Types of conflicts in psychology and ways to resolve them

Each person has an understanding of conflicts from his own experience. This inevitable life phenomenon arises due to misunderstanding and rejection of other people’s ideas between people and even states. Conflictology is a branch of science that studies and generalizes knowledge about conflict clashes and ways to resolve them, and examines in detail various types of conflicts.


What is conflict?

The term “conflict” comes from the Latin word “conflictus”, meaning “conflicted”. Usually, when talking about conflict, they talk about the most acute way to resolve contradictions in views, goals, interests that arise during the interaction of people with each other. As a process, conflict consists of the participants in this social interaction opposing each other, and is accompanied by negative emotions, which often go beyond generally accepted norms and standards. In psychological science, conflict is understood as a lack of agreement between several parties (this can be individuals or groups of people). The science that studies conflicts is called conflictology.

When the conflict is considered intractable and unmanageable

A conflict is considered intractable when:

  • participants perceive it as a struggle;
  • participants consider the interests of the parties to be mutually exclusive;
  • the participants initially have different values ​​or interpretations of the conflict, which is what causes disagreements;
  • The parties are social institutions (for example, family and school).

A conflict is considered unmanageable when:

  • the parties are determined to maintain the conflict;
  • constructive interaction is impossible due to the emotional intensity or characteristics of the participants;
  • the conflict that has arisen is part of the subjects’ broad rejection of each other.

Attitude to the concept of “conflict”

In the vast majority of cases, it is believed that conflict is an exclusively negative phenomenon, causing misunderstanding, resentment, hostility or threats, in other words, something that should be avoided at all costs. Also, representatives of earlier schools of management argued that conflict is a sign of poor management of an organization and an indicator of its inefficiency. But, contrary to this, many modern management specialists are increasingly inclined to believe that some types of conflicts not only can occur, but are also desirable even in the most effective organizations, where employee relationships are worthy of the best assessments. The only thing that is necessary here is to learn how to manage conflict.

Conflict, like any social phenomenon, has not only its own definition, but also its own characteristics. And this issue is no less important and is subject to separate consideration.


This is a less constructive style of behavior in conflict. Compromise nevertheless occurs, especially when it is necessary to quickly relieve accumulated tension and resolve a dispute. The model resembles “collaboration”, but is carried out at a superficial level. Each side is inferior to the other in some way. Therefore, as a result of a compromise, the interests of opponents are partially satisfied. Reaching a common solution requires effective communication skills.

In what cases is compromise effective?

  • When the interests of both parties cannot be fulfilled at the same time. For example, opponents are applying for one position.
  • If it is more important to win something than to lose everything.
  • The interlocutors have equal power and present equally convincing arguments. Then cooperation gives way to compromise.
  • A temporary solution is needed because there is no time to find another one.

Signs of conflict

The first sign of conflict is BIPOLARITY

Bipolarity, also called opposition, is both opposition and interconnectedness, which contains the internal potential of the existing contradiction. However, bipolarity itself does not mean struggle or clash.

The second sign of conflict is ACTIVITY

Activity here is understood as opposition and struggle. For activity to arise, an impulse is required, which is set on the part of the participant (subject) of the conflict by awareness of the conflict situation itself.

The third sign of conflict – SUBJECTS OF CONFLICT

The subject of the conflict is an active party capable of creating conflict situations, as well as influencing the process of the conflict, which, in turn, depends on his interests. Traditionally, subjects of conflict are distinguished by a unique type of thinking, called conflict. Contradiction can be a source of conflict situations only for those people who have a conflict mindset.

Next, we will look at the classification of conflicts and talk about what their types and forms exist.

Situational approach

This approach is focused on external factors, the situation that determines the emergence and specifics of the conflict. Thus, in the research of the Turkish psychologist Muzafer Sherif, it was found that the hostility of one group towards another is significantly reduced if, instead of competitive conditions, they are provided with cooperative conditions (the need to perform joint activities in which the result depends on the common efforts of all participants). Thus, Sherif concludes that the factors of the situation in which groups interact are decisive in determining the cooperative or competitive nature of intergroup interaction.

Classification of conflicts by impact on the activities of a group or organization

In terms of their impact on the activities of a group or organization, conflicts can be constructive or destructive.

Constructive (functional) conflicts are conflicts that lead to the adoption of informed decisions and contribute to the development of relations between the subjects of the conflict. As a rule, the following several functional consequences of conflicts are identified:

  • The conflict is resolved in a way that suits all parties to the conflict; each party feels involved in resolving the problem;
  • A decision made jointly is implemented as quickly and easily as possible;
  • The parties involved in the conflict master the skill of effective cooperation when resolving problematic issues;
  • If a conflict has arisen between subordinates and managers, then the practice of conflict resolution makes it possible to destroy the “submissive syndrome”, when a person occupying a lower position has a fear of expressing his point of view if it differs from that of people with a higher status;
  • Relationships between people become better;
  • Participants in the conflict no longer view disagreements as something negative and leading to negative consequences.

EXAMPLE: An excellent example of constructive conflict is a common work situation: a manager and a subordinate cannot come to an agreement on any issue regarding their joint activities. After a conversation and each participant expressing their opinion, a compromise is found, and the manager and subordinate find a common language, and their relationship acquires a positive tone.

Destructive (dysfunctional) conflicts are conflicts that impede the making of competent decisions and effective interaction between the subjects of the conflict. The dysfunctional consequences of conflicts are the following:

  • Competitive, adversarial relationships between people;
  • Lack of desire for positive relationships and cooperation;
  • Perception of the opponent as an enemy, his position - exclusively as incorrect, and one’s own - exclusively as correct;
  • The desire to reduce and even completely stop any interaction with the opponent’s side;
  • The belief that winning a conflict is more important than finding a common solution;
  • Bad mood, negative emotions, feeling of dissatisfaction.

EXAMPLE: Examples of unconstructive conflict include war, any manifestations of physical violence, family quarrels, etc.

Reasons and functions

Methods for resolving conflicts - what options exist, ways to prevent them

The cause of an aggravation of a conflict situation can be anything that affects the interests of an individual or group or limits activities.

Main causes of conflicts:

  • a distorted idea of ​​oneself, the current situation, other subjects;
  • different characters and temperaments;
  • discrimination on various grounds;
  • a battle for place or benefits when they are limited.

The functions determine the dynamics of the conflict and its impact on the external environment and psychological climate. There are constructive and destructive conflicts.

Constructive performs the following functions:

  • defusing a tense situation;
  • informational and connecting (the emergence of new information about subjects);
  • team building;
  • prioritization;
  • stimulation for further development;
  • open expression of thoughts;
  • relationship diagnostics.

Destructive performs negative functions:

  • decreased performance;
  • deterioration of relationships;
  • emotional burnout;
  • underestimating the importance of the opponent;
  • emotional craving for further struggle.

Classification of conflicts by content

In terms of content, conflicts can be realistic or unrealistic.

Realistic conflicts are conflicts that are caused by the dissatisfaction of specific demands of the participants or the unfair, according to the opinion of one of the parties, distribution of certain advantages between the participants. As a rule, such conflicts are aimed at achieving a specific result.

EXAMPLE: conflicts with the authorities of former Nord-Ost hostages and relatives of the victims due to the state’s failure to comply with certain requirements.

Unrealistic conflicts are conflicts whose purpose is the specific expression of negative emotions, hostility or grievances, in other words, the conflict is the main goal.

EXAMPLE: murder by one person of another because the first believes that the second is to blame for his problems and troubles; terrorist acts without expressing specific demands.

Basic Concepts

A conflict is a contradiction between two subjects.

The subject is a participant in the conflict.

The object is the problem itself that caused the conflict. The object has the following characteristics:

  • relativity (becomes an object of conflict only in someone’s eyes, for example, power can become an object of conflict);
  • connection with the historical moment;
  • limitation (not everyone will get it, not everyone will have enough).

Most often, resources, statuses and spiritual values ​​become objects.

An object is a specific material expression of an object. So, for example, the object can be status, and the subject can be a promotion or increase.

Classification of conflicts by the nature of the participants

According to the nature of the participants, conflicts are divided into intrapersonal, interpersonal, conflicts between the individual and the group, and intergroup conflicts.

Intrapersonal conflict - occurs when there is no harmony between various factors of a psychological nature in a person’s inner world, for example, his feelings, values, motives, needs, etc. For example, intrapersonal conflict associated with human activity can be expressed in various forms. But in most cases, this is a form of role conflict - when a person's different roles require him to fulfill different requirements.

EXAMPLE: A person who is an exemplary family man needs to be at home in the evenings, but his position as a manager obliges him to often stay late at work in the evenings. The intrapersonal conflict here is caused by a mismatch between personal needs and the requirements of his activities.

Interpersonal conflict is the most common type of conflict. It may appear differently in different situations. But the reasons for such a conflict can be not only differences in people’s behavior, their manners, views, opinions or characters, which are subjective reasons, but also objective reasons, and they are the basis of interpersonal conflicts most often.

EXAMPLE: One of the most common causes of interpersonal conflicts is the limitation of any resources, such as labor, production space, equipment, money and all kinds of vital goods. For example, one person believes that he, and not someone else, needs resources most of all, while this other person thinks the same way.

Conflict between an individual and a group - the presented conflict appears in cases where one of the members of a group or organization violates the norms of behavior established in it or the laws of communication adopted in informal groups.

EXAMPLE: The conflict between an individual and a group is clearly illustrated by the example of a conflict between subordinates and a leader who adheres to an authoritarian leadership style; Also, similar conflicts can be observed in youth parties, where one of the members of the party suddenly behaved not according to the laws of the “pack.”

Intergroup conflict is a conflict that arises between formal and/or informal groups that are part of a society or organization. It is interesting that during periods of intergroup conflict, people can unite into various close-knit communities. However, this cohesion often disappears immediately after the desired result is achieved.

EXAMPLE: An intergroup conflict may arise between employees of any division of an organization and its administration, for example, due to a sudden reduction in staff; A similar situation is often observed between opposition political parties or religious denominations.

Cognitive approach

In this case, the emphasis is on the dominant role of the cognitive (mental) attitudes of the conflict participants relative to each other. Thus, in a situation of intergroup conflicts, the hostility of one group towards another is not necessarily due to an objective conflict of interests (as was stated in the realistic theory of conflicts within the framework of the situational approach). Accordingly, it is not the cooperative/competitive nature of the situation that becomes the decisive factor in interpersonal and intergroup interaction, but the group attitudes that arise in the process. The common goals themselves lead to the resolution of conflicts between opponents - it depends on the formation of social attitudes that unite groups and help overcome their confrontation.

Tajfel and Turner developed social identity theory, which argues that conflict between groups is not necessarily a consequence of social injustice (contrary to the motivational approach). When faced with this injustice, individuals have the opportunity to independently choose one or another way to overcome it.

Classification of conflicts according to the specifics of the opposing parties and the conditions for the development of the conflict

According to the specifics of the opposing sides and the conditions of development, conflicts can be internal, external and antagonistic.

Internal conflicts are characterized by the interaction of two or more opposing entities within a community or group of people.

EXAMPLE: An excellent example of internal conflict is intra-class struggle, for example the struggle for leadership.

External conflicts - represent the interaction of opposites that relate to different objects (groups, classes, etc.).

EXAMPLE: An example of an external conflict is the confrontation between man and natural elements or the struggle of the body with the external environment.

Antagonistic conflicts are one of the most acute conflicts, because are interactions between social groups that are irreconcilably opposed to each other. What is unique is that the very concept of “antagonism” is very common in medicine and biology - antagonism of teeth, muscles, microbes, drugs, poisons, etc. can occur. In addition, in mathematical science, antagonism is considered as an opposition of interests. In its pure form, antagonism is presented in social processes.

EXAMPLE: A striking example of an antagonistic conflict is war, market competition, revolution, sports competition, etc.

In addition to all of the above, a correct understanding and interpretation of conflicts, as well as their functions, features, essence and consequences, is impossible without typology, i.e. without identifying the basic types of conflicts based on identifying their similarities and differences and ways of identifying them with the commonality of the main differences and characteristics.

To make it possible to choose an adequate method of influencing and managing a conflict (which you will learn about in our next lessons), it is necessary to classify conflicts according to their main characteristics: methods of resolution, areas of manifestation, direction of influence, degree of expression, number of participants and violated needs.

It is on the basis of typology that both types and varieties of conflicts are determined. The type of conflict as a variation of conflict interaction is distinguished according to certain characteristics.

Motivational approach

From the point of view of this approach, the hostility of a certain individual or group is primarily a reflection of its internal problems. So, for example, from Freud’s position, autogroup hostility is an inevitable condition of any intergroup interaction, having a universal character. The main function of this hostility is a means of maintaining internal stability and cohesion of the group. Political conflicts occupy a special place in this case. Examples can be found in the history of the formation of the fascist movement in Germany and Italy (the idea of ​​racial superiority), as well as in the history of the fight against “enemies of the people” during the period of Stalinist repressions. Freud associated the mechanism of formation of auto-group hostility towards “strangers” with the Oedipus complex, the instinct of aggression, as well as with emotional identification with the leader of the group - “father”, etc. From a moral point of view, such facts cannot be considered as a constructive conflict. Examples of racial discrimination and mass terror, however, clearly demonstrate the possibility of uniting members of one group in the process of confrontation with others.

In the theoretical concept of aggressiveness by American psychologist Leonard Berkowitz, relative deprivation is one of the key factors in intergroup conflicts. That is, one of the groups assesses its position in society as more disadvantaged compared to the position of other groups. At the same time, deprivation is relative in nature, since the disadvantaged position in reality may not correspond to reality.

Types of conflicts by resolution method

According to the method of resolution, conflicts are divided into violent and non-violent.

Violent (antagonistic) conflicts are methods of resolving contradictions in which the structures of all subjects of the conflict are destroyed or all subjects, except one, refuse to participate in the conflict. In the end, the subject who remains wins.

EXAMPLE: An excellent example of violent conflict is government elections, tough discussions, debates, etc.

Non-violent (compromise conflicts) are conflicts that allow several options for resolving the situation through mutual changes in the goals of the subjects of the conflict, conditions of interaction, deadlines, etc.

EXAMPLE: As an example of a compromise conflict, the following situation can be mentioned: a supplier who has undertaken to supply raw materials for production does not fulfill his obligations on time. In this case, the manufacturer has the right to demand that the supplier comply with the agreed schedule, however, the delivery dates may have changed for some compelling reason. The mutual interest of both parties allows them to negotiate, change the original schedule and find a compromise solution.

The next classification that we will consider is determined by the areas of manifestation of conflicts. Spheres, in turn, can be very diverse - this includes politics, people’s beliefs, social relations, economics and much more. Let's talk about the most common of them.

Types of conflicts by area of ​​manifestation

Political conflicts are clashes based on the struggle for power and the distribution of power.

EXAMPLE: An example of a political conflict would be a confrontation between two or more political parties.

Social conflict is a contradiction in the system of human relationships. These contradictions are characterized by the strengthening of the interests of opposing subjects, as well as the tendencies of individuals and social groups. Social conflicts include both purely social and social-labor and labor conflicts.

EXAMPLE: Examples of social conflicts are pickets, strikes, rallies, wars.

Economic conflicts – this group of conflicts includes those conflicts based on contradictions in the sphere of economic interests of individuals and social groups.

EXAMPLE: An economic conflict can be called a struggle over the distribution of property, sphere of economic influence, social benefits or resources.

Organizational conflicts - they can be considered as a consequence of hierarchical relations and the regulation of human activity, as well as the use of the principle of distribution of relations between people.

EXAMPLE: A striking example of an organizational conflict is the use of job descriptions, assigning certain responsibilities and rights to an employee, the introduction of nominal management structures, the presence of certain provisions for the assessment and remuneration of employees, as well as their bonuses, etc.

Next, we should consider the types of conflicts in terms of the direction of impact and the severity of the conflict confrontation.

Other types of social disagreement

The above are the main types of conflicts. These are the most common life situations we encounter, the way out of which, whether we want it or not, we often find on our own and on the basis of this we build our personal experience and gain knowledge.

Types of social conflicts also imply another classification, according to spheres of human life, according to which contradictions are divided into the following groups:

  1. Political.
  2. Socio-economic.
  3. National-ethnic.
  4. Interstate.

Types of conflicts by direction of impact

Based on the direction of impact, conflicts are distinguished between vertical and horizontal. Their characteristic feature is the distribution of the amount of power that is at the disposal of the subjects of the conflict at the time of the emergence of a conflict situation.

Vertical conflicts are those in which the amount of available power decreases along the vertical axis from top to bottom, thereby determining different starting conditions for the subjects of the conflict.

EXAMPLE: A vertical conflict can be called a conflict between a boss and a subordinate, a teacher and a student, a small enterprise and a higher organization, etc.

Horizontal conflicts are conflicts in the process of which subjects of equal power or hierarchical level interact.

EXAMPLE: A horizontal conflict can be a conflict between managers holding equivalent positions, employees at the same level, consumers and suppliers, etc.

Types of conflicts according to the severity of conflict confrontation

Depending on the severity of conflict confrontation, conflicts can be hidden or open.

Hidden conflicts are conflicts in which there are no external aggressive actions between the subjects of the conflict, but indirect ones take place, i.e. indirect ways of influencing subjects on each other. Hidden conflicts are possible only when one of the subjects of conflict interaction is either afraid of the other or does not have enough resources for open confrontation.

EXAMPLE: An example of a hidden conflict can be an official scientific debate between teachers, behind which the real essence of the conflict is hidden - the struggle for an authoritative social status, for example, for some position at a university.

Open conflicts are distinguished by the fact that they involve a clear clash of conflicting subjects, i.e. disputes, quarrels, squabbles, etc. The interaction of the participants in the conflict is regulated in this case by norms that correspond to the position of the participants and the situation.

EXAMPLE: An example of an open conflict can be safely called a war, when two or more parties openly express their demands and use open methods to achieve their goals; a quarrel between people that arose for any reason and did not have ulterior motives, etc.

It is important to distinguish between conflicts based on violated needs.

Strategies for behavior in conflict situations

A strategy for behavior in conflict is necessary in order to determine the norms of behavior in the current situation.

Leading experts have developed a whole concept of human behavior in a conflict situation, the choice of the necessary behavior strategy, as well as methods for solving and managing it.

Let's consider the main types of strategies:

  • Rivalry – conflict is perceived in terms of victory or defeat. In order to win this competition, it is necessary to prove that you are right by all means, otherwise a rigid position of intransigence with someone else’s point of view arises.
  • Compromise is the search for a compromise between the parties to the conflict. This takes the form of discussion between the parties and analysis of differences to arrive at a satisfactory solution. This strategy is most suitable for resolving the conflict as quickly as possible.
  • Avoidance is the reluctance of conflict participants to take responsibility for making important decisions, not to see the conflict and deny its danger. There is a desire to get out of the situation as quietly as possible in order to refrain from disputes and claims from the opposing side.
  • Accommodation is an attempt to smooth over differences by neglecting one's own interests. This is expressed in full acceptance of all demands and claims of the opponent.

Types of conflicts depending on violated needs

Depending on the violated needs, conflicts of interest and cognitive conflicts are distinguished.

Conflicts of interest are confrontations based on the clash of interests of the subjects of the conflict, which can be individuals, groups of people, organizations, etc.

EXAMPLE: Examples of conflicts of interest can be found even in everyday life - two children cannot share the toy they like; a husband and wife, having one TV between them, want to watch different TV programs at the same time, etc.

Cognitive conflicts are conflicts of knowledge, points of view, views. As a rule, the goal of each subject of a cognitive conflict is to convince the opposite side that his position, opinion or point of view is correct.

EXAMPLE: Examples of cognitive conflict can also be found quite often - these are discussions of various problems, disputes, debates, disputes, during which participants express different points of view and provide all sorts of arguments to prove that they are right.

Summarizing the conversation about the types and types of conflicts, it should be noted that the distribution of conflicts by type is in fact very arbitrary due to the fact that there is no clearly defined boundary between them, and in practice, i.e. in real life, various complex types of conflicts can arise, some conflicts can transform into others, etc.

Conflict culture of personality

Regardless of whether there are international conflicts, examples of which most clearly demonstrate the destructive nature of the conflicting behavior of the parties; or we are talking about a minor quarrel between work colleagues, the optimal way out seems extremely significant. The ability of the opposing parties to find compromises in a complex disputed situation, to restrain their own destructive behavior, to see possible prospects for further cooperation with real opponents - all these factors are the key to a possible favorable outcome. At the same time, no matter how important the total role of state policy, economic and cultural-legal systems in society is, the origins of this trend are in certain specific individuals. Just like a river begins with small streams.

We are talking about a conflictological culture of personality. The corresponding concept includes the ability and desire of an individual to prevent and resolve social conflicts (Samsonova N.V.). In this case, it is advisable to recall the concept of “constructive conflict”. Examples of modern conflicts (given their aggravated and large-scale nature) demonstrate, rather, the absence of any constructiveness in conflict interaction. In this regard, the concept of conflictological culture of the individual should be considered not only and not so much as one of the conditions for the optimal resolution of controversial situations in society, but also as the most important factor in the socialization of the personality of every modern individual.

What else do you need to know about conflicts?

The history of humanity, its morality, culture, and intellect is an ongoing struggle of ideas, aspirations, competition of forces and interests, rivalry. Throughout his life, every person systematically faces conflicts of all kinds. When a person wants to achieve something, the goal may be difficult to achieve. When he experiences failure, he may blame the people around him for the fact that it was because of them that he could not get what he wanted. Those around him, in turn, no matter whether they are relatives, classmates, friends or work colleagues, may believe that he himself is to blame for his problems and failures. The form can be completely different, but almost always it can lead to misunderstanding, which can develop into discontent and even confrontation, thereby creating tension and causing a conflict situation.

Every person has life contradictions. It is common for people to be dissatisfied with something, to perceive something with hostility, and not to agree with everything. And all this is natural, because such is human nature. However, these and other similar internal properties can become harmful if a person is not able to resolve his own conflicts with the people around him; if he is unable to give it a constructive form; if he cannot adhere to adequate principles in his contradictions.

It is quite reasonable to conclude that conflicts are inevitable. But, in reality, everything is somewhat different. And not all conflict situations that arise from time to time between people end in conflict.

You should not treat conflict as something dangerous and negative if it is a stimulus for personal development, pushes a person to work on himself, strengthens him morally and psychologically, and promotes unity with other people. But you should try to avoid those conflicts that have destructive potential, destroy relationships, create a state of psychological discomfort, and increase a person’s isolation. It is precisely the poem that is very important to be able to recognize any prerequisites for conflicts and to be able to prevent the occurrence of unwanted conflict situations.

Being able to recognize and prevent conflicts means mastering the culture of communication, being able to control oneself, showing respect for the personality of other people, and using various methods of influencing them. Nothing can contribute as strongly to the elimination of various kinds of misunderstandings as competent, civilized communication, which includes knowledge of basic etiquette skills and the ability to master them, as well as the ability to establish and maintain effective contact, develop your own style of communication and interaction with others people.

If you find yourself in a difficult, contradictory situation, the most important thing is to control your behavior and behave socially competently. If a conflict situation is based on experiences and emotions, then the unpleasant sensations from it can remain for a very, very long time. For this reason, you need to learn to manage your emotional states, control your behavior and reactions. You should always be tuned to the stability and balance of your nervous system.

EXERCISE: One of the most effective methods of working with your psyche is to set yourself in a state of calm. It’s not at all difficult to implement: sit in a comfortable chair, relax, close your eyes and try not to think about anything for a while. Then clearly and slowly say to yourself a few phrases that will set you up for self-control, endurance, and a state of calm. Strive to feel a sense of balance take over you, you become more cheerful, feel a surge of strength and good mood; you feel great physically, mentally and psychologically. Regularly performing this exercise will allow you to become more resistant to emotional stress of any intensity.

Let us remind you that the presented lesson is more theoretical than practical, because Our task was to introduce you to what a conflict is in general and to present a classification of conflicts. From the following lessons of our training on conflict management, you can learn not only a lot of theoretical information, but also learn a lot of practical tips that you can immediately put into practice.

Possible opportunities and limitations

As I already said, conflicts can be both promoting and destructive, so first let’s look at what risks and resources a conflict situation brings:

+ Relieves the situation, especially if tension has accumulated for a long time. After which both parties will again be able to communicate and establish contact.

+ Gives new information about the opponent that was not previously known. This is how spouses usually learn something new about each other, especially things that they weren’t happy with and didn’t like at all lately, but one of the spouses tolerated.

+ Motivates to change, change and search for new ways of action if the old ones no longer work.

+ It is a diagnostic tool that shows the strengths and weaknesses of the enemy, his level of development and, in general, competitiveness when it comes to business relations.

+ Gives freedom when a person does not allow himself to be sincere and open, preferring to remain silent, avoid, hide and obey, feeling heaviness and constraint in movements and actions.

Enormous emotional, material and sometimes physical waste.

Destruction of relationships, dismissal, perception of another as an enemy...

Being carried away by the process of finding out and blaming is fraught with the fact that work, health, family suffer...

Difficult restoration of the work process if a “war” occurred between business partners, colleagues and superiors.

It is important to be able to notice the resources of each situation in which a quarrel arose; it is like a style of attitude towards life; if a person is able to notice opportunities, not limitations, he will develop and grow.

Test your knowledge

If you want to test your knowledge on the topic of this lesson, you can take a short test consisting of several questions. For each question, only 1 option can be correct. After you select one of the options, the system automatically moves on to the next question. The points you receive are affected by the correctness of your answers and the time spent on completion. Please note that the questions are different each time and the options are mixed.

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