Impact on humans
1–2Mild form of radiation sickness.
2–3Radiation sickness. Mortality during the first month is up to 35%.
3–6Mortality rate up to 60%.
6–10Lethal outcome 100% within a year.
10–80Coma, death in half an hour
80 or moreImmediate death

Radiation Safety Levels

There are strictly defined levels of safe levels of background radiation for humans. Each territory has its own level of background radiation. A safe and acceptable indicator for humans is radiation of 20 microroentgens per hour, which corresponds to 0.2 microsieverts per hour. The maximum permissible dose, that is, one that is not capable of causing harm to the human body, is 50 microroentgens per hour or 0.5 microsieverts per hour. Any background above these values ​​is unsafe, and staying in such areas for a long time is highly not recommended.

It is believed that the dose of radiation that a person can endure without much harm to health is 10 microsieverts. If the ionizing effect was very short-term, then we are talking about the magnitude of several millisieverts. An X-ray machine, for example, has this effect.

Important! The human body is capable of accumulating radiation exposure throughout its life. It should be remembered that the threshold for such accumulation is 700 millisieverts. Under no circumstances should you cross it!

A tabular infographic illustrating the amount of radiation exposure a person is exposed to in everyday life that can be harmful to health. In the table, the units of radiation are millisieverts [mSv].

Radiation doseDescription
0.01 mSvRadiation dose during dental x-rays.
0.4 mSvThe dose a woman will receive during a mammogram.
1.02 mSvDosage per hour, which was recorded at the nuclear power plant in Fukushima (Japan) on March 12, 2011.
2.4 mSvNormal annual radiation level.
6.9 mSvRadiation dose during fluorography.
10 mSvRadiation dose during computed tomography
100 mSvGreater risk of acquiring cancer.
350 mSvImpact on Chernobyl residents who were resettled.
400 mSvThe maximum recorded level of radiation per hour at the Fukushima nuclear power plant on March 14, 2011.
700 mSvA few hours after exposure, uncontrollable vomiting begins.
1000 mSvAfter exposure to such a dose, the chance of survival is 50%.
6000 mSvThe average dosage received by the liquidators of the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant. They all died within a month after the tragedy.
10,000 mSvInternal bleeding, death within two weeks after irradiation.
20,000 mSvCognitive impairment, seizures, and death within hours of exposure.

Read also: Characteristics of ultraviolet radiation, its use and impact on humans

Measuring radiation in an apartment

The radiation level in the room should not exceed 0.25 μSv/hour. A room in which the radon content does not exceed 100 Bq per cubic meter is considered safe. Moreover, in industrial premises it can be up to 300 Bq and 0.6 microSievert.

If the standards are exceeded, then measures are taken to reduce them. If it is impossible to do this, the residents must be relocated, and the premises must be repurposed as non-residential or demolished.

SanPiN indicates the content of thorium, uranium and potassium-40 used in construction for the construction of housing. The total dose from wall and finishing materials should not exceed 370 Bq/kg.

Materials with increased radioactivity

During construction in Soviet times, all materials were tested according to GOST. Therefore, talk about the fact that “Khrushchev’s” five-story buildings have radioactivity is nothing more than a myth. The main source of radiation in an apartment or any other room is radon gas.

It is a natural source of radiation, as it is present in the earth’s crust and is released into the environment, contributing its share to the general radiation background. Penetrating into the room through the foundation and floors, it accumulates, increasing the normal radioactive background. Therefore, you should not make the premises too airtight. An additional source of radon entering the house is water coming from artesian wells and gas.

Average radioactivity of some building materials

Basic building materials: concrete, brick and wood are not dangerous and are the most harmless. However, in construction and in everyday life we ​​use materials that emit quite a large amount of radon. These include:

  • pumice;
  • granite;
  • tuff;
  • graphite.

All materials located or mined from the earth's crust may have increased levels of radiation. Therefore, it’s a good idea to control it yourself.

Radiation measurement

When hearing the word “radiation,” many people’s brains conjure images of the terrible accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant. However, people are exposed to various ionizing factors every day. A number of instruments are available to measure this ionizing radiation. Accordingly, there are both units of measurement and acceptable standards for background radiation.

The main sources of radiation include:

  • natural radioactive substances surrounding humans (70%);
  • medical devices: X-ray, tomograph and others (10%);
  • cosmic solar radiation (it is from this that the ozone layer protects humanity) (15%);
  • household electrical appliances (5%).

The background radiation level and radiation strength are checked using special instruments that will accurately determine how intense the radiation is in the area under study. Most often, measurements are carried out in the following places and cases:

  • if there is an obvious source of radiation contamination nearby (near nuclear power plants);
  • while traveling and hiking in unknown territory, where there may be a radioactive source nearby;
  • before construction of a residential building or when purchasing an apartment.

It must be remembered that it is almost impossible to clean up a contaminated area (the half-life of many radioactive elements is millions and billions of years). Accordingly, all that can be done is to measure the background radiation and find that it exceeds the maximum permissible level, to leave the contaminated place as soon as possible.

How to check for radiation

Checking the level of radiation may occur when purchasing a new apartment, an apartment in a disadvantaged area, or using suspicious materials in the construction of a house. Humans do not have sense organs capable of sensing radiation and assessing the danger. Therefore, to detect it, it is necessary to have specialized devices - dosimeters.

Household dosimeters for measuring radiation

They can be domestic, professional, industrial or military. Various sensors can be used as a sensitive element: gas-discharge, scintillation crystals, Geiger-Muller mica counters, thermoluminescent lamps, pin diodes.

We have household dosimeters available for measurements at home. Depending on the device, it can display readings in μSv/h or μR/h. Some devices that are closer to professional ones can show both options. It should be taken into account that household dosimeters have a fairly high level of measurement error.


This is the release of gases from the intestines, which also produces a sound.

Fart facts:

1. On average, one release of gaseous waste products from the intestines contains 59 percent nitrogen; 21 percent hydrogen; 9 percent carbon dioxide; 7 percent methane; 4 percent oxygen. Less than 1 percent are components that create an unpleasant odor. 2. The temperature of the gases at the time of the “shelling” is 98.6 degrees Fahrenheit. 3. The rate of release of gaseous waste products from the intestines is more than three meters per second. 4. A person produces about half a liter of intestinal gases per day. 5. Women fart as much as men. 6. The gas that creates the foul odor is hydrogen sulfide. The more you eat foods containing sulfur (eggs, garlic, onions, beans, cabbage, cheese), the more you “spoil the air.” 7. Most people fart about 14 times a day. 8. People fart even after death. 9. Gas coming out of the anus can actually ignite. 10. Everyone farts: turtles, fish, snakes and other reptiles, as well as dogs and cats. 11. Some environmentalists believe that the release of gaseous waste products from the intestines causes irreparable damage to the environment. In particular, one of the causes of global warming is cow farting, some scientists believe. How to treat such statements is up to you, of course.

As you know, ordinary farting can become a disease called flatulence.



The accumulation of gases in the stomach or intestines can be isolated, for example after eating a meal that is particularly conducive to the release of gases, but it can also be a permanent, chronic sign of malfunction of the digestive system. In the second case, this may indicate a disease, such as diverticulitis or inflammatory bowel syndrome, and therefore requires contacting a specialist to identify the cause of flatulence.

Causes of flatulence

The causes of flatulence in the intestines are extremely varied. Flatulence can occur in a child already in the first days after birth as a result of imperfection of the enzyme system or disruption of its function. A lack of enzymes leads to the entry of a large amount of undigested food debris into the lower parts of the digestive tract and the activation of rotting and fermentation processes with the release of gases. Disorders of the enzyme system can occur with an unbalanced diet, as well as various diseases of the upper digestive tract (gastritis, duodenitis, pancreatitis, cholecystitis, hepatitis). Another reason for increased gas formation in the intestines is a violation of the microflora of the colon.

Under normal conditions, most of the gases are absorbed by bacteria living in the intestine. When the balance between gas-producing and gas-consuming microorganisms is disturbed, flatulence occurs. Another mechanism for the occurrence of flatulence is intestinal distension as a result of impaired motor activity of the intestine, which develops during various operations on the abdominal cavity. After surgery, intestinal motility is usually impaired. Slowing down the passage of food masses contributes to the intensification of fermentation and putrefactive processes with increased gas formation. Gases accumulating in the lumen of the sedentary intestine cause paroxysmal pain.

The reason for the increase in the amount of gas in the intestine may be food. In addition to legumes and products containing coarse fiber, these include highly carbonated drinks, products that cause fermentation reactions (lamb meat), as well as products in which fermentation and fermentation reactions occur independently (kvass). Nervous disorders and emotional overload can lead to flatulence due to spasm of intestinal smooth muscles and slower peristalsis.

Depending on the cause, the following types of flatulence are distinguished:

  • on a diet rich in cellulose and eating beans;
  • in case of digestive disorders (gastritis, pancreatitis, cholelithiasis);
  • due to excessive bacterial growth in the small intestine and disruption of colon biosis;
  • in case of mechanical disturbance of the evacuation function of the intestine (tumors, adhesions);
  • due to disorders of intestinal motor function (acute infections, intoxication);
  • for general and local circulatory disorders;
  • caused by psycho-emotional overload and neuropsychic disorders;
  • when raised to a height, when gases expand and pressure in the intestines increases.

Manifestations of flatulence

Flatulence is manifested by bloating or attacks of cramping pain, and may be accompanied by nausea, belching, loss of appetite, constipation or diarrhea.

There are two options for the manifestation of flatulence:

  • In some cases, the main manifestation is a significant increase in the abdomen due to bloating of the intestines, while the passage of gases does not occur due to spasm of the colon. The main sensations are discomfort, abdominal distension, pain.
  • The second option is characterized by constant rapid release of gases from the intestines, which significantly limits the quality of life and stay in society. In this case, the pain syndrome is slightly expressed, complaints of “rumbling” and “transfusion” in the abdomen predominate.

Extraintestinal symptoms may appear: from the cardiovascular system (burning in the heart, rhythm disturbance, mood disorder, sleep disturbance, general weakness).

Treatment of flatulence

The principle of treating flatulence is to eliminate the cause of increased gas formation. Treatment may include the following steps:

  • diet correction;
  • treatment of diseases that cause flatulence;
  • restoration of motor disorders (by prescribing prokinetics);
  • treatment of intestinal biocenosis disorders (biological products);
  • removal of accumulated gases from the intestinal lumen.

Organization of a balanced diet for patients includes the exclusion of foods containing coarse fiber (cabbage, sorrel, grapes, gooseberries), legumes and those that cause fermentation reactions (kvass, beer, carbonated water). Recommended are fermented milk products, crumbly porridge (buckwheat, millet), boiled vegetables and fruits (carrots, beets), boiled meat only, wholemeal wheat bread with bran.

Absorbing agents are used in the treatment of flatulence: activated carbon (effective only in large doses), white clay, polyphepane, dimethicone, polysorb. They reduce the absorption of gases, toxins and other compounds, and also promote their elimination.

For flatulence, some herbal remedies have a carminative effect: infusions of caraway fruits, coriander, dill, fennel, chamomile flowers, mint leaves.

With absolute or relative insufficiency of the secretion of digestive enzymes, the digestion of the main ingredients of food is disrupted. The following are used as replacement therapy for insufficiency of the gastric and intestinal glands and pancreas: pepsin, pancreatin, natural gastric juice, as well as a number of combined drugs.


Many essential oils have a carminative effect, that is, they help remove gases from the organs of the digestive system (up or down, depending on where they accumulate) and, therefore, provide relief from bloating and cramps, which may disappear along with the gases. However, it is better to use directly the herbs from which these essential oils are extracted. Oils such as caraway, chamomile, fennel, marjoram and peppermint can also be used when applying warm compresses to the abdomen; It is recommended to add up to 5 drops to a small bowl of warm water.


There are several types of herbal tea that are great for helping with flatulence, but only drink them if excess gas is your biggest problem and requires professional herbal treatment. If gas occurs in the stomach, you can drink catnip tea (Nepeta cataria)

, chamomile
(Chamomilla recutita
), lemon balm
(Melissa officinalis)
or peppermint
if the small intestine is clearly affected, then to any of the mentioned herbs it is good to add fragrant dill, or garden dill
(Anethum graveokns)
, or fennel
(Foeniculum vulgare) .
For flatulence of the large intestine, ginger
(Zmgiber officinalis)
and peppermint
(Mentha piprnta) are useful.
Depending on the symptoms, you can use some other herbs.

Before you start treating flatulence, it is useful to think about food. Many people are used to eating very quickly, having difficulty breaking away from their work. This leads to swallowing air along with food; This can cause inappropriate digestive enzymes to be produced and food may ferment in the intestines instead of being properly digested. And this leads to the production of excess gases and worsening flatulence. You should try not to be in a bent position for a long time and not to sit curled up on a low sofa immediately after eating - this contributes to the formation of gas, bloating and colic.


Several remedies that appear in all treatment approaches in this section are also useful in homeopathic treatment. We must first try to find out the cause of flatulence and, depending on it, choose a medicine. First, you should choose a remedy from the following set: Chamomilla, Carboveg, Mihuogssa, or Pulsatilla

, if flatulence is caused by too nutritious or too rich food.


Often the cause of flatulence is a mixture of foods that is too difficult to digest. We need to consider whether it is possible to reduce the fat content of the diet and limit the combinations of proteins and carbohydrates that are eaten. If you find this helpful, you may want to take a closer look at Dr. Hay's nutritional system. Another cause of flatulence may be the use of antibiotics, since this leads to the death of intestinal bacteria. Eating yogurt promotes their reproduction; For the same purpose, you can take concentrated nutritional supplements, for example acidophilus

- in tablets or powders. For the overall health of the body, it is often recommended to eat raw foods rich in coarse fiber; such a diet in itself can lead to increased formation of gases, especially if you switch to it abruptly, right away. The increase in the number of bacteria required to process coarse fibers contributes to the formation of large amounts of gases. So some flatulence in this case is quite natural, although it makes communication with people difficult. To make it easier to solve this problem, it is advised to change your diet gradually.

Flatulence is bloating associated with the accumulation of gases in the intestines. It can occur in various diseases and conditions, the main ones are listed below:

  • Dysbacteriosis
  • Chronic colitis
  • Chronic constipation
  • Acute intestinal infections
  • Intolerance to certain foods
  • Excess fiber in the diet

Food intolerance is associated with a lack of enzymes that are necessary to digest certain chemical compounds contained in food. Thus, to digest milk sugar (lactose), an enzyme called lactase is required. In lactase deficiency, lactose is not broken down and absorbed. At the same time, it is used for their vital functions by bacteria living in the intestines.

Thanks to them, lactose is broken down and a large amount of gas is formed. Intolerance to other types of sugar occurs, but the mechanism is the same for everyone.

Excess fiber, also with the help of intestinal bacteria, can cause the accumulation of gases in the intestines.

Traditional medicine recipes used for flatulence:

1. The root bark, barberry root in the form of a decoction is taken orally for chronic diseases of the liver and gall bladder, flatulence, etc. Decoction: 2 teaspoons of the raw material are boiled for 5 minutes in 2 tbsp. water, leave for 2 hours and drink 1/2 cup of warm infusion 3-4 times a day before meals. 2. Flaxgrass herb in the form of an infusion is taken orally as a gentle laxative for habitual constipation and flatulence. Infusion: 1-2 tbsp. spoons of herbs are infused for 2 hours in a glass of boiling water and taken 1-2 tbsp. spoons of infusion 3-5 times a day and 1/4 cup at night. 3. Chamomile inflorescences in the form of an infusion are taken orally for inflammatory diseases of the gastrointestinal tract (gastritis, colitis and enterocolitis), flatulence and other ailments. Infusion: 2 tbsp. spoons of warm infusion 3-4 times a day for 2-3 months. 4. The fruits and herbs of dill liver as a remedy in the form of an infusion are taken orally to improve digestion, for chronic colitis, constipation, flatulence and abdominal cramps. Infusion: 1 tbsp. a spoonful of crushed fruits or herbs is infused for 2 hours in 2 tbsp. boiling water and drink 1/2 cup of warm infusion 3 times a day before meals. 5. The herb (night blindness) in the form of an infusion is taken orally for liver diseases, in particular liver enlargement, chronic constipation and flatulence. Infusion: 2 tbsp. spoons of herbs are infused for an hour in 0.5 liters of boiling water and drunk 1/2 cup of warm infusion 3-4 times a day before meals. 6. The fruits of caraway seeds in the form of powder or infusion are taken orally as a tonic for the intestines, relieving the processes of rotting and fermentation in the intestines, atony and pain in it, atonic constipation and flatulence. Powder from the fruit is taken 2-3 g 3-4 times a day an hour before meals, washed down with warm boiled water. Infusion: 1-2 teaspoons of crushed fruits are infused for 2 hours in a glass of boiling water and 1/4 cup of infusion is taken 3-4 times a day an hour before meals. Children – a teaspoon (can be mixed with honey to taste) 5-6 times a day. 7. Wormwood herbs - 10 g, yarrow herbs - 20 g, horsetail shoots - 20 g. Infusion: tbsp. a spoonful of the collection is infused for 1-2 hours in a glass of boiling water and drunk 1/2-2/3 glass of warm infusion 3-4 times a day before meals for flatulence and a tendency to diarrhea. 8. Coal from the branches of black poplar (sedge) or linden is ground into powder and taken orally 1/2-1 teaspoon 3-4 times a day, washed down with warm boiled water, before meals for flatulence and cramps in the gastrointestinal tract, especially of nervous origin. 9. Centaury herbs, tansy inflorescences, caraway inflorescences - equally. Infusion: Art. a spoonful of the collection is infused for 1-2 hours in a glass of boiling water and drunk 1/2-2/3 glass of warm infusion 3-4 times a day before meals for flatulence and a tendency to diarrhea. 10. Oat cereals – 1 tbsp. spoon, cumin fruit - 2 tbsp. spoons, yarrow leaves - 2.5 tbsp. spoons, dill fruits - 1 teaspoon Infusion: the whole collection is infused for 1-2 hours in 2 tbsp. boiling water and take 2-3 tbsp. spoons of infusion every 2 hours for flatulence in adults.

infomix.ru - Online store. 11 facts about farting.

ru.wiktionary.org - information from Wiktionary, a multilingual open dictionary.

meteorismos.aptekaonline.ru - information from the website 101 diseases. Section Flatulence.

akviloncenter.ru - website "Esoteric Flatulence. Treatment of flatulence with folk remedies"

lechebnik.info - site Medical Library. Encyclopedia of self-medication. Section "Flatulence".

diagnos.ru - Diagnoz.RU. All about flatulence.

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