Individual psychological characteristics of personality

The uniqueness of a person is determined not only by his inner world, but also by the totality of personality qualities that influence the individual’s attitude towards life and the people around him. To realize the uniqueness of each inhabitant of the Earth, it is necessary not only to know how personality traits are understood in psychology, but also to be able to notice the main individual psychological characteristics of a person.

Personality traits

What is personality

The concept of personality characterizes a person as a being endowed with consciousness, using it in the process of communication, intellectual activity, work, and interaction in society. A person has a unique character, exhibits an active life position, is aware of his actions and accepts responsibility for them.

There are no identical personalities, since each person has his own life experience, mental characteristics, congenital and acquired qualities. You might think that animals are also different from each other, but this does not make them individuals. After all, a person is a part of human society, performing certain functions in it, playing its roles.

Many people wonder at what age does a person become an individual? But there is no exact answer; everyone goes through this process individually, at their own time. We can talk about the beginning of personality formation if the child separates himself from the people around him and understands his place among family members and relatives. Then he begins to compare himself with his peers, other children. Thus, personality gradually develops from childhood.


This is interesting! Children under 1 year of age are not able to distinguish themselves in the mirror. They watch with interest the reflection that appears, but still cannot understand that it is themselves. Often the baby tries to look behind the back of the mirror, wanting to find another child there. But from 12-16 months, children already establish a connection between themselves and the emerging reflection. This is one of their first “steps” towards self-knowledge and development of themselves as individuals.

Personalities can be very different: positive and negative, developed and backward, sincere, mean, benevolent and others. It all depends on a set of individual qualities that are formed from early childhood.

Strong-willed traits of people

Positive character traits of a person - what applies to them

To achieve goals, an individual needs the ability to mobilize his own psyche. Willpower is the foundation of this skill.

Note! The volitional qualities of a person are not always innate. Often an individual has to train them on his own. It takes a lot of time to learn. The main thing is that training should be repeated periodically even after obtaining good results.

How will is formed

There are many methods for studying the volitional properties of a subject. The most common are:

  • test N.N. Obozov “Self-esteem of willpower”;
  • observation method A.I. Vysotsky;
  • general assessment of will in adolescents according to N.E. Istanbulova.

Human volitional traits are divided into 2 types:

  • moral;
  • extraordinary.

The second type of qualities is the basis for improving the moral side of a person. Among the main volitional traits of an individual are:

  1. Energy. Thanks to this property, a person is able to act quickly and make responsible decisions.
  2. Self-control. This strong-willed quality protects the individual from impulsive and rash actions. With self-control, the subject is his own leader.
  3. Courage. Allows a person to overcome internal fears and fears.
  4. Patience. With the help of this volitional effort, the individual is able to achieve his goals, despite the presence of internal obstacles: fatigue, boredom, headache.
  5. Initiative. Thanks to this quality, a person is able to show mental activity, creativity and independence to achieve better performance results.
  6. Strategic. Allows a person to correctly set priorities not only in his personal life, but also in the business sphere.
  7. Determination. This strong-willed trait helps the individual to consciously set himself the necessary tasks and actively act to achieve them.
  8. Integrity. A strong-willed trait allows an individual in any field to be based on his own views, and not follow the lead of other people.

Qualities inherent in personality

Personality is the totality of a person’s qualities. Each personality has its own unique set of qualities, there are a lot of them, sometimes one contradicts the other. So, a good-natured person may have greed in his character. He treats people around him well, but never lends money or gives expensive gifts.

Distinctive personality traits are:

  1. Worldview. This is a whole system of views on the world, ideas about it, values ​​that can be realistic or illusory.

For example, a seven-year-old boy, Vasya, believes that all doctors are cruel and evil. He formed this opinion after Vasya suffered from a purulent sore throat. The doctor gave him injections for a whole week; a strong painful reaction was left in the boy’s memory for a long time.

But the worldview can change over time, so, having matured, Vasya will understand that he was mistaken about doctors in childhood.

  1. Character. Each person has a set of personal characteristics and qualities that determine his behavior. Character is closely related to emotionality, so excessive sensitivity can lead to touchiness, hot temper makes a person angry.
  2. Degree of responsibility . You can tell whether a person is serious or not by his actions. Individuals who are constantly late, fail to fulfill their obligations, promises, or refuse responsibilities are called irresponsible. A responsible person, on the contrary, strives to bring all matters to the end, keeps his word, and is responsible for his own actions. Such people are always respected and valued in society, they are entrusted with responsible tasks, and appointed to higher positions.
  3. Self-esteem. An individual can distinguish himself from the rest of society and evaluate his own activities, appearance, habits and other characteristics. Self-esteem is developed through the process of comparing yourself to others.

Self-esteem largely determines how society will accept a person and whether others will love him. You can notice how in the school class they tease narcissistic children who do not respect teachers and peers, considering themselves superior and much better than others. But guys with low self-esteem are also shunned; they often have few friends due to shyness and indecisiveness.

  1. Mental capacity . From birth, everyone has their own intellectual potential, that is, the ability to develop their minds. But a person can surpass his natural abilities thanks to perseverance, determination, and his work.


Example. Petya Ivanov has innate mathematical abilities. But he gets 4s and 3s because of laziness and unwillingness to do his homework. Sasha Sidorov is not good at mathematics, but he devotes a lot of time to extracurricular activities, and has already begun to earn his first A's.

If desired, a person can develop his memory, logical thinking, willpower and even physical abilities.

The qualities of a person’s personality are manifested and developed in the process of communication, interaction and work activity.


Temperament is a type of nervous system, an innate characteristic. This is a set of psychophysical properties of a person that determines the specifics of performing an activity. Rhythm, speed, intensity of reactions - all this depends on temperament. Let's take a closer look at the types of temperaments, and then their properties.

Types of temperament according to Hippocrates

Hippocrates was the first to talk about temperaments. He identified four personality types based on which fluid predominates in a person:

  1. Holi (bile). These are active and sometimes fussy people. They are characterized by sudden mood swings and sociability, turning into obsession.
  2. Phlegm (mucus). These are calm, reasonable, slow people.
  3. Melan holi (black bile). These are pessimists, in a state of decline and characterized by indecision.
  4. Sangwa (blood). These are active and persistent people who always achieve their goals. Born leaders.

Since then, many studies have been carried out, different classifications of temperaments have appeared, but this typology is still taken as a basis. True, no one talks about the predominance of liquids anymore, and the names have changed a little. The study of temperaments is conducted around the reactions of excitation and inhibition. And the main person in this theory is considered to be I.P. Pavlov.

Temperament in modern psychology

In modern psychology, the following classification of temperaments is used:

  1. Choleric. Strong, agile, unbalanced type. They say about these people: “Starts with half a kick.” True, the choleric person cools down just as quickly. Moreover, he not only cools down, but forgets the reason for the quarrel, the unpleasant fact itself. Therefore, it is difficult to resolve disagreements with choleric people. Cholerics have leadership qualities, but lack of restraint and emotionality prevent them from achieving a stable result in life.
  2. Sanguine. Agile, balanced, strong type. The processes of excitation and inhibition occur quickly, but this does not affect the mood as clearly as in a melancholic person. Sanguine people are more into humor. They can be called easy-going. They are distinguished by high adaptive abilities, flexibility, and sociability. These are positive and active people who know how to find an approach to every person and have leadership characteristics. A sanguine person does not tolerate boredom and monotony. It is characterized by high speed and strength in performing activities.
  3. Phlegmatic person. Strong, balanced, motionless type. The arousal reaction is weak. Phlegmatic people are distinguished by restraint and prudence, which sometimes turn into tediousness. These are the executive and most responsible workers, but living with a phlegmatic person is difficult. He is stingy with emotions, does not know how to empathize, is cautious and passive. Does not like surprises, experiments, novelty. His restraint, resistance to stress and composure are sometimes mistaken by others for indifference. Phlegmatic people do not like changes in activity.
  4. Melancholic. Weak, unbalanced, mobile type. Like a choleric person, his mood constantly fluctuates, but negative connotations predominate. This is a passive, insecure, vulnerable type. Gets tired quickly and does not adapt well to changes. At the same time, these are the most sincere and empathetic people with a rich and interesting inner world.

Individual and individuality

An individual is a separate representative of the human race by virtue of his birth. The qualities of an individual are manifested in his appearance: eye shape, leg size, hair color, and so on. An individual has innate inclinations and abilities, but will become an individual only in the process of social development.

The concept of individuality is different from the concept of individual. Individuality is the characteristics of an individual, its uniqueness, originality. It includes intellectual, spiritual qualities and physical characteristics. Individuality manifests itself when a person makes choices, makes independent decisions, or engages in any activity.

The concept of individuality is inextricably linked with personality. The relationship between the concepts of individuality and personality is manifested in the fact that a person who is an individual will necessarily demonstrate his individuality in interaction with society.

Individual character traits

Personality qualities - what is it in psychology, characteristics

Individual psychological traits that characterize personality are studied by differential psychology and criminology. The dynamic structure of human characteristics includes 4 main groups:

  • biological traits: inclinations, temperament, primary needs;
  • social properties of the individual: worldview, moral qualities, orientation;
  • individual abilities: talent, giftedness or genius;
  • experience: skills, abilities, habits and knowledge.

It must be taken into account that not all individual characteristics of an individual can become character traits.

Inclinations and abilities

Important! All character traits relate to personality traits. This fact occupies a special place in criminological practice.

Thanks to individual psychological traits, a person is able to achieve success and improve in activities.

How and in what environment personality is formed

Personality is formed in the process of interaction with other people: parents, family, friends, teachers, work colleagues and others. The process of personality formation is long and complex, impossible without socialization. Socialization is the individual’s acquisition of values, rules of behavior and norms accepted by society.

Socialization begins in early childhood, when parents teach their children by example and educate them. While reading a fairy tale, the mother explains to the baby which heroes are bad, what good and evil are, and what a good person should do. Gradually, the child develops basic standards of morality, ethics, the concept of what is good and what is bad.


Socialization continues with entry into school. There, the child is influenced by teachers, classmates, and school administration. Gradually, a person’s social circle expands, he establishes contact with a large number of people. Socialization continues throughout life, that is, personality formation is a continuous process.

This means that personality changes over time, character or individual qualities change, and new physical and intellectual characteristics appear. Thanks to the knowledge of personality characteristics at each age, an entire science was created - Developmental Psychology. This does not mean that at a certain age people become the same, but they exhibit common features and qualities characteristic of a given age.

Example. It can be noted that adolescents in adolescence exhibit common character traits: hot temper, stubbornness, and susceptibility to the influence of peers. Old people exhibit other characteristics: slowness, constant worry about their well-being.

The influence of society on personality

Personality and social environment are inextricably linked. Its future depends on the environment in which a personality is formed. Seeing bad examples and irresponsible behavior in front of him, the child perceives this as a model. After some time, he may begin to behave the same way as his friends and people close to him. He may start drinking, smoking, stealing, without knowing that such behavior is the result of formed views on the world, the bad influence of his immediate environment.

Sometimes a person can fall under the bad influence of the social environment despite his desire. A schoolboy begins to smoke, fearing the ridicule of his classmates, who have long been addicted to cigarettes. A teenager decides to steal because of his friends’ obsessive persuasion to get easy money. An employee deceives his superiors after much persuasion from his colleague.

The positive influence of the environment on personality development is also manifested. Seeing before him examples of successful, happy and respected people, the child strives to imitate them and copy their behavior. Therefore, at school a lot of time is devoted to studying the biographies of national heroes, patriots, and outstanding personalities. A good example becomes an inspiration for work, creative activity, and activity in society.


Different structures of society have varying degrees of influence on the individual.

  1. Parents and close relatives have the greatest influence when raising a child from infancy.
  2. Second in terms of influence are school teachers.
  3. They are followed by friends, acquaintances, colleagues.
  4. The media play an important role (mass media: Internet, television, print media).

In addition, the individual is influenced by the socio-cultural environment characteristic of the state and the area in which he lives. So in Russia, the USA, India, Israel - the conditions for the formation of a personality are significantly different. Thanks to this, individual peoples and the population of different countries have their own distinctive character traits and individual characteristics.

The impact of the individual on society

The role of the individual in the development of society is also high. Let's look at an example of how a person influences society:

  1. A.V. Suvorov is a famous Russian commander, enjoyed great respect among the soldiers. He managed to win many battles in which the enemy army was several times larger than the Russian one. The soldiers loved and respected Suvorov so much that they went into any battle without fear, under his leadership. Thus, thanks to the personal qualities of a military leader, Russia won victories in many wars.
  2. The famous inventor Henry Ford created an assembly line production of cars, thanks to which the car became an affordable means of transportation for many Americans.
  3. Nicolaus Copernicus was the first to reject the idea that the Earth is stationary, suggesting that it rotates around the Sun and on its own axis. His works subsequently led to many different discoveries.

Thus, the influence of the individual on society and society on the individual are interconnected.

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