System and hierarchy of human values. What are the values?

January 18, 2021

Hello, dear readers of the blog.

The material and spiritual in a person’s life are two components of his existence.

Each person is individual, therefore people have different priorities: for some the main value is material wealth, for others it is the work of the soul.

Today we’ll talk about what material and moral values ​​are. Let us dwell in a little more detail on the interpretation of values ​​related to the spiritual sphere.

Values ​​are...

The word “value” is the same root as the word “price”. Therefore, values ​​are something that has its own price. In this case, the price is not necessarily expressed in monetary or other material equivalent. Price and value are not synonymous.

Value is, first of all, the significance of an object for a person. Therefore, value is a purely subjective concept, depending on the worldview (how is that?) of a particular individual.

I’ll explain with an example: let’s say the price of a tractor = 3 million rubles. But teacher Ivanov does not need a tractor, so the tractor has no value for him.

This same Ivanov adores his wife and little daughter. His love has no price, but at the same time is the main value in his life.

Values ​​are usually divided into material (having a price expressed in material equivalent) and moral (not having a material assessment).

Moral values ​​include life, family, moral, and spiritual values. Next, we will consider the interpretation of some values.

How a person’s behavior changes if you know personal values

The value system of each person is able to show what is natural and acceptable for him, and, on the contrary, what a person is not able to tolerate. Therefore, if you know the personal values ​​of each person, then this knowledge can have a double meaning.

Firstly, they help to maximize a person’s professional potential, and secondly, they can also be successfully manipulated.

Thus, if you know a person’s personal values, it helps to predict his behavior, understand priorities and aspirations in his career, relationships, and self-development.

Material values

Material assets (MT) are objects that have a physical shell and can be bought, sold or exchanged.

Examples of MC: real estate, household items, vehicles, goods, equipment, etc.

Material assets can be the property (how is that?) of an individual, family, organization (individual entrepreneur or legal entity), or state. MCs owned by a legal entity, individual entrepreneur or state are under control and subject to accounting.

Some types of MC are taxed (including real estate of individuals).

In accounting (what is it?), all material assets used in the economic activities of an enterprise are called inventory assets (TMAs).

The list of goods and materials of enterprises includes:

  1. raw materials, materials, components for the manufacture of products;
  2. work in progress (“unfinished” products);
  3. goods in warehouse (goods produced but not sold to the buyer);
  4. consumables used in the production process;
  5. container;
  6. means of production (equipment and tools).

All inventory items are assets (how is that?) of the company. The movement of inventory items from the moment they are entered into the balance sheet of the enterprise is carefully recorded.

The stages of inventory movement include the following main points:

  1. receipt (arrival) – this can be delivery, transfer, exchange;
  2. storage;
  3. disposal.

To eliminate discrepancies between accounting information and the real state of affairs, the enterprise carries out regular inventories (how is that?). The movement of inventory items is recorded by accounting entries, on the basis of which a balance sheet is then formed.


  • Belyaev I. A.
    The value content of a holistic worldview / I. A. Belyaev // Bulletin of the Orenburg State University. - 2004. - No. 2. - P. 9-13.
  • Great Soviet Encyclopedia: [in 30 volumes] / ch. ed. A. M. Prokhorov. — 3rd ed. - M.: Soviet Encyclopedia, 1969-1978.
  • Gulyaikhin V.N., Serova N.V.
    Agonal patterns in the system of political and legal values ​​of Russian society // Bulletin of Volgograd State University. Episode 7: Philosophy. Sociology and social technologies. 2009. No. 2. P. 180-183.
  • Manuylov A. A.
    Value // Encyclopedic Dictionary of Brockhaus and Efron: in 86 volumes (82 volumes and 4 additional). - St. Petersburg, 1890-1907.
  • Menger K.
    Selected works. - M.: Publishing house "Territory of the Future", 2005. - 496 p. - (Economy). — ISBN 5-7333-0175-9.
  • Inglehart R.
    The Silent Revolution in Europe: Changing Values ​​and Political Styles among Western Publics. - Princeton, NY, 1977.

Human values

The evolution of humanity implies not only a change in man as a biological species, but also the evolution of the worldview of “homo sapiens”. According to Darwin's theory, humans evolved from apes. For lack of a better guess, we will agree with this theory.

It is obvious that the main values ​​of the ape-man were exclusively material: to get food, to protect themselves from predatory animals. Over time, man learned to hunt, make fire, and grow the necessary plants.

Survival priorities ceased to be fundamental, and a person’s worldview began to change.

New values ​​began to form - caring for loved ones, educating the younger generation, honoring wisdom, admiring the gods.

How do worldviews and life values ​​relate? Worldview is a system of values ​​of a particular individual, formed according to the principle of “what is good and what is bad.” Worldview is formed from birth, from the first “dos” and “don’ts” said by parents.

Throughout his life, a person comes under the influence of different people, different social groups. Under the pressure of external influences, the system of life values ​​can shift in one direction or another, as a result of which the worldview also changes.

The determining role in shaping the worldview of a particular person is played by the foundations of the society in which this person is forced to live (we do not choose the place and time of birth).

Thus, the value system of an aborigine tribe of cannibals from the wilds of the Amazon is fundamentally different from the traditional values ​​of residents of civilized countries.

This proves that it is the established value system of a particular society that shapes the worldview of each of its members.

But the worldview is not static. Let's remember Hitler - in just a few years he managed to “correct” the worldview of hundreds of thousands of people, convincing them that only the Aryan nation is worthy of living and ruling the rest of the world.

But the most notorious Nazis (who are they?), who destroyed millions of civilians, were once cute, plump babies, they were raised by respectable parents and the system of instilled values ​​was also quite respectable.

The influence of external factors and individuals on changing the foundations of society and the associated value system cannot be underestimated. This is exactly what history warns us about.

How to apply the created priorities?

Very often, without realizing it, a person may ignore his own basic values ​​(for example, family or hobbies) due to social pressure and the illusory desire for success.

After realizing your own values, it is usually easy to build a hierarchy of priorities, assess your own strengths and weaknesses, and identify potential directions for development and a harmonious life.

Psychology also emphasizes the importance of constantly reminding yourself of what values ​​are important and meaningful to yourself.

Such a reminder is an important technique that always helps you stay on the right path, not get upset over trifles, and maintain your dignity in stressful situations.

Family values

Family values ​​are traditions, actions, traits that are cultivated in an individual family and are partially passed on from generation to generation.

Why partially? Future spouses grow up and are raised in different families, with different family structures. Having created their own family, a husband and wife unite their habits, tastes, and culture. As a result, something from the family value system fades into the background, and something new appears.

But the main thing in the family value system remains unchanged:

  1. trusting relationship;
  2. mutual respect;
  3. confidence that a loved one will come to the rescue in any difficult situation.

It happens that starting a family does not live up to expectations of finding a partner with whom you would like to live together until a ripe old age and raise children together. There is no need to despair, fate will certainly give you another try.


Awareness of the meaning of life and one’s own basic values ​​helps a person set life goals. The human psyche is structured in such a way that only actual goals can serve as motivation for activity. Therefore, each person, at his own level, answers the question of why he lives. And usually this answer is linked to universal human values. If you ask the average person what is most important in his life and why he lives, then most likely he will answer that the main thing is family and loved ones, and he lives for their well-being and happiness. Thus, the goals and value of human life interact closely with each other. The most common goal is to create a family and continue the family line. This goal is dictated by biology and society. This goal is not truly relevant for every person, which is why people often get divorced and sometimes leave behind the children they once seemed to want so much. Sometimes a person sets a goal for himself, and when he achieves it, he feels disappointed and it seems to him that life has lost its meaning. This often happens to older people who have achieved socially approved goals: education, career, family, but have not listened to their true desires. Therefore, the meaning of our stay in this world is precisely to understand what is necessary and valuable for you and how to achieve really important goals.

Life values

Einstein gave a very succinct definition of life values:

Life values ​​(VVs), which are a priority for a particular person, shape his character. Therefore, a person is a product of the life values ​​that he follows.

All life cycles can be grouped into 2 groups:

  1. personal life, family, relationships with people, i.e. spiritual and moral values;
  2. work (business), welfare;

It happens that certain events in life force a person to rethink his life values.

The Great Patriotic War became such an event in the fate of our grandparents. For the boys and girls of that time, all their life aspirations faded into the background; the main thing became to survive in inhuman conditions and defeat the enemy.

In our relatively peaceful times, a variety of events can force you to rethink your own system of life values: the birth of a child, the death of a loved one, starting a family, serious illness, financial difficulties, etc.

Problems of values ​​in the modern world

Sociologists note that today there is a process of devaluation of universal human values. There is a blurring of ideas about what is important and what is not. There is also a problem with the value of human life, which is associated with the growth of conflicts that result in people dying. European society seeks to spread its values ​​to all world cultures and this leads to intercultural conflict. Today in Europe the process of democratization is reaching its climax, individual values ​​are beginning to prevail over social ones, and this is shaking the system that has been developing for centuries.

( 2 ratings, average 4.5 out of 5 )
Did you like the article? Share with friends:
For any suggestions regarding the site: [email protected]
Для любых предложений по сайту: [email protected]