How to overcome psychological barriers in interpersonal communication

Communication is an integral part of human life. The success of an individual in almost all spheres of life depends on the ability to quickly establish contacts with others in modern conditions. Everyone strives for pleasant and effective communication, but sometimes situations arise when the exchange of information is disrupted and it is difficult for partners to understand each other.

This is caused by communication barriers that significantly complicate dialogue between interlocutors.

How to Overcome Barriers in Communication with Others

Language sometimes turns into a barrier instead of a road.
Daniel Keyes. Flowers for Algernon. Dr. Strauss

  • 1.What are 'Communication Barriers'? 1.1. 'I' and 'others': overcoming barriers
  • 2.Psychological barriers to communication
  • 3.Communication barriers
  • 4.Video: Barriers to communication. How to overcome?
  • 5.How to overcome communication barriers?
  • 6.Conclusion
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    • How to Overcome Barriers in Communication with Others
    • Transferring thoughts and emotions to another person. Is it possible?
    • 20 Golden Rules of Communication that will lead you to success in communication (+Bonus)

    What are 'Communication Barriers'?

    These are factors that contribute to the loss and distortion of the meaning of information during interaction. They lead to a decrease in the effectiveness of communication, tension and negative experiences. They often become the main cause of conflict situations. All communication barriers are divided into two groups: psychological and communicative.

    'I' and 'others': overcoming barriers

    In everyday life, when we encounter situations of communication, intimacy, negotiations or general activities with other people, there is often a feeling of “overcoming the barrier” or the existence of some large barrier between individuals that does not allow them to adequately interact with each other. Many philosophers, writers and ordinary everyday researchers have paid attention to the colossal difference in a person’s perception of his “I” and the feeling of “others”.

    Those people who are outside our “I” turn out to be strangers, unpredictable and often bring unpleasant sensations, pain and disappointment - precisely because the closer a person becomes, the more individual ideas about what what is right and what is wrong, how to live and act. The corresponding expectations are never met, because the other person is a completely different, separately formed personality, who has different interests, abilities and goals in life. However, even such a completely logical disappointment forces one not to open oneself to an understanding of “others”, but to distance oneself from communication. J.P. Sartre formulated this psychological process very aphoristically: “Hell is others.”

    In fact, the path to mutual understanding is simple and unusually logical, strange as it may seem. In order to perceive other people normally and adequately, it is necessary to take a closer look at their characteristic reactions, modes of behavior, peculiarities of perception of the world, what and how they do, and how they react to certain events. Careful observation should be accompanied by the widest and most varied communication possible, using as wide a range of tools as possible - conversation, joint activity, exchange of impressions, joint creativity or sharing its results, etc. The more different situations a person shows himself in, the more we can learn about him, and the more accurate our behavior towards him will be.

    Ways to overcome barriers

    Psychologists help overcome psychological barriers through individual or group therapy. The main goal of therapy is to eliminate the source of the triggering situation and reduce general anxiety. After a conversation with a psychologist and several tests, the specialist will be able to determine which therapy is best to choose for a particular person.

    Methods of working to correct anxiety and fears:

    1. Interacting with fear through play. The subject chosen is a visual aid that resembles the client’s fear. With the help of an objective game, a person loses the situation, turning the plot in his favor.
    2. Increased experience of emotional reaction. A psychologist, using art therapy, teaches the client to experience positive emotions, which become the client’s defense in a traumatic situation.
    3. Switching emotions. The client interacts with the object of fear using phrases and gestures that emphasize its insignificance. This gives the client confidence and peace of mind.
    4. Manipulation by fear. It is carried out in parallel with the acting out of a disturbing situation or before it. The client holds the frightening object in his hands for some time and formally gains power over it.
    5. Imitation. The psychologist plays out the situation, allowing the client to imitate his actions and reactions. Since humans tend to unconsciously imitate others, anxious people who are prone to dramatization should be excluded from their immediate circle of friends. Constant contact with such people interferes with the normal effects of therapy.
    6. Emotional swing. The swing technique allows you to transfer the client from a situation of danger to a situation of safety. The transition is played several times in a row until the client learns to transfer a feeling of safety into a dangerous situation.
    7. Emotional conflict. Fear is an emotional phenomenon. You can get rid of it with the help of strong emotional influence. To do this, the psychologist models a situation in which the client has the opportunity to overcome fear or form a new emotional attitude that eliminates fear.
    8. Anatomizing fear. The psychologist acts as a teacher who explains to the client the structure of the object of fear. It focuses on the objective inability of the object to cause real harm. If therapy is successful, the person copes with fear independently without additional measures.
    9. Habituation or sensitization. The client is shown the object of fear and the neutral emotional reaction of other people to it. This allows the client to thoroughly study the object and get used to it. This gradually leads to a decrease in sensitivity to a frightening object or situation.

    To overcome psychological blocks, active therapy is used in psychology. Since psychological stress affects the physical state, it is the bodily discomfort that needs to be eliminated first. This practice is very effective; it is useful not only for psychological health, but also for physical health. To overcome a barrier within the framework of individual or group training, use:

    1. Dance. Repeating dance movements helps you relax, free your senses and develop self-confidence.
    2. Movements. A person repeats a set of movements that express positive and negative emotions.
    3. Art. Artistic creativity reflects all the subconscious processes occurring in the human psyche. With the help of visual images, it becomes much easier for him to express fears and doubts and realize them in the form of real-life objects.
    4. Physicality. Physical contact in the form of light stroking movements relieves psychological stress and releases primitive feelings.
    5. Skills. The purpose of the session is to teach the client adaptive skills that are useful when faced with a difficult situation. Skill development is carried out first in a psychologist's office, and after initial mastery - in a real situation. The psychologist gives tasks that the client must complete: ask for directions, get acquainted, etc.

    During one session, the psychologist uses one method of influence. The number of sessions in one therapeutic course may vary and depends on the client’s involvement and the depth of the resulting psychological trauma. To better understand the types of psychological barriers, you should watch a video where everything is presented in an easy and understandable form, and examples of situations are also shown:

    Psychological barriers to communication

    Psychological barriers arise as a result of the individual psychological characteristics of people who enter into the communication process (secrecy, modesty, differences in temperament types), as well as as a result of the characteristics of the relationship between partners (mistrust, antipathy).

    Personal aspects become decisive for the emergence of situations of unproductive communication. Due to the fact that each person perceives events and phenomena of the surrounding world subjectively, evaluates them from the point of view of his individual experience, it is sometimes difficult for him to understand a communication partner who has a different point of view and other characteristics of perception. Main types of psychological barriers:

    1. Aesthetic
      barriers - arise in a situation when a person does not like the appearance of the interlocutor. This may concern the features of his appearance, clothing style, and certain wardrobe details.
    2. Intellectual
      barriers consist of differences in types of thinking, speed of mental operations and differences in the level of intellectual development. For example, communication between an optimist and a pessimist cannot always be called productive, because one will look for advantages and ways out in any situation, and the second will focus on the negative. An intellectual barrier can be classified as a barrier of incompetence, when a person does not understand the topic under discussion, which causes a feeling of distress or irritation in the communication partner.
    3. Motivational
      barriers appear when people have different goals. This leads to misunderstanding and distorted perception of information.
    4. Moral or ethical
      barriers - the effectiveness of communication is hampered by the incompatibility of moral positions, principles, and views.
    5. Attitude barrier
      - if a person has a negative attitude towards a partner, then his words are not perceived objectively, often with internal protest. It can arise as a result of previous communication experience or based on feedback from other people.
    6. The barrier of negative emotions
      or poor physical condition are situational barriers. Sometimes communication problems arise when a person is in a bad mood or state of health and is not in the mood to establish contact with others.

    Recommendations to help you get rid of

    There are proven ways to overcome communication barriers. These include:

    • “proper name” (it is important to pronounce the name of the companion; such attention helps a person to assert himself; it relaxes, inspires trust);
    • “mirror of relationships” (expressed in a warm smile, friendly tone and sympathetic facial expression; the companion has a feeling of security);
    • “golden words” (compliments create the illusion of improvement, a feeling of satisfaction appears);
    • “patient listener” (attentively listening to a person’s complaints);
    • “personal life” (it is worth paying attention to the inner world and hobbies of your companion; after this the person “opens up” and communicates more actively).

    Some barriers can be eliminated, while others can be skillfully circumvented. It is important to be patient, attentive and sympathetic.

    Communication barriers

    Communication barriers arise if there is a mismatch in vocabulary between interlocutors. This group also includes problems associated with the lack of analogies of concepts in different languages ​​and other translation difficulties. Main types of communication barriers:

    1. Semantic
      barriers arise when communication partners mean different things by similar concepts. For example, one person understands the phrase “a good method of achieving a goal” as a method that will not harm the people around him, while another understands it as a strategy to achieve what he wants at any cost, even if those around him suffer.
    2. Logical
      barriers - appear if a person does not know how to clearly and consistently express his thoughts. In such a dialogue, cause-and-effect relationships are broken, and concepts are often substituted.
    3. Phonetic
      barriers are a speaker's poor speaking technique. When words sound unclear and unclear, which makes it difficult to perceive information.

    How to overcome communication barriers?

    It is impossible to imagine a person in the modern world without speech communications. Every day you have to communicate at work or school, with friends or colleagues. But the real problem can be a barrier that prevents one from communicating competently with others and separates a person from normal life.

    One of the most common barriers is an inferiority complex. People with low self-esteem believe that they are worse than others, do not see their merits and prefer to live their lives quietly and calmly. But in fact, you just have to change your image, start working on yourself and smile at difficulties, and the need for communication appears by itself. Self-doubt goes away with practice. Psychologists advise not to bypass people, but to try to keep up the conversation as often as possible.

    Another problem in communication can be inflated self-esteem. A superiority complex manifests itself in a biased attitude towards other people. The person feels better than others and believes that talking to them can be disrespectful and condescending. Of course, such an attitude does not suit anyone and they will most likely try to avoid contact with such a person. But if a person himself understands the cause of difficulties in communication, then self-control and a loyal attitude towards society will help to cope with them. When talking, you can try to find positive traits in the interlocutor, thanks to this the conversation will be more comfortable for both parties.

    It often happens that a person is simply afraid to come into contact with someone. For example, not finding the right words, seeming stupid or saying the wrong thing. There is a fear of not being accepted and judged. The person may have poor communication skills or an insufficient vocabulary. The way out of this situation is practice. You can practice in front of a mirror, as if talking to an imaginary friend. Try to correspond on the Internet, because without being able to look at the interlocutor, it is much easier to express your thoughts. Of course, you need to read more and develop your vocabulary in order to select words for any situation. It is important to remain yourself and not be afraid of what others will think. Each person perceives everything differently, and there will be those who can help overcome this barrier.

    The difficulty lies in the fact that often the causes of communication difficulties are not recognized by people. This is especially true for psychological barriers. If communication barriers are perceived immediately and to eliminate them it is often enough to clarify the meaning of what was said, reformulate sentences and work on your speech, then psychological difficulties are a consequence of subconscious attitudes. They are difficult to control.

    Watch your appearance and communication manners, they must correspond to the situation. Try to perceive your interlocutor objectively and without judgment.

    Barriers in pedagogical communication and recommendations for overcoming them


    We are all constantly in communication situations - at home, at work, on the street, in transport; with close people and complete strangers. And, of course, the huge number of contacts that a person enters into every day requires him to fulfill a number of conditions and rules that allow him to communicate while maintaining personal dignity and distance from other people.

    In general, interaction with society today should be based on a deep analysis and understanding of all factors that can influence people and their attitude towards the company, its products or services. The emergence of psychological and communicative barriers to communication significantly interferes with the communication of both individuals and entire social strata. And since man is a social being, he simply needs communication. That is why this problem is relevant today. Scientists have always dealt with the problem of barriers to communication. This topic is primarily associated with such names as E. Bern, Z. Freud, L.P. Bueva, A. S. Zolotnyakova, B. D. Parygin, M. S. Kagan, A. A. Bodalev. A “barrier” of communication is a mental state that manifests itself in the subject’s inadequate passivity, which prevents him from performing certain actions. The barrier consists of strengthening negative experiences and attitudes - shame, guilt, fear, anxiety, low self-esteem associated with the task.

    In psychology, conflict is defined as a collision of oppositely directed, mutually incompatible tendencies in the consciousness of an individual, in interpersonal interactions or interpersonal relationships of individuals or groups of people, associated with negative emotional experiences.

    A person, as an element of communication, is a complex and sensitive “recipient” of information with his own feelings and desires, life experiences. The information he receives may cause an internal reaction of any kind that may amplify, distort, or completely block the information sent to him.

    The adequacy of information perception largely depends on the presence or absence of communication barriers in the communication process. If a barrier arises, information is distorted or loses its original meaning, and in some cases does not reach the recipient at all.

    Communication interference can be a mechanical break in information and hence its distortion; the ambiguity of the transmitted information, due to which the stated and conveyed idea is distorted; these options can be designated as an information-deficient barrier.

    It happens that the receivers clearly hear the words being transmitted, but give them a different meaning (the problem is that the transmitter may not even detect that his signal caused an incorrect response). Here we can talk about a replacement-distorting barrier.

    The distortion of information passing through one person may be minor. But when it passes through several people - repeaters, the distortion can be significant. This barrier is also called the “reflection barrier”.

    A significantly greater possibility of distortion is associated with emotions - emotional barriers.

    This happens when people, having received any information, are more preoccupied with their feelings and assumptions than with real facts. Words have a strong emotional charge, and not so much the words (symbols) themselves, but the associations that they generate in a person. Words have a primary (literal) meaning and a secondary (emotional) meaning.

    We can talk about the existence of barriers of misunderstanding, socio-cultural differences and barriers of attitude. The emergence of a barrier of misunderstanding

    may be due to a number of reasons, both psychological and other. Thus, it can arise due to errors in the information transmission channel itself; This is the so-called phonetic misunderstanding. First of all, it occurs when participants in communication speak different languages ​​and dialects, have significant speech and diction defects, and distorted grammatical structure of speech. The barrier of phonetic misunderstanding also creates inexpressive rapid speech, tongue-twister speech, and speech with a large number of parasitic sounds.

    There is also a semantic barrier of misunderstanding,

    associated, first of all, with differences in the systems of meaning (thesauri) of the participants in communication. This is, first of all, a problem of jargons and slangs. It is known that even within the same culture there are many microcultures, each of which creates its own “field of meaning”, characterized by its own understanding of various concepts and phenomena that they express. Thus, in different microcultures the meaning of such values ​​as “beauty”, “duty”, “nature”, “decency”, etc. is not understood equally. In addition, each environment creates its own mini-language of communication, its own slang, each has its own favorite quotes and jokes, expressions and figures of speech. All this together can significantly complicate the communication process, creating a semantic barrier of misunderstanding.

    can play an equally important role in the destruction of normal interpersonal communication ,

    arising when there is a discrepancy between the communicator’s speech style and the communication situation or the speech style and the current psychological state of the recipient, etc. Thus, a communication partner may not accept a critical remark, since it will be expressed in a familiar manner that is inappropriate for the situation, or children will not perceive an interesting story because for the dry, emotionally unsaturated or scientific speech of an adult. The communicator needs to subtly sense the state of his recipients, to grasp the shades of the emerging communication situation in order to bring the style of his message into line with it.

    Finally, we can talk about the existence of a logical barrier

    misunderstanding. It arises in cases where the logic of reasoning proposed by the communicator is either too complex for the recipient to perceive, or seems incorrect to him, and contradicts his inherent manner of proof. Psychologically, we can talk about the existence of many logics and logical systems of evidence. For some people, what is logical and demonstrative is what does not contradict reason, for others, what is consistent with duty and morality. We can talk about the existence of “female” and “male” psychological logic, about “children’s” logic, etc. It depends on the psychological preferences of the recipient whether he will accept the system of evidence offered to him or find it unconvincing. For a communicator, the choice of a system of evidence adequate to a given moment is always an open problem.

    The cause of the psychological barrier may be socio-cultural differences between communication partners. These may be social, political, religious and professional differences, which lead to different interpretations of certain concepts used in the communication process. The very perception of a communication partner as a person of a certain profession, a certain nationality, gender and age can also act as a barrier. For example, the authority of the communicator in the eyes of the recipient plays a huge role in the emergence of a barrier. The higher the authority, the fewer barriers to assimilating the information offered. The very reluctance to listen to the opinion of this or that person is often explained by his low authority.

    Communication is an unchanging component of human social life, not always amenable to conscious control. This can be learned, but to a much lesser extent than techniques and methods of communication. The means of communication is understood as the way in which a person realizes certain contents and goals of communication. They depend on a person’s culture, level of development, upbringing and education. When they talk about the development of a person’s abilities, skills and communication skills, first of all, they mean technology and means of communication.

    Psychological barriers in communication arise unnoticed and subjectively; often they are not felt by the person himself, but are immediately perceived by others. The person ceases to feel the infidelity of his behavior and is confident that he communicates normally. If he detects inconsistencies, complexes begin to develop.

    Let us list the psychological barriers that arise in the process of communication between people.

    First impression

    is considered one of the barriers that may contribute to the erroneous perception of a communication partner. Why? The first impression, in fact, is not always the first, since both visual and auditory memory influence the formation of the image. Consequently, it may be relatively adequate, consistent with character traits, or it may be erroneous.

    Barrier of bias and groundless negative attitude.

    It is expressed as follows: outwardly, for no reason, a person begins to have a negative attitude towards this or that person as a result of a first impression or for some hidden reasons. It is necessary to establish possible motives for the appearance of such an attitude and overcome them.

    A barrier of a negative attitude introduced into a person’s experience by one of the other people.

    You were told negative information about someone, and a negative attitude develops towards a person about whom you know little and have no experience of personal interaction with him. Such negative attitudes introduced from the outside, prior to your personal experience of communicating with a specific person, should be avoided. New people with whom you are going to communicate must be approached with an optimistic hypothesis. Do not base your final assessment of a person solely on the opinions of others. a person only on the opinions of others.

    Barrier of “fear” of contact with a person.

    It happens that you need to come into direct contact with a person, but it’s somehow awkward. What to do? Try to calmly, without emotion, analyze what is holding you back in communication, and you will see that these emotional layers are either subjective or of too secondary a nature. After the conversation, be sure to analyze the success of the conversation and fix your attention on the fact that nothing terrible happened. Typically, such a barrier is typical for people who have difficulty communicating and have a generally low level of sociability.

    Barrier of “expectations of misunderstanding.”

    You must enter into direct interaction with a person in business or personal communication, but you are concerned about the question: will your partner understand you correctly? Moreover, here they often proceed from the fact that the partner must understand incorrectly. They begin to predict the consequences of this misunderstanding and anticipate unpleasant sensations. It is necessary to calmly and thoroughly analyze the content of the conversation you are planning and, if possible, eliminate from it those moments or emotional aspects that may cause an inadequate interpretation of your intentions. After that, feel free to get in touch.

    The “age” barrier
    typical in the system of everyday communication. It arises in a wide variety of areas of human interaction: between adults and children (the adult does not understand how the child lives, which is the cause of many conflicts), between people of different generations. Older people often condemn the behavior of young people, as if forgetting themselves at this age. The young people get irritated and laugh. Complications arise in interpersonal relationships. The age barrier in communication is dangerous both in family relationships and in the system of professional interaction. Therefore, it was the “age” barrier that became the topic of my research.

    Conclusions: Communication barriers refer to those numerous factors that cause or contribute to conflicts. Communication barriers are multifaceted, diverse and require a certain resolution. There are communication barriers (when a person does not understand the speech of the interlocutor for one reason or another, for example, if the speech is distorted or people speak different languages) and psychological barriers (for example, if people do not understand each other due to age differences or “first impressions” had too much influence).

    Communication techniques are ways of pre-setting a person to communicate with people, his behavior in the process of communication, and techniques are the preferred means of communication, including verbal and non-verbal.

    Before entering into communication with another person, you need to determine your interests, correlate them with the interests of your communication partner, evaluate him as a person, and choose the most appropriate technique and methods of communication. Then, already in the process of communication, it is necessary to control its progress and results, be able to correctly complete the act of communication, leaving the partner with a favorable or unfavorable impression of himself and making sure that in the future he or she does not have (if there is no such desire) the desire to continue communication.

    At the initial stage of communication, his technique includes such elements as the adoption of a certain facial expression, posture, choice of initial words, tone of expression, movements and gestures, attracting the partner of actions aimed at pre-setting him for a certain perception of the communicated (transmitted information). In the process of communication, types of techniques and conversation techniques are used that are based on the use of feedback.

    There are many techniques for increasing the effectiveness of communication and avoiding communication barriers. Let's name some of them.

    Reception "proper name"

    is based on saying out loud the first name and patronymic of the partner with whom the employee communicates. This shows attention to this individual, promotes the affirmation of the person as an individual, gives him a feeling of satisfaction and is accompanied by positive emotions, thereby forming an attraction and the employee’s disposition towards the client or partner.

    Reception "mirror of relationships"

    consists of a kind smile and a pleasant facial expression, indicating that “I am your friend.” A friend is a supporter, a protector. A feeling of security arises in the client, which creates positive emotions and, voluntarily or involuntarily, creates an attraction. The “golden words” technique consists of expressing compliments to a person, contributing to the effect of suggestion. Thus, there is a kind of “correspondence” satisfaction of the need for improvement, which also leads to the formation of positive emotions and determines disposition towards the employee.

    The Patient Listener

    stems from patiently and attentively listening to the client's problems. This leads to the satisfaction of one of the most important needs of any person - the need for self-affirmation. Its satisfaction naturally leads to the formation of positive emotions and creates trust in the client.

    Reception "private life"

    is expressed in drawing attention to the “hobbies” and interests of the client (partner), which also increases his verbal activity and is accompanied by positive emotions.

    Conclusions: Solving the problem of “barriers” to communication requires a multidimensional nature of the study, taking into account the diversity of “barriers” and the vast scope of their manifestations. All these requirements are quite successfully resolved within the framework of a personal approach.

    The Soviet teacher V.A. Kan-Kalik classified the barriers that arise when a teacher communicates not with an individual student, but with the class:

    · the “barrier” of fear of the classroom, characteristic of beginning teachers: they have a good command of the material, are well prepared for the lesson, but the very thought of direct contact with children frightens them;

    · “barrier” of lack of contact: the teacher enters the class and, instead of quickly and efficiently organizing interaction with students, begins to act “autonomously”;

    · “barrier” to narrowing the functions of communication: the teacher takes into account only the informational tasks of communication, losing sight of the social and personal functions of communication;

    · a “barrier” of a negative attitude towards the class, which can sometimes be formed a priori based on the opinions of other teachers working in this team, or as a result of one’s own pedagogical failures;

    · “barrier” of past negative communication experiences;

    · “barrier” of mismatch of attitudes – the teacher comes with the idea of ​​an interesting lesson, but the class is indifferent, as a result the teacher is irritated;

    · “barrier” of fear of pedagogical mistakes (being late for class, not meeting the deadline);

    · “barrier” to imitation: a young teacher imitates the communication manners and activities of another teacher, whom he is guided by, but does not realize that the mechanical transfer of someone else’s communication style to his own pedagogical individuality is impossible.

    Researchers point out that since conflicts often give rise to an emotional state in which it is difficult to think, draw conclusions, or approach creative solutions to problems, then when resolving a conflict situation, adhere to the following rules.

    1. Remember that in a person’s conflict it is not his mind that dominates, but his emotions, which leads to affect, when consciousness simply turns off and the person is not responsible for his words and actions.

    2. Adhere to a multi-alternative approach and, while insisting on your proposal, do not reject your partner’s proposal by asking yourself the question: “Am I never wrong?” Try to take both proposals and see what amount of benefits and losses they will bring in the near future and then.

    3. Realize the importance of conflict resolution for yourself by asking the question: “What will happen if a solution is not found?” This will allow you to shift the center of gravity from the relationship to the problem.

    4. If you and your interlocutor are irritated and aggressive, then it is necessary to reduce internal tension and “let off steam.” But venting on others is not a solution, but a trick. But if it so happens that you have lost control of yourself, try to do the only thing: shut up yourself, and don’t demand it from your partner. Avoid stating your partner’s negative emotional states.

    5. Focus on the positive, the best in a person. Then you oblige him to be better.

    6. Invite your interlocutor to take your place and ask:

    “If you were in my place, what would you do?” This removes the critical attitude and switches the interlocutor from emotions to understanding the situation.

    7. Do not exaggerate your merits or show signs of superiority.

    8. Do not blame or attribute responsibility for the situation to your partner alone.

    9. Regardless of the results of resolving contradictions, try not to destroy the relationship.

    To summarize, we can draw the following conclusions:

    Communication is a very important component of human social life. Difficulties often arise in this complex process - the so-called “communication barriers”. For effective communication, one must have a certain system of skills, knowledge and abilities, which is usually referred to as socio-psychological or communicative competence.

    In general, the difficulty of overcoming psychological barriers in communication is determined by the fact that psychological barriers in communication arise unnoticed and may not be recognized by the teacher at first. The process of overcoming psychological barriers is strictly individual, but there are common points in it, and you need to try to overcome these barriers.

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