What is a person’s system of personal values ​​and how to form it correctly?

The concept of "value"

What is value? To answer this question, it is important to clarify that in this case we are talking about values ​​that relate to elements of culture and are one of the regulators of people’s social life. Such values ​​are called differently: “cultural values”, “cultural values”, “spiritual values”, “social values”.

Values ​​are society's ideal ideas about the importance of something or someone.

Examples of values: family values ​​(the value of family), religious values ​​(the values ​​of religious rituals, prayers, etc.), health values ​​(the value of a healthy lifestyle), and so on. Values ​​are based on the ideological or abstract nature of meanings.

In other words, the value itself does not always have to have an objective expression, but it must necessarily point to the idea or concept that expresses this value. Let's give an example: family values ​​can be reflected in the form of harmony between loving people, in mutual love and support.

These values ​​cannot always be seen in the objective world, although we can confirm them materially or in the form of an action (an example would be a symbolic gift or a kiss).

The essence of value lies in its significance and priority for a person or society. If a given concept, principle, meaning has social significance, therefore, it can most often be called a value. It is important for understanding the essence of value to note the fact that value itself is often idealized as a social ideal to which people strive.

In order for a person to determine his values, we can ask the question: “why/why am I doing this?” Especially if this action is difficult for a person or is the result of some kind of moral choice. People turn to values ​​when they need to make a choice, make a vital decision.

However, values ​​do not directly indicate what to do, but rather provide people with a spiritual scale for assessing a situation, human behavior, event, process. Only such significance that has a social nature is called a value, i.e. it exists only if it is shared by a community of people regarding what is considered important, valuable, significant.

At the same time, values ​​express the significance of people, phenomena, objects, events, processes of the surrounding reality based on their correspondence to the interests of a given community or individual. The goals that social groups or an individual strive for also depend on values.

Properties of values:

  • values ​​are ideal;
  • values ​​indicate a voluntary choice of ideas on the part of society and an individual;
  • values ​​unite people into communities (family, corporation, nation);
  • values ​​are accepted freely, by recognizing them (as opposed to things that can be taken away, stolen, etc.);
  • values ​​can change, disappear, appear (for example, as a result of revaluation of values);
  • values ​​make people think about significant events or processes in life.

Values ​​did not arise on their own; they became the result of the spiritual development of humanity, or became people’s response to the moral and aesthetic challenges of history. Therefore, today we see a variety of values ​​in different communities of people.

List of main features

  1. Importance – the individual values ​​attitudes and follows the rules, otherwise depression develops from unsatisfied desires.
  2. Meaningfulness – without internal control and discipline, adherence to principles is impossible.
  3. Entrepreneurship and self-sufficiency - attitudes are applied in practice without conflicting advice from the environment.
  4. A positive attitude - with it, any problems will be perceived easier, allowing you to activate internal reserves to overcome difficulties and fulfill unpleasant responsibilities.

Therefore, more and more often you can find various kinds of mentors who promise to help in personal development, as there is an active demand from society for bright individuals.

Significance in life

Awareness of individual life values ​​helps to discover existing prospects and maintain peace of mind in times of despair. If all people paid enough attention to their own internal needs, there would be fewer broken destinies and failed personalities in life.

To be honest, most disappointments come from the fact that for some reason a person forgets to think about himself, that is, he pushes aside individual life priorities. By forgetting to realize one’s own aspirations, the personality stops developing. Among the most striking components of the life cycle are the following:

  1. They help you move forward. Obstacles are overcome and positive energy is accumulated to combat difficulties. What is laid down in childhood will be realized in adolescence, family life and at the time of the birth of a child.
  2. Helps filter out unnecessary information. At an unconscious level, a person determines for himself what he is ready to fight, and what he obviously refuses at the very beginning. By getting used to reacting only to specific attitudes, a person attracts the attention of the appropriate people and attracts life circumstances.
  3. Life cycles inspire new achievements. This is a kind of internal reserve, a repository of all kinds of information and previously occurring events. Such experiences influence everyday choices.

Life values ​​are a kind of “anchors” that are imprinted in the mind and influence the making of serious decisions. It turns out that the stronger a person’s ideas about his own well-being, the better the future he can build for himself. Life cycles are strong links on which the entire life scenario is built.

Values, their types and hierarchy

Everything in our life has its own value, and we are talking here not only about material or monetary terms. But the value of objects and phenomena is different. There are things that are of fundamental importance, and there are those that we can easily abandon in favor of others that are more significant and valuable. This value system largely determines our life choices, our careers, hobbies, principles, and relationships with others.

Types of values

In psychology, values ​​mean objects, phenomena, ideals, etc. that are significant for a person. Each of us has such significant things in different areas of life, and their content is also different. There are 3 types of values.

Material values

These include real objects of the surrounding world that are necessary for a person to feel comfortable. Some of them are vital, for example, clothing, housing, food. And others can be classified as luxury or increased comfort items - cars, household appliances, smartphones, jewelry, accessories, etc. A person can do without them, but for many these things are a symbol of well-being, and owning them is considered prestigious. That is, these things have a transitory value, which is determined either by fashion or by the subjective preferences of a person.

Spiritual values

They are often contrasted with material ones and are considered more sublime and significant for humans and humanity as a whole. However, this is not always the case. Spiritual values ​​are a product of human consciousness, and their significance is determined primarily by cultural traditions, moral norms, ideological principles, etc.

Agree, the spiritual values ​​of the Middle Ages were not always of a sublime nature, and not all of them are significant for modern people.

There are, of course, universal human values ​​that are important in any society and in any historical era. These include freedom, family, love, friendship, loyalty and devotion, and a sense of duty.

From the point of view of human evolution, spiritual values ​​were formed later than material ones and include several types:

  • life values ​​associated with universal human norms and of fundamental importance for people’s lives: love, faith, freedom, family, health, protection of offspring, etc.;
  • moral values ​​reflect a person’s attitude to the basic categories of morality: honesty and fidelity, humanism and compassion, duty and respect;
  • aesthetic values, perhaps the youngest of all types, associated with aesthetic experiences, such as a sense of beauty, enjoyment of form, sound, color, etc.; aesthetic values ​​are determined by cultural traditions.

Speaking about the superiority of spiritual values ​​over material ones, we should not forget about their subjective, individual nature. So, perhaps, for one person, fidelity to duty will be a significant value, but for another it will have no meaning at all. Some will be faithful to the chosen principles of humanism, while others will promote unprincipledness and misanthropy.

Social values

This type of values ​​is associated with interpersonal relationships and a person’s idea of ​​the role of society and his place in it. Social values ​​include the following:

  • belonging to a particular social group;
  • circle of friends;
  • Friends;
  • communication skills;
  • political views and beliefs;
  • social status in the hierarchy of interpersonal relationships.

Man is part of society, and the normal life of even the most withdrawn and unsociable individual is impossible outside of society. Therefore, social values ​​are objective and significant for any person, even if he is not always aware of it.

Terminal and instrumental values

In psychology, these two types of values ​​were described by M. Rokeach (USA), the author of a well-known method of psychological diagnostics of a person’s value orientations.

Terminal values ​​are understood as basic values ​​that are significant in themselves. These include spiritual and social values, and vitally important material ones, for example, friendship, beauty, education, career, family, creativity, health, freedom, comfort, etc. Sometimes terminal values ​​are compared with the goals of life that one sets for one’s life. yourself as a person. This is what we strive for.

Instrumental values, as the name suggests, are tools for achieving life goals. Terminal values ​​include, first of all, personality traits, for example, perseverance, hard work, responsibility, creativity, curiosity, will, tolerance, open-mindedness, etc. This is what we value in other people and in ourselves, what we believe necessary to develop.

Hierarchy of values

Building your own pyramid of priorities helps in situations where you need to make a choice between several ambiguous options. It will also allow you to analyze your behavior and actions and prevent the emergence of internal conflict.

How to determine your life maxims

The most common technique for identifying a personal value-oriented system is the principle of comparative analysis. Start by writing down everything that matters to you. Don't limit yourself: use the list above and add your own items to it. This procedure can take quite a long time - take your time. The most important thing is to paint a picture of your worldview as fully as possible.

After this, rest and switch to another type of activity. Return to the list after a few hours or even days (for the purity of the experiment). Re-read it and choose the 10 most significant points for you, and simply cross out the rest. The next step is to reduce the resulting list by another half.

When the 5 most valuable concepts remain before your eyes, prioritize them. To do this, imagine something you could never give up in favor of something else. As a result, you will receive your own hierarchy of value systems. This is your inner compass.

Values ​​as the basis of culture

Values ​​are the most important element of culture and society; they can be called spiritual guides of social life. Therefore, values ​​form the basis of society and culture.

Cultural and social values ​​surround us everywhere and regulate all aspects of our lives. And the emergence of values ​​is associated with the emergence of the first communities of people.

Values ​​contribute to the emergence in an individual of value knowledge and attitude towards the phenomena of the surrounding reality. In this regard, people form value judgments based on values ​​(for example, we call an action a bad or good deed). People also develop a sense of duty based on values.

An example of how values ​​lead to proper behavior in society is as follows: if a person values ​​the life of animals, then it becomes his duty to take care of a stray pet. Therefore, a value attitude is the embodiment of values ​​on the part of society and people through actions, beliefs, ideas, events, actions, etc.

It is important to note that those objects that are carriers of value can mean a lot to those who value them, but at the same time have no meaning to other people (for example, a child's drawing or an amulet).

To find out what cultural and social values ​​are characteristic of different communities, it is necessary to understand what these communities valued, respected, revered, admired, and in the name of which they performed feats.

As a rule, the answer to this question is contained in the multifaceted cultural heritage that humanity has left us. This includes not only records in the archives and memoirs of our ancestors, but also other traces, cultural monuments that contain the value of centuries, which primarily includes works of art.

Literary works, theatrical performances, architecture, painting, cinema - these are the “cultural storehouses” that store fragments of values ​​cultivated by people throughout the development of society in different countries.

In this regard, we can conclude that the values ​​of communities are expressed in art, laws, rituals, and language. For example, to find out what the Japanese, Americans or Swedes value, we need to get to know their customs, traditions, fairy tales, cinema, theater, poetry, and so on.

Values ​​as the basis of society

Values ​​have been formed within different areas of people’s lives, especially in those that are especially significant to them: religion, politics, health, society, nature, art, and so on.

A society characterized by a coherent system of values ​​shared by the majority is considered strong and stable.

The system of values ​​in this case comprehensively regulates all aspects of life (social structure, economics, politics, education, etc.) and does not cause internal contradictions. An example of a stable value system can be any culture that existed for a long time and created many unique creations (the culture of Ancient Greece, the culture of Ancient Egypt, Soviet culture, etc.).

But when one culture is replaced by another, the values ​​of the emerging society contradict the old values. In this case, a revaluation of values ​​occurs, which is often accompanied by a value (spiritual) crisis. Medieval culture, modern culture, and modern digital culture were born in a similar way.

No less dramatic is the constant value conflict between generations, when adults do not understand the aspirations, significance, prospects, goals, and ideas of the younger generation. At the same time, the development of the entire culture of mankind is nothing more than a repeated reassessment of values, the promotion of new ideals, standards of behavior.

Consequently, values ​​constitute the most important layer of any society; they create the spiritual, ideological basis of culture.

The role of values ​​in human life and society

Values ​​are the ideological basis of culture and society, therefore they play a vital role in the life of society and individuals. In order to reveal the role of values, let's consider the functions that they perform in society and in people's lives. Values ​​perform the following social and cultural functions.

a) Values ​​are a guideline, a beacon, a motivator for people’s activities (they help people navigate life, act in accordance with significant ideas and concepts, plan and implement their life path, encourage action, choose the right decision for people).

b) Values ​​set criteria, a scale of evaluation and attitudes towards phenomena, processes, and events occurring around them (they form normative judgments and a sense of duty, make priority values, laws of society, etc. relevant).

c) Values ​​unite communities, maintain social order and ideologically strengthen members of the team (they unite and unite society, maintain a spiritual connection in communities).
d) Values ​​coordinate internal relationships within groups of people (they determine forms of acceptable behavior, regulate the system of relationships in society, including relations between individuals and communities, individuals and the state, authorities, churches, etc.)

System of life values ​​in your life

The system of life values ​​of each person is determined by a certain not very large list of values. This set of values ​​is very individual. It is he who determines your life.

Every person has a set of 3-5 main values, which he uses as a tool to build his life. Everyone receives their benefits in life only thanks to their values. One person makes a living by going to war, another by building a business, and a third by acting in films.

The basic values ​​of a person determine the path of life and the way of implementation in life.

Value system for men and women

The debate about gender differences is currently very active. But it is difficult to deny the influence of historical and biological factors on the formation of value ideas. According to statistics, the desire, first of all, to build a career, gain high social status and material well-being is characteristic of the male part of humanity. Women's physiology and psychology implies bringing to the fore the desire to realize oneself as a mother and wife.

However, speaking not in general, but in particular, everything that concerns internal beliefs is a purely individual issue.

Factors influencing the formation

The formation of a life cycle does not occur in a vacuum. The personality is guided by the experience gained. The acquisition has an axiological basis, that is, it is not subject to revision during life periods. Specific circumstances and components must be taken into account. Let's take a closer look at them.


A lot is passed on from parents to children: the ability to enjoy a new day, find a way out of difficult situations, as well as some life guidelines. Education plays an important role in the development of character and self-esteem. It has been noticed how parents treat a child, so later in adulthood a person will treat himself. It often turns out that a person partially copies the behavior of his mother and father and scolds himself for the same mistakes and miscalculations as in childhood. That is why great attention should be paid to education and not ignored.

Sufficient attention in childhood results in the formation of adequate self-esteem, the ability to appreciate oneself. Problems arise from the fact that parents often have nothing to give their children.

Knowing yourself

The formation of life attitudes depends on the degree of self-knowledge. This point should also not be overlooked or tried to be ignored. If a person concentrates exclusively on everyday needs, forgetting about high aspirations, then he inevitably robs his own future. Some people think that self-knowledge is the lot of the chosen ones and the wise. In fact, a prosperous future depends on this moment.

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The degree of realization depends on personal awareness and the desire to make life bright and fulfilling. If self-knowledge has not taken place, it means that the individual will have to wander for a long time in the darkness of his own infinite essence. Not everyone can easily come to an understanding of why he was born and what task he must perform.


Depending on whether the parents considered it necessary to devote enough time to the educational aspect of their child, a person grows up with specific priorities. These life attitudes may not change over time and may contradict other opinions about oneself. Without a doubt, a complete education will never be superfluous. This is a good investment for the future, a way to understand how valuable a person is and what he wants to achieve in life.

Sometimes, in adulthood, a person seeks to receive additional education in order to harmonize his internal state.

Highest human values

Below is a list of values ​​and their descriptions. We are not always aware of what value guides us through life. Therefore, descriptions of values ​​and their short definition are given. All this will make it easier to understand your values.

In the following articles, you, dear reader, will be able to read about the motives. They provide an even better understanding of how values ​​work and, as it were, bring sharpness to the goal. This article also talks a little about motives. Motives are the driving force that we can be aware of even without knowing anything about values. Also given are some qualities that are directly related to values.

What are the personal values ​​in a person’s life: a list of examples

  • Activity.
  • Serenity.
  • Impartiality.
  • Gratitude.
  • Inspiration.
  • Cheerfulness.
  • Flexibility.
  • Spirituality.
  • Entertainment.
  • Daydreaming.
  • Wisdom.
  • Reliability.
  • Independence.
  • Security.
  • Certainty.
  • Organized.
  • Mindfulness.
  • Frankness.
  • Openness.
  • Devotion.
  • Attractiveness.
  • Affiliation.
  • Proactivity.
  • Determination.
  • Modesty.
  • Stability.
  • Courage.
  • Hardness.
  • Accuracy.
  • Moderation.
  • Uniqueness.
  • Financial independence.
  • Thrift.
  • Sensuality.
  • Generosity.
  • Brightness.
  • Altruism.
  • Heroism.
  • Optimism.
  • Pragmatism.
  • Practicality.
  • Professionalism.
  • Realism.
  • Balance.
  • Wealth.
  • Hospitality.
  • Benevolence.
  • Curiosity.
  • Consistency.
  • Perfection.
  • Creation.
  • Perseverance.
  • Faith.
  • Power.
  • Imagination.
  • Achievement.
  • Knowledge.
  • Study.
  • Pleasure.
  • Education.
  • Understanding.
  • Adventure.
  • Confidence.
  • Abundance.
  • Wit.
  • Opening.
  • Justice.
  • Acceptance.
  • Development.
  • Diversity.
  • Sympathy.
  • Hard work.
  • Pleasure.
  • Coolness.
  • Hygiene.
  • Depth.
  • Discipline.
  • Self-discipline.
  • Friendship.
  • Health.
  • Comfort.
  • Beauty.
  • Logics.
  • Love.
  • World.
  • Hope.
  • Experience.
  • Victory.
  • Support.
  • Peace.
  • Benefit.
  • Is it true.
  • Simplicity.
  • Height.
  • Self-control.
  • Freedom.
  • Family.
  • Glory.
  • Passion.
  • Happiness.
  • Tradition.
  • Energy.
  • Synergy.
  • Success.
  • Purity.
  • Humor.

This is not a complete list of value guidelines existing in the world. Based on it, you can create your own hierarchy by adding other concepts.


A person with this value perceives the world as a source of well-being, diversity and many opportunities. He himself will be generous. If this value is distorted, then the following options are possible. He can be stingy, greedy or, on the contrary, wasteful. He can cling to every opportunity as if it were the last (for example, constantly buying promotional products, looking for benefits in everything). He will not believe in the generosity of the world and will believe that “there is not enough for everyone,” no matter what - money, food, happiness, opportunities.

The motives that guide them are: well-being, diversity, common good, material wealth, profit, savings, benefit.


This is the value of law as a form of orderly interaction with people. For people who have this value, it is important to adhere to universal human principles: morality, morality, ethics. Negative qualities can manifest such qualities as arrogance, intolerance, dogmatism, mentoring, and excessive moralizing. Positive – decency, ethics, good organizational skills.

This value can manifest itself through the following motives: social activities, mentoring, teaching, religion, morality, morality.


This is the value of having no restrictions or boundaries. In harmonious development, freedom is perceived naturally, as a matter of course. If there are distortions (deficiency), a person begins to defend his freedom, painfully endures any encroachment on it (even imaginary), tries to throw off everything that even slightly resembles restrictions. He can protest against lack of freedom both openly and actively, and within himself, resisting and resisting. The motivation of such people is independence, i.e. motivation "from".

Positive qualities include the following qualities: non-standard thinking, openness to new things, absence of stereotypes, idealism. In the negative: eccentricity, anarchism, uncontrollability, denial of authority, spirit of contradiction.

In addition to independence, they can be guided by the following motives: change, reform, democracy, equality, adventure.


This is the essence of everything - any knowledge, person, process, universe. People with this value strive to get to the bottom of things and find answers to their questions. In distortion, this means not only getting to the bottom of things, but also presenting to the world all the inconsistencies found and exposing the culprits, “bringing them to clean water.” Also a distortion is the desire to defend “your truth” and the refusal to look at the problem from different sides. In a positive aspect, such people are honest, sincere, fair, and open. These same qualities are valued in others. When distorted, these qualities turn into uncompromisingness, categoricalness, rigidity and intransigence.

Motives: truth, justice, meaning, reason, naturalness, naturalness, correctness, search and resolution of inconsistencies.

Another classification of value guidelines in the table

Basic prices
PersonalKnowledge, education, upbringing, self-discipline, health.
Socially conditionedRelationships, family, friendship, communication, mutual assistance, love.
Financial well-beingCareer, money, professionalism.
Social status Recognition, success, power.
DevelopmentSelf-knowledge, self-education, self-development.
RestTravel, adventure, impressions, energy, entertainment.

Pyramid of Values

A. Maslow’s famous scheme, which describes human needs, can also characterize the system according to which life priorities are built. The foundation of human existence as a whole is its biological component. There are motives that physiology dictates to us: in other words, it is difficult to talk about the eternal when you are hungry, cold or in pain.

The next stage in the formation of priorities is the desire for security. This includes the desire to organize a comfortable space for living.

After this, social needs arise, the need for respect and recognition, the thirst for knowledge and creativity, aesthetic and spiritual values.

How to instill life values ​​in the process of education

The first thing you need to understand is that don’t even try to instill in your child certain guidelines if your behavior contradicts your words. The fundamental principle of shaping a child’s personality is personal example. It is the model of adult behavior that a child and then a teenager encounters every day, in practice, that will become entrenched in his subconscious. Therefore, when swearing at children or demanding a certain way of thinking from them, think about whether you yourself are following what you are talking about.

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