The best psychological techniques for individual work

Methods of psychology are a set of techniques and methods by which researchers can obtain information and expand the knowledge necessary to create scientific theories in psychology and formulate practical recommendations. Along with the definition of the concept “method”, the terms “methodology” and “methodology” are used. The method is implemented in a methodology, which is a set of rules necessary for research, describes a set of tools and objects used, which are used in certain circumstances and are regulated by the sequence of influences of the researcher. Each psychological technique is based on information about age, gender, ethnicity, professional and religious affiliation.

Methodology is a system of principles and techniques for organizing scientific research, which determines the ways of achieving theoretical scientific knowledge and methods of organizing practical activities. The research is based on the methodology, which reflects the researcher’s worldview, his views and philosophical position.

The phenomena that are studied by psychology are very complex and diverse, they are very difficult for scientific knowledge, therefore the success of this science depended on the improvement of research methods.

The subject, tasks and methods of psychology have changed throughout the development of science. To use your psychological knowledge correctly, you need to know the basic methods of psychology. Obtaining reliable information depends on the observance of special principles and the application of specific techniques.

Methods of psychology are briefly understood as ways of studying real facts of the surrounding reality. Each method is attached only to the appropriate type of techniques that meet the goals and objectives of the study. Based on one method, you can create several methods.

The subject, tasks and methods of psychology are three important aspects on which all science rests. At different times, the subject of psychology was defined in different ways; now it is the psyche, the study of its patterns and mechanisms for the formation of personal characteristics. The tasks of psychology arise from its subject matter.

The methods of psychology can be briefly described as ways of studying the psyche and its activities.

Psychological experiment

An experiment as an experiment conducted under certain conditions in order to obtain new data through the direct intervention of the experimenter in the life activity of the subject. During the research process, the scientist changes a certain factor/factors and sees what happens as a result. A psychological experiment may include other methods: testing, survey, observation. But it can also be a completely independent method.

There are several types of experiments (according to the method of conducting):

  • Laboratory – when you can control specific factors and change conditions;
  • Natural - carried out under normal conditions and the person may not even know about the experiment;
  • Psychological and pedagogical – when a person/group of people learns something and develops certain qualities in themselves, masters skills;
  • Aerobatic - a trial experiment conducted before the main one.

There are also experiments on the level of awareness:

  • Explicit - the subject is aware of the experiment and all its details;
  • Hidden - the subject does not know all the details of the experiment or does not know about the experiment at all;
  • Combined - the subject knows only part of the information or is deliberately misled about the experiment.

Organization of the experiment process

The researcher must set a clear task - why the experiment is being conducted, with whom and under what conditions. Next, a certain relationship must be established between the subject and the scientist, and the subject is given instructions (or not given). Then the experiment itself is carried out, after which the data obtained is processed and interpreted.

An experiment as a scientific method must meet certain qualities:

  • Objectivity of the data obtained;
  • Reliability of the data obtained;
  • Validity of the obtained data.

But, despite the fact that experiment is one of the most respected research methods, it has both pros and cons.


  • Possibility to choose a starting point to start the experiment;
  • Possibility of repeated implementation;
  • The ability to change certain factors, thereby influencing the result.

Cons (according to some experts):

  • The psyche is difficult to study;
  • The psyche is fickle and unique;
  • The psyche has the property of spontaneity.

For these reasons, when conducting psychological experiments, researchers cannot rely on data from this method alone in their results and must resort to combination with other methods and take into account many different indicators. When conducting experiments, you should also adhere to the APA Code of Ethics.

It is possible to conduct various experiments in the process of life without the help of certified specialists and experienced psychologists. Naturally, the results obtained during independent experiments will be purely subjective. But it is still possible to obtain certain information.


Let's say you want to learn more about people's behavior in certain circumstances, see how they will react to something and, perhaps, even understand their train of thought. Model a situation for this and use it in life. As an example, the following can be given: a person was interested in how others would react to a sleeping person sitting next to them and leaning on them in a vehicle. To do this, he took his friend, who was filming what was happening on camera, and repeated the same action several times: he pretended to be asleep and leaned his elbows on his neighbor. People's reactions were different: some moved away, some woke up and expressed dissatisfaction, some sat peacefully, offering their shoulder to the “tired” person. But based on the video recordings received, a conclusion was drawn: people, for the most part, react negatively to a “foreign object” in their personal space and experience unpleasant emotions. But this is just the “tip of the iceberg” and the psychological rejection of people from each other can be interpreted in completely different ways.

When conducting your own personal experiments, always be careful and make sure that your research does not cause any harm to others.

Subtleties of Sedona

There are three ways to approach the release process, and they all lead to the same result: releasing your natural ability to let go of any unwanted emotions in place and allow some of the repressed energy in your subconscious to dissipate.

The first way is to let go of the unwanted feeling. The second way is to welcome the feeling, to allow the emotion to simply be. The third way is to dive into the heart of emotions.

You will find that when you work with the Sedona Method, it will give you much more than you bargained for or even dreamed of.


Self-observation is observing yourself and the characteristics of your behavior. This method can be used in the form of self-control and plays a big role in psychology and human life. However, as a method, self-observation to a greater extent can only state the fact of something, but not its cause (forgot something, but it is not known why). That is why introspection, although an important research method, cannot be the main and independent one in the process of learning the essence of mental manifestations.

The quality of the method we are considering is directly dependent on a person’s self-esteem. For example, people with low self-esteem are more predisposed to self-observation. And the consequence of hypertrophied introspection can be self-digging, fixation on wrong actions, feelings of guilt, self-justification, etc.

Adequate and effective self-observation is facilitated by:

  • Keeping personal records (diary);
  • Comparison of self-observation with observations of others;
  • Increased self-esteem;
  • Psychological trainings on personal growth and development.

The use of introspection in life is a very effective way to understand yourself, the motives of your actions, get rid of some problems in life and resolve difficult situations.


You want to increase your efficiency in daily activities (communicating with people, at work, at home) or get rid of bad habits (negative thinking, irritability, even smoking). Make it a rule to be in a state of mindfulness as often as possible every day: pay attention to your thoughts (what you are thinking about now) and your actions (what you are doing at the moment). Try to analyze what causes certain reactions in you (anger, irritation, envy, joy, satisfaction). What “hooks” do people and circumstances pull you on? Get yourself a notebook in which you will write down all your observations. Just look at what is happening inside you and what contributes to it. After analyzing after some time (a week, a month) what you have learned about yourself, you will be able to draw a conclusion about what you should cultivate in yourself and what you should start getting rid of.

Regular practice of self-observation has a very positive effect on a person’s inner world and, as a result, on its external manifestations.

Characteristics and Signs

The result of the impact on a person’s consciousness depends on the degree of suggestibility of the individual. Any type of communication can be equated to suggestion, but its main type is hypnosis.

The main characteristics of hidden hypnotic influence are the following methods:

  • Manipulation of the psyche through influencing the victim’s inherent stereotypes by creating a sense of guilt, using human weaknesses.
  • Harmless but unethical methods of neurolinguistic programming that work on the basis of human communication abilities.
  • The use of criminal hypnosis is accompanied by a loss of clear control over the mind, which is necessary to stimulate illegal actions.
  • The zombie technique is used by sectarians to recruit by immersing new members in an environment of caring love, which turns into complete dependence.

People with a weakened psyche, those under the influence of alcohol or drugs, or the mentally ill are best susceptible to hypnotic influence.

Hypnotic suggestion can be positive or negative, and the hidden influence is recognized by the following signs:

  • copying gestures, communication style, breathing rhythm of the interlocutor;
  • feeling of awkwardness, guilt, impatience in making decisions;
  • excessive fussiness and activity with involvement in one’s problems;
  • unnatural behavior with excessive gesturing and shifting gaze.

A person under the influence of hypnosis is overcome by pleasant fatigue, he is subject to sudden drowsiness, and there is no clear thinking. Externally, the hypnotic effect of the suggurant is manifested by a fixed gaze, dilated pupils, an unnatural posture, and slight redness of the face.

To protect against such suggestion, it is necessary to train willpower to ensure maximum resistance of the subconscious under extreme circumstances.

Psychological testing

Psychological testing belongs to the section of psychodiagnostics and deals with the study of psychological qualities and personality traits through the use of psychological tests. This method is often used in counseling, psychotherapy, and by employers when hiring. Psychological tests are needed when you need to learn about a person’s personality in more detail, which cannot be done through a conversation or survey.

The main characteristics of psychological tests are:

  • Validity is the correspondence of the data obtained from the test to the characteristic for which the test is carried out;
  • Reliability – consistency of the results obtained during repeated testing;
  • Reliability is the property of a test to give true results, even with intentional or unintentional attempts to distort them by the subjects;
  • Representativeness – compliance with standards.

A truly effective test is created through trial and modification (changing the number of questions, their composition and wording). The test must go through a multi-stage verification and adaptation procedure. An effective psychological test is a standardized test, based on the results of which it becomes possible to assess the psychophysiological and personal characteristics, as well as the knowledge, skills and abilities of the subject.

There are different types of tests:

  • Career guidance tests - to determine a person’s predisposition to any type of activity or suitability for a position;
  • Personality tests - to study character, needs, emotions, abilities and other personality traits;
  • Intelligence tests - to study the degree of development of intelligence;
  • Verbal tests - to study a person’s ability to describe actions performed in words;
  • Achievement tests - to assess the level of mastery of knowledge and skills.

There are other test options aimed at studying a person and his personality traits: color tests, linguistic tests, questionnaires, handwriting analysis, psychometrics, lie detector, various diagnostic methods, etc.

Psychological tests are very convenient to use in everyday life in order to better know yourself or the people you care about.


Tired of making money in a way that does not bring moral, psychological, or emotional satisfaction. Dreaming of finally quitting and doing something else. But you don’t know what. Find some career guidance tests and test yourself. It is quite possible that you will learn some things about yourself that you had no idea about before. The results of such tests can help you discover new facets of yourself and will help you understand what you would really like to do and what you are inclined to do. And knowing all this, it is much easier to find something you like. In addition, this is also good because a person, doing what he loves and enjoying it, becomes happier and more satisfied in life and, on top of everything else, begins to earn more.

Psychological testing promotes a deeper understanding of yourself, your needs and abilities, and often indicates the direction for further personal development.

Functions and role

In psychology, suggestion is an aid in the treatment of various diseases using relaxation methods. Hypnotic effects are used for the purpose of anesthesia or analgesia, to relieve patients from alcohol and drug addiction.

A psychotherapeutic conversation between a doctor and a patient who recognizes the doctor’s authority allows him to dispel fears for his health and remove the fear of surgery.

In public life, the technique is implemented both verbally and non-verbally. A humane option for influencing the psyche of healthy people is successfully used to improve performance.

Autogenic training techniques, as an active method of psychotherapy, effectively cope with the consequences of unfavorable situations in everyday life. Examples of social suggestibility include participants in sports and theatrical performances.

The role of suggestion is invaluable for the comprehensive development of the individual in the light of the pedagogical process. Research in this area was carried out by Bekhterev, who was the first to record the significant suggestibility of the child’s psyche. During collective influence, it is much easier to instill in children any qualities based on the authority of the teacher.

In his works on suggestion and education, Bekhterev pointed out the benefits of hypnosis in advanced cases of education, for eradicating bad habits among schoolchildren.

Biographical method

The biographical method in psychology is a way by which a person’s life path is examined, diagnosed, corrected and designed. Various modifications of this method began to develop at the beginning of the 20th century. In modern biographical methods, a personality is studied in the context of history and prospects for its individual development. This involves obtaining data, the source of which is autobiographical techniques (autobiographies, interviews, questionnaires), as well as eyewitness accounts, analysis of notes, letters, diaries, etc.

This method is often used by managers of various enterprises, biographers studying the lives of certain people, and simply in communication between unfamiliar people. It is easy to use when communicating with a person to compile his psychological portrait.


You are the head of an organization and you are hiring a new employee. You need to find out what kind of person he is, what his personality traits are, what his life experiences are, etc. In addition to filling out questionnaires and conducting interviews, you can use the biographical method for this. Talk to the person, let him tell you facts from his biography and some significant moments in his life path. Ask what he can tell you about himself and his life from memory. This method does not require special skills or preparation. Such a conversation can take place in a light, relaxed atmosphere and, most likely, will be pleasant for both interlocutors.

Using the biographical method is a great way to get to know a new person and an opportunity to see his strengths and weaknesses, as well as imagine a possible perspective of interaction with him.

Other details

According to scientist Eric Roux, auditing is one of the core practices of Scientology. The main purpose of this psychotechnics in the doctrine of Scientology is to rediscover the natural abilities of man, realizing that he is a spiritual being.

In the context of Dianetics or Scientology, auditing is an activity in which an auditor, trained in communications, listens to and gives auditing commands to a subject referred to as a "preclear" or more commonly as a "computer". Although audit sessions are confidential, notes taken by the auditor during the sessions are kept in the sect's archives. Some believe that auditing is a technique of psychological influence and a unique form of directive hypnosis. One way or another, its various modifications are quite successfully used by some practical psychologists.

Scientology makes a distinction between auditors - those who practice auditing - and the public (the public) - those who receive teaching but are not trained to perform the practice on others. Auditors are considered higher ecclesiastical figures in Scientology, as they are seen as more focused on achieving the goals of the religion, or "cleansing the planet" in Scientology terminology.


A survey is a verbal-communicative method, during which interaction occurs between the researcher and the person being studied. The psychologist asks questions, and the subject (respondent) gives answers to them. This method is considered one of the most common in psychology. The questions in it depend on what information is required to be obtained during the study. As a rule, a survey is a mass method because it is used to obtain information about a group of people, rather than about one person.

Surveys are divided into:

  • Standardized – strict and giving a general idea of ​​the problem;
  • Non-standardized ones are less strict and allow you to study the nuances of the problem.

In the process of creating surveys, the first step is to formulate program questions that can only be understood by specialists. After this, they are translated into survey questions that are more understandable to the average person.

Types of surveys:

  • Written allows you to gain superficial knowledge about the problem;
  • Oral - allows you to penetrate into human psychology more deeply than written;
  • Questioning – preliminary answers to questions before the main conversation;
  • Personality tests - to determine the mental characteristics of a person;
  • Interview – personal conversation (also applies to the conversation method).

When writing questions you need to adhere to some rules:

  • Separateness and conciseness;
  • Exclusion of specific terms;
  • Brevity;
  • Specificity;
  • No hints;
  • Questions require non-standard answers;
  • Questions should not be off-putting;
  • Questions should not suggest anything.

Depending on the tasks assigned, questions are divided into several types:

  • Open – offering answers in a free form;
  • Closed – offering prepared answers;
  • Subjective – about a person’s attitude towards something/someone;
  • Projective - about a third person (without indicating the respondent).

A survey, as already mentioned, is most suitable for obtaining information from a large number of people. This method allows you to determine the needs of the masses or determine their opinion on a specific issue.


You are the director of a company providing any services and you need to find out the opinions of your employees on improving working conditions and attracting more clients. In order to do this as quickly and as efficiently as possible, you can draw up (for example, together with a staff analyst) a series of questions, the answers to which will help you solve your problems. Namely: to make the work process of employees more pleasant for them and to find some ways (possibly very effective) to expand the client base. Based on the results of such a survey, you will receive information on very important points. Firstly, you will know exactly what changes your employees need so that the atmosphere in the team becomes better and work brings positive emotions. Secondly, you will have a list of all possible methods to improve your business. And thirdly, you will probably be able to identify a promising and promising person from the total mass of employees who can be promoted, thereby improving the overall performance of the enterprise.

Surveys and questionnaires are a great way to obtain important and relevant information on current topics from a large number of people.


Conversation is a form of observation. It can be oral or written. Its goal is to identify a special range of issues that are inaccessible during direct observation. Conversation is widely used in psychological research and has enormous practical significance. Therefore, it can be considered, albeit not the main, but an independent method.

The conversation is conducted in the form of a relaxed dialogue with the person – the object of research. The effectiveness of the conversation depends on the fulfillment of a number of requirements:

  • You need to think through the plan and content of the conversation in advance;
  • Establish contact with the person being studied;
  • Eliminate all moments that can cause discomfort (alertness, tension, etc.);
  • All questions asked during the conversation must be understandable;
  • Leading questions should not lead to answers;
  • During a conversation, you need to observe the person’s reaction and compare his behavior with his answers;
  • You should remember the content of the conversation so that you can record and analyze it later;
  • Do not take notes during the conversation, because this may cause discomfort, mistrust, etc.;
  • Pay attention to the “subtext”: omissions, slips of the tongue, etc.

Conversation as a psychological method helps to obtain information from the “primary source” and establish more trusting relationships between people. With the help of a well-conducted conversation, you can not only get answers to questions, but also get to know your interlocutor better, understand what kind of person he is and “how he lives.”


Everyday. You notice that your close friend has been walking around for days with a drooping and dejected look. He answers questions in monosyllables, rarely smiles, and avoids his usual company. The changes are obvious, but he himself does not comment on it. This person is close to you and his fate is not indifferent to you. What to do? How to find out what is happening and help him? The answer is on the surface - talk to him, have a conversation. Try to find a moment when no one will be around or specifically invite him to have a cup of coffee with you. Do not start the conversation directly - with phrases like: “What happened?” or “Come on, tell me what you have!” Even if you have a good friendly relationship, start the conversation with sincere words that you have noticed changes in him, that he is dear to you and that you would like to help him, advise him something. “Turn” the person towards you. Let him feel that it is REALLY important for you to know what happened and that you will understand him in any case. Most likely, under your kind pressure, your friend will “turn off” his defense mechanism and tell you what’s going on. Almost every person needs other people to take part in their life. It is important to feel that he is not alone and cares. Especially to your friends.

A conversation is always good when there is an opportunity to communicate one-on-one, because it is during a conversation (official or confidential) that you can safely talk about something that, for some reason, you cannot talk about in the hustle and bustle of ordinary affairs.

The methods of theoretical psychology are far from exhausted here. There are many variations and combinations of them. But we got to know the main ones. Now, in order for the understanding of the methods of psychology to become more complete, it is necessary to consider practical methods.



Suggestion is the process of inserting certain formulas, attitudes, positions or views into the person being studied outside of his conscious control. Suggestion can be direct or indirect communicative (verbal or emotional). The task of this method is to form the required state or point of view. The means of suggestion do not play a special role. The main task is to implement it. That is why emotional imprinting, confusion, distraction, intonation, remarks, and even turning off a person’s conscious control (hypnosis, alcohol, drugs) are widely used during suggestion.

From other appeals (requests, threats, instructions, demands, etc.), which are also methods of psychological influence, suggestion differs in involuntary and automatic reactions, and also in that it does not imply volitional efforts made consciously. In the process of suggestion, everything happens by itself. Suggestions affect every person, but to varying degrees.

There are several types of suggestions:

  • Direct – influence through words (orders, commands, instructions);
  • Indirect – hidden (intermediate actions, stimuli);
  • Intentional;
  • Unintentional;
  • Positive;
  • Negative.

There are different methods of suggestion:

  • Techniques of direct suggestion - advice, command, instruction, order;
  • Techniques of indirect suggestion - condemnation, approval, hint;
  • Techniques of hidden suggestion - providing all options, illusion of choice, truism.

Initially, suggestion was used unconsciously by people whose communication skills had developed to a high level. Today, suggestion plays a huge role in psycho- and hypnotherapy. Very often this method is used in hypnosis or in other cases when a person is in a state of trance. Suggestions have been a part of human life since childhood, because... used in the process of education, advertising, politics, relationships, etc.


A widely known example of suggestion is called the “placebo” effect, the phenomenon of improvement in a patient’s condition when taking a medicine that, in his opinion, has certain properties, when in fact it is a dummy. You can apply this method in practice. If, for example, one of your loved ones suddenly has a headache, give him a simple empty capsule under the guise of a headache remedy - after a while the “medicine” will work and the headache will stop. This is the “placebo” effect.


Reinforcement is the immediate reaction (positive or negative) of the researcher (or the environment) to the actions of the subject. The reaction must actually be instantaneous, so that the subject immediately has the opportunity to associate it with his action. If the reaction is positive, then this is a sign that you should continue to do or act in a similar way. If the reaction is negative, then vice versa.

Reinforcement can be of the following types:

  • Positive – correct behavior/action is reinforced;
  • Negative – wrong behavior/action is prevented;
  • Conscious;
  • Unconscious;
  • Natural – happens by accident (burn, electric shock, etc.);
  • Intentional – conscious action (education, training);
  • One-time;
  • Systematic;
  • Direct;
  • Indirect;
  • Basic;
  • Secondary;
  • Full;
  • Partial.

Reinforcement is a huge part of human life. It, like suggestion, has been present in her since childhood in the process of upbringing and gaining life experience.


Examples of reinforcement are around us at every step: if you put your hand in boiling water or try to touch the fire, you will certainly get burned - this is negative spontaneous reinforcement. The dog, following some command, receives a treat and repeats it with pleasure - positive intentional reinforcement. A child who gets a bad grade at school will be punished at home, and he will try not to give any more bad grades, because if he does, he will be punished again - one-time/systematic negative reinforcement. The bodybuilder knows that only regular training will give results - systematic positive reinforcement.

Psychological consultation

Psychological consultation is, as a rule, a one-time conversation between a psychologist and a client, orienting him in the current life situation. It implies a quick start to work, because... The client does not need any special preparation and the specialist, together with him, can understand the circumstances and outline steps to achieve the desired result.

The main problems for which people seek advice from a psychologist are:

  • Relationships – jealousy, infidelity, communication difficulties, raising children;
  • Individual problems – health, bad luck, self-organization;
  • Work - dismissal, intolerance to criticism, low wages.

Psychological consultation consists of several stages:

  • Contact;
  • Request;
  • Plan;
  • Setting up for work;
  • Implementation;
  • Hometasks;
  • Completion.

The method of psychological consultation, like any other method of psychology, consists of a combination of both theoretical and practical research methods. Today, there are various variations and types of consultations. Turning to a psychologist for help can be a solution to many life problems and a way out of difficult situations.


The impetus for resorting to psychological consultation can be absolutely any life situation that a person cannot cope with on his own. These include problems at work, troubles in family relationships, depression, loss of interest in life, inability to get rid of bad habits, disharmony, struggle with oneself and many other reasons. Therefore, if you feel that you have been overcome and disturbed by some obsessive thoughts or conditions for a long period of time and you understand that you cannot cope with it alone, and there is no one nearby who could support you, then without a shadow of a doubt and embarrassment, seek help from a specialist. Today there are a huge number of offices, clinics and psychological assistance centers where experienced, highly qualified psychologists provide their services.

This concludes our consideration of the classification of the main methods of psychology. Other (auxiliary) methods include: the method of experimental psychological tests, the method of explanation and teaching, training, coaching, business and role-playing games, counseling, the method of correcting behavior and condition, the method of transforming living and working space and many others.

Any mental process must be considered by psychological science as it really is. And this presupposes its study in close connection with the surrounding world and the external conditions in which a person lives, because they are reflected in his psyche. Just as the reality around us is in constant movement and change, its reflection in the human psyche cannot be unchanged. In order to learn to more deeply understand the features of a person’s inner world, and the essence of things in general, one should come to the realization of the fact that one of the foundations of this understanding is precisely human psychology.

Nowadays, an incalculable amount of materials for studying psychological science and its features is freely available. In order for you not to get lost in all this diversity and know where to start studying, we suggest you familiarize yourself with the works of such authors as A. G. Maklakov, S. L. Rubinstein, Yu. B. Gippenreiter, A. V. Petrovsky, N. A. Rybnikov, S. Buhler, B. G. Ananyev, N.A. Loginova. And right now you can watch an interesting video on the topic of psychological methods:


As you continue to use the Sedona Method, you will become more adept at using it and the results will accelerate significantly over time. You will quickly reach a point where release becomes second nature.

No matter your circumstances, the Sedona Method will show you how you can achieve wealth and success, improve relationships, find peace and happiness, health and well-being.

This will help you create the life you choose in this moment. This means that you will literally be free to have, be and do whatever you want or desire. This process is backed by tons of scientific research, celebrity endorsements, and the success of hundreds of thousands of people who have achieved amazing results in every area of ​​their lives.

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