Spiritual values ​​and moral ideals in human life and society, an article on the topic

Morality is the desire of an individual to evaluate conscious actions and human states on the basis of a set of conscious norms of behavior inherent in a particular individual. The expression of the ideas of a morally developed person is conscience. These are the deep laws of a decent human life. Morality is an individual’s idea of ​​evil and good, the ability to competently assess the situation and determine the typical style of behavior in it. Each individual has his own criteria of morality. It forms a certain code of relations with a person and the environment as a whole, based on mutual understanding and humanism.

What is morality

Morality is an integral characteristic of the individual, which is the cognitive basis for the formation of a morally healthy personality: socially oriented, adequately assessing the situation, having an established set of values. In today's society, the definition of morality is in general use as a synonym for the concept of morality. The etymological features of this concept show its origin from the word “character” - character. The first semantic definition of the concept of morality was published in 1789 - “Dictionary of the Russian Academy”.

The concept of morality combines a certain set of personality qualities of the subject. Above all, it is honesty, kindness, compassion, decency, hard work, generosity, empathy, reliability. Analyzing morality as a personal property, it should be mentioned that everyone is able to bring their own qualities to this concept. For people with different types of professions, morality is formed by a different set of qualities. A soldier must be brave, a fair judge, an altruistic teacher. Based on the formed moral qualities, the directions of behavior of the subject in society are formed. The subjective attitude of the individual plays a significant role in assessing the situation from a moral perspective. Some people perceive civil marriage as absolutely natural; for others it is considered a sin. Based on religious studies, it should be recognized that the concept of morality has retained very little of its true meaning. Modern man's idea of ​​morality is distorted and emasculated.

Morality is a purely individual quality, which allows a person to consciously control his own mental and emotional state, personifying a spiritually and socially formed personality. A moral person is able to determine the golden standard between the self-centered part of himself and sacrifice. Such a subject is capable of forming a socially oriented, value-determined civic consciousness and worldview.

A moral person, when choosing the direction of his actions, acts solely according to his conscience, relying on formed personal values ​​and concepts. For some, the concept of morality is the equivalent of a “ticket to heaven” after death, but in life it is something that does not particularly affect the success of the subject and does not bring any benefit. For this type of people, moral behavior is a way to cleanse the soul of sins, as if covering up their own wrong actions. Man is an unimpeded being in his choice, he has his own course in life. At the same time, society has its own influence and is able to set its own ideals and values.

In fact, morality, as a property necessary for the subject, is extremely important for society. This is, as it were, a guarantee of the preservation of humanity as a species, otherwise, without norms and principles of moral behavior, humanity will eradicate itself. Arbitrariness and gradual degradation are the consequences of the disappearance of morality as a set of principles and values ​​of society as such. The death of a certain nation or ethnic group is most likely if it is headed by an immoral government. Accordingly, the level of living comfort of people depends on developed morality. A protected and prosperous society is one in which values ​​and moral principles are respected, respect and altruism come first.

So, morality is internalized principles and values, based on which a person directs his behavior and performs actions. Morality, being a form of social knowledge and attitudes, regulates human actions through principles and norms. These norms are directly based on the point of view of the impeccable, the categories of good, justice and evil. Based on humanistic values, morality allows the subject to be human.

The Importance of Moral Education

You should not expect that the moral environment will develop on its own. It also needs to be built, learned, that is, worked on oneself. It’s just that, along with mathematics and the Russian language, schoolchildren do not study the laws of morality. And, getting into society, people can sometimes feel as helpless and defenseless as if they went to the blackboard in 1st grade and were forced to solve an equation that they had never seen before.

So all the words that good behavior fetters, enslaves and makes a slave out of a person are true only if moral standards are perverted and adjusted to the material interests of one or another group of people.

Rules of morality

In everyday use of expressions, morality and morality have identical meaning and common origins. At the same time, everyone should determine the existence of certain rules that easily outline the essence of each of the concepts. Thus, moral rules, in turn, allow the individual to develop his own mental and moral state. To some extent, these are the “Laws of the Absolute” that exist in absolutely all religions, worldviews and societies. Consequently, moral rules are universal, and their failure to comply entails consequences for the subject who does not comply with them.

There are, for example, 10 commandments received as a result of direct communication between Moses and God. This is part of the rules of morality, the observance of which is justified by religion. In fact, scientists do not deny the presence of a hundred times more rules; they boil down to one denominator: the harmonious existence of humanity.

Since ancient times, many peoples have had the concept of a certain “Golden Rule”, which carries the basis of morality. Its interpretation includes dozens of formulations, but the essence remains unchanged. Following this “golden rule,” an individual should behave towards others the way he treats himself. This rule forms the concept of a person that all people are equal regarding their freedom of action, as well as the desire to develop. Following this rule, the subject reveals its deep philosophical interpretation, which states that the individual must learn in advance to realize the consequences of his own actions in relation to the “other individual”, projecting these consequences onto himself. That is, a subject who mentally tries on the consequences of his own action will think about whether it is worth acting in such a direction. The Golden Rule teaches a person to develop his inner sense, teaches compassion, empathy and helps to develop mentally.

Although this moral rule was formulated in ancient times by famous teachers and thinkers, it has not lost the relevance of its purpose in the modern world. “What you don’t want for yourself, don’t do to someone else” – this is how the rule sounds in its original interpretation. The emergence of such an interpretation is attributed to the origins of the first millennium BC. It was then that a humanistic revolution took place in the ancient world. But as a moral rule, it received its “golden” status in the eighteenth century. This injunction emphasizes the global moral principle according to the relationship to another person within various interaction situations. Since its presence in any existing religion has been proven, it can be noted as the foundation of human morality. This is the most important truth of the humanistic behavior of a moral person.

The meaning of morality

There is an opinion that society exaggerates the importance of morality. They say that a person’s moral standards are being pushed into limits. However, not a single literate, educated and well-mannered person considers himself a prisoner or a household appliance, using life according to instructions. Moral standards are the same guidelines, patterns that help a person build a life path. Without entering into numerous conflicts with conscience.

Be that as it may, moral standards largely coincided with legal ones. But life cannot be put within the framework of the law. There are situations when law and morality become adversaries. For example, one of God’s commandments says “Thou shalt not steal.” So why doesn't a person steal? If he does not commit this act out of fear of judgment, then this act can no longer be called moral. But, if a person does not steal, based on the belief that theft is bad, his act is based on compliance with moral values. Unfortunately, it happens in life that a person steals medicine, breaking the law, in order to save the life of another person.

The problem of morality

Looking at modern society, it is easy to notice that moral development is characterized by decline. In the twentieth century, the world experienced a sudden decline in all laws and moral values ​​of society. Moral problems began to appear in society, which negatively affected the formation and development of humane humanity. This decline reached an even greater development in the twenty-first century. Throughout human existence, many moral problems have been noted, which in one way or another had a negative impact on the individual. Guided by spiritual guidelines in different eras, people put something of their own into the concept of morality. They were capable of doing things that in modern society terrify absolutely every sane person. For example, the Egyptian pharaohs, who were afraid of losing their kingdom, committed unthinkable crimes, killing all newborn boys. Moral norms are rooted in religious laws, adherence to which shows the essence of the human personality. Honor, dignity, faith, love for the homeland, for man, loyalty - qualities that served as the direction in human life, to which part of the laws of God reached at least to some extent. Consequently, throughout its development, society tended to deviate from religious commandments, which led to the emergence of moral problems.

The development of moral problems in the twentieth century is a consequence of the world wars. The era of decline in morals has been going on since the First World War; during this crazy time, human life became devalued. The conditions in which people had to survive erased all moral restrictions, personal relationships devalued just like human life at the front. The involvement of humanity in inhumane bloodshed dealt a crushing blow to morality.

One of the periods when moral problems appeared was the communist period. During this period, it was planned to destroy all religions, and, accordingly, the moral norms embedded in it. Even if in the Soviet Union the development of moral rules was much higher, this position could not be maintained for long. Along with the destruction of the Soviet world, there was a decline in the morality of society.

In the current period, one of the main problems of morality is the fall of the family institution. Which brings with it a demographic catastrophe, an increase in divorces, and the birth of countless children out of wedlock. Views on the family, motherhood and fatherhood, and raising a healthy child are regressing. The development of corruption in all areas, theft, and deception is of certain importance. Now everything is bought, exactly as it is sold: diplomas, victories in sports, even human honor. This is precisely the consequences of the decline in morality.

What are moral standards?

So. The abundance of moral principles and norms must first be divided into two areas:

  • permissions;
  • requirements.

Philosophers distinguish obligations and natural duties in requirements, and they divided permissions into supererogatory and indifferent. Morality can be social, that is, it implies a general rule for everyone, regardless of nationality and religion. In other words, this is an unspoken set of rules that operates in a particular family or in any state. There are also guidelines that recommend how to build a line of behavior with individuals. To understand moral culture, you need not only to read useful literature, but also to do good deeds that will be accepted and appreciated by others.

Foundation for building a harmonious society

Moral norms and principles ensure the achievement of harmony and integrity when people enter into relationships with each other. In addition, there is greater scope for creating a favorable environment in your own soul. If good has a creative role, then evil has a destructive role. Malicious intentions harm interpersonal relationships; they are engaged in the decomposition of the individual’s inner world.

A person’s moral standards are also important because their goal is the integrity of kindness in a person and the limitation of its negative manifestations. You need to realize the fact that the soul needs to maintain a good internal climate, set yourself the task of becoming well-behaved.

Moral standards emphasize the duty of each person to renounce sinful behavior both towards himself and those around him. We must make a commitment to society, which, however, will not complicate our lives, but, on the contrary, will improve it. The extent to which a person respects moral and ethical standards is controlled by the outside world. Adjustments are underway with the help of public opinion. Conscience manifests from within, which also compels us to act in the right way. By succumbing to it, each person realizes his duty.

Social hunger strike

Nowadays, finding the right path in life worries a person much less than social discomfort. Parents care more about their child becoming a good specialist than about being a happy person in the future. It becomes more important to enter into a successful marriage than to know true love. Giving birth to a child is more important than realizing the true need for motherhood.

Moral demands for the most part appeal not to external expediency (if you do this, then you will succeed), but to moral duty (you need to act in a certain way, since this is dictated by duty), thus having the form of an imperative, considered as direct and unconditional command.

Moral standards and human behavior are closely interrelated. However, when thinking about moral laws, a person should not identify them with regulations, but fulfill them, guided by his own desire.

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