Types and types of conflicts. Types of behavior in conflict.

Any conflict must go through the main stages: emergence, clash of views, actions, conflict resolution.

For example, a new person headed the management of a department. He sees the situation differently and evaluates the team’s work differently. At the same time, the team already has its own established rules and traditions. All this leads to irritation, hostility and unwillingness to comply with the demands of the new manager.

Conflict resolution is not an easy task, especially when each side insists on its own. Conflict management is also complicated by the fact that it tends to grow from local to universal. The hostility of two employees can divide the entire team into two camps. A tense, hostile atmosphere develops in the team. All this has a negative impact on work productivity and reduces productivity.


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When you are in a conflict situation, to more effectively solve the problem, look at it from the outside and consciously choose a strategy for your behavior. In this case, you should take into account your own mood, the behavior of others involved in the conflict, as well as the nature of the conflict itself (Diagram 3).

Avoidance (withdrawal)

- this is behavior in a conflict situation, which is expressed in self-elimination, ignoring or actual denial of the conflict. Forms of avoiding solving a problem can be different: You remain silent, “switching off” from the discussion of the issue, defiantly move away or leave offended with a complete refusal of further friendly and business relations with the “offending” party, making sarcastic remarks about your opponents behind “their back” , etc.

The reason for choosing this strategy may be:

- lack of confidence in yourself and your strengths, fear of losing;

— uncertainty of one’s own position on this conflict issue;

— the desire to gain additional time for serious preparation for participation in the conflict;

— lack of authority, finances, time;

- fear of losing something.

If you have chosen care as your behavioral tactics, then you can save time and “nerve cells,” but in the future you will be eliminated from influencing the course of events. The conflict will either be resolved without taking into account your interests, or it will not be resolved and will grow and deepen.

Care, however, can be useful in a situation that does not directly affect your interests, or when your involvement in resolving a conflict situation does not affect its development. It is likely that if you try to ignore the conflict: not show your attitude towards it, change the subject, leave the room, or do anything that will delay the showdown, then the problem may ultimately resolve itself. If not, then you can deal with this problem later, when you are ready for it.

Device -

this is behavior manifested in changing one’s actions and attitudes under real 38

or imaginary pressure from the opposite side, sometimes to the detriment of one’s own interests.

It looks like this: You give in, meet other people’s desires and interests halfway, You pretend that everything is fine, even if something really hurts you. You prefer to put up with what is happening so as not to spoil the relationship: first you silently agree, and then you harbor a grudge or a plan for revenge, or you try to find workarounds to achieve your goal.

An adaptation strategy is used if:

— the conflict situation does not affect vital goals;

— maintaining relationships is more significant than defending one’s interests;

- the result is much more important for the other person;

- realize that the opponent may be right;

- there are more important interests at the moment;

- The other has more power;

- believe that the other person can learn a useful lesson from this situation;

- can achieve the goal in a roundabout way;

- affects brute force or authority. Adaptation, smoothing out conflict can

be a smart tactic if arguing over non-existent differences could ruin the relationship. There are cases when conflicts are resolved by themselves during the normalization of friendly relations. However, in the event of a serious conflict, the adaptation strategy interferes with the resolution of the controversial issue, since it does not change the situation and does not give your partner the opportunity to find out the real reason for your dissatisfaction (irritation). If you constantly give in, after some time negative emotions from dissatisfaction with your own interests will accumulate and overflow.

I've run out of patience. There will be a big “explosion of righteous anger” over a minor issue, which will turn out to be the “last straw” for you. From the outside, the reaction will seem inadequate, and you are unlikely to receive support and understanding.

This tactic is best used when you feel that by giving in a little, you will lose little. If you believe that you are giving in on something important to yourself and feel dissatisfied due to this, then accommodation is unacceptable. It is also not suitable if you see that the other person may not appreciate what you have done and is not going to give up something in turn.

Accommodation tactics are a bit like withdrawal (conflict avoidance) in that they can be used to delay resolution of a problem. The main difference is that you act together with the other person, participate in the situation and agree to do what the other wants. If you choose an avoidance strategy, you do nothing to satisfy the interests of the other person. You simply push the problem away from yourself, walk away from it.

Rivalry -

one of the strategies of behavior in a conflict situation, characterized by the achievement of individual or group goals in conditions of confrontation with partners. Rivalry (or competition), as a rule, is characterized by your strong involvement in the struggle, the activation of all your potential capabilities while completely ignoring the interests of your opponent. The basic principle of this strategy is: “For me to win, you must lose!”, “We will not stand behind the price!”

In behavior, rivalry is manifested by the fact that you (or your colleague, boss, patient, etc.) strive at all costs to prove that you are right, resort to pressure on your opponent (try to overcome him).

convince, argue, use authority, power, economic or emotional leverage), demand unconditional consent and obedience, call for help from allies who strengthen your position.

Very often, people see only one solution to a conflict situation: the partner must give up his position and accept their point of view, admitting that he is wrong or even guilty. If for a person this seems to be the only acceptable way out of the situation, then he will stubbornly defend his position, impose his point of view on his partner, and deny his arguments. In essence, he is not looking for a solution to the problem; for him there is already only one possible solution - his own. At a dental appointment, this is justified by the fact that the patient does not have sufficient knowledge to discuss the choice of treatment measures with the doctor on an equal basis. In some situations, the point may be that the patient causes an emotional protest and a desire to disagree because of the poorly chosen tone in this situation, a harsh, inappropriate joke or negative experience of past relationships.

But the patient may also choose competitive tactics.

Sometimes a person believes that he is absolutely right, and does not understand why others do not see this. Sometimes the habit of always gaining the upper hand in an argument, dominating, the desire to be first prevents him from listening to the doctor’s arguments.

Thus, the reasons for a person’s choice of this tactic of behavior in a conflict situation may be the following:

— the need to protect one’s interests: professional, family, image, etc.;

- desire to establish priority, desire for leadership;

— distrust of people in general, including opponents, attributing negative motivation to the partner’s actions;

- egocentrism, inability to look at the problem objectively;

— a critical situation that requires an immediate solution.

The competitive strategy is justified if you take control in order to save a person’s life or protect people from violence or reckless behavior. This can be effective when you have some power, you know that your decision in a given situation is the most correct, and you have the opportunity to insist on it. Especially if the time for making a decision is limited, and irreparable events may occur during a long discussion. When you take all the power into your own hands, ignoring other opinions, your authority may fall somewhat, but you will gain supporters if you quickly get a positive result.

However, this strategy rarely brings long-term results - the yielding party may not support a decision made against its will, sabotage its implementation, secretly or openly “put a spoke in the wheel” (any oppression causes protest). A patient whose opinion the doctor does not listen to will find another doctor. A company that unduly exploits its workers may suffer from a strike or the departure of its best specialists. A marriage in which one party suppresses the other usually ends in complete failure. Parents who demand complete obedience from their children are often faced with deception.

Compromise -

This is the resolution of a conflict situation through mutual concessions. Each party reasonably reduces the level of its claims. The form of compromise can be different: You and your partner

you give in to each other for the sake of maintaining friendly relations, or your strengths turn out to be equal, and there is nothing left but the decision to divide the desired item (or unwanted responsibilities) equally. At the same time, both of you are looking for a fair outcome to the conflict situation from the very beginning.

The reasons for choosing a compromise solution are usually:

- desire for at least partial gain;

— recognition of the values ​​and interests of other people;

- desire to be objective;

- when negotiations have reached a dead end and compromise is the only way out.

Choosing a compromise can be useful in situations where both parties have equal power and have mutually exclusive interests. Compromise is sometimes the last opportunity to come to any decision that would allow you to maintain the relationship and gain at least some benefit for yourself. You can choose this tactic from the very beginning, especially if you want to reach an agreement quickly.

However, compromise requires certain negotiation skills to ensure that everyone involved achieves something. An equal division is often a fair solution: since we cannot increase the size of the thing being divided (a bonus, a computer or space), equal use of existing benefits is already an achievement.

If a compromise was reached without a thorough analysis of other possible solutions or on unequal terms, then it will not be the most optimal outcome of the negotiations. Neither side will be happy with the decision.

Cooperation -

This is a tactic of behavior in which the first place is not the decision of a specific

conflict situation, but to satisfy the interests of all its participants. Collaboration under the motto: “I want everyone to win!” means finding ways to involve all stakeholders in the conflict resolution process and striving for benefits for everyone together and each individual.

This tactic requires more work than other approaches to conflict. You need to spend some time looking for the hidden interests and needs of the parties, listen to each other and then develop various possible solutions to the problem.

The cooperation strategy will be most effective if:

— solving the problem is very important for both parties and no one wants to completely distance themselves from it;

— there is time to work on the problem that has arisen;

— the parties are able to state the essence of their interests and listen to each other;

— the parties to the conflict have equal power or want to ignore the difference in position in order to seek a solution to the problem on equal terms.

The goal of cooperation is to develop a long-term mutually beneficial solution.

Conflictologists believe that with avoidance (withdrawal) neither party achieves success, with competition, adaptation, compromise - either one wins, the other loses, or both lose, and only in a situation of cooperation do both parties win.

Cooperation between doctor and patient is facilitated by the requirements of informed consent of the patient for medical intervention included in medicine. The concept of informed consent was born in the struggle

with paternalism in the relationship between doctor and patient, when it was believed that the doctor is an all-knowing, wise, strict father, and the patient is a foolish child who must unquestioningly obey the opinion of his elders. The change in concept is associated with two global processes: the development of general human rights, when, with the growth of the educational and cultural level of the population, each person as an individual realizes his uniqueness and value, and the spread of market relations to the field of medical care, when the doctor becomes the position of a person selling a medical service , and the patient is the person buying it.

In this case, the parties to the bargaining are legally equal. Under these conditions, the doctor must prove to himself that the choice made for the patient is the best available and be able to convince the patient and convey his logic to him. Moreover, do this in such a form that the latter understands and believes that the doctor’s intention is to cure or help not get sick, and not just to extract money. He must understand that both he and the doctor are at risk. The doctor - with his reputation and professional responsibility, the patient - with his health, and sometimes his life.

There is another argument against paternalism. In recent years, a lot of information has appeared that a paternalistic attitude towards the patient reduces the effect of treatment measures, that openness and cooperation between the doctor and the patient in making treatment decisions increases the chances of patients to survive even with the most terrible diagnoses, including cancer.

The rules for informing the patient provide for the provision of information on 3 main issues: explanation of the diagnosis; informing about the treatment plan; informing about the typical risks associated with treatment and its possible impact on the patient’s quality of life in the future. This helps the patient to consciously take part in the process of his own

proper recovery, and the doctor can insure himself against unexpected and unfounded claims.


It is much easier to prevent conflicts than to resolve them constructively. Therefore, conflict prevention is no less important. The most effective form of conflict prevention is the timely elimination of their causes. Conflict prevention activities are very diverse and multi-level. It can be carried out by the participants in social interaction themselves (i.e. medical personnel who directly communicate with patients), by the heads of the clinic or department, or by specialists with specific professional training in the field of conflicts.

At the managerial level, prevention is:

— Clear formulation of requirements, rules, criteria for assessing behavior.

— An unambiguous hierarchical structure and the use of coordinating management mechanisms.

— A balanced system of incentives, excluding clashes between different departments and employees, fair and transparent distribution of material benefits; and

Determination of main goals, formation of common values,

which would unite all clinic workers. This can be any motto that expresses the main task of the entire team: we have the latest technologies, the main thing is the patient’s happy smile, we are one big family, etc. (For example, the world-famous McDonald's fast food chain has chosen as its unifying goal “We will feed the whole world quickly and inexpensively”).

Creating favorable conditions for the life of clinic workers:

material security, working conditions, opportunity for self-realization of employees in professional activities, health care, availability of time for proper rest, etc. A person who is unsure of the future, unfulfilled, not respected by management and colleagues, always persecuted or often ill, is more likely to have conflicts, all other things being equal, than someone who does not have these problems.

Creating a calming material environment,

environment around a person: convenient layout of work spaces (offices, waiting rooms for patients, rest rooms for medical staff), optimal characteristics of the air environment, lighting, design in soothing colors.

It is necessary to analyze typical problem situations and conflicts in situations of professional interaction and develop legal and other regulatory procedures

resolving typical conflict situations.

At the level of interpersonal relationships, the most reliable way to prevent conflicts is to establish and strengthen cooperation. The inability or unwillingness to understand, convince, train the patient, the predominant use of manipulative technologies in communication with the patient, ignoring his attitude to what is happening and his active participation in the process of treatment and maintaining his health leads to the syndrome of “learned helplessness”, which negatively affects the patient’s health. (both physical and mental). If a person’s actions do not influence the course of events in any way and do not lead to the desired results, then his expectation of uncontrollable outcomes increases. For example, “learned helplessness” forms

occurs among the elderly, when caregivers do not so much help sick people cope with their needs as act independently of them. Conversely, the effectiveness of treatment increases if the patient interacts with the doctor, participates in the choice of treatment and, therefore, takes part of the responsibility for his recovery.

Interaction with a patient is impossible without trusting, full-fledged communication, a partnership position, and respect for the personality of the other.

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Is it possible to avoid conflict?

It is not always possible to control your behavior in a serious conflict; this skill needs to be learned. Among those arguing, there must be at least 1 person who will try to avoid conflict. How to do it:

  • Do not rush. Before expressing your opinion, you need to ask yourself questions: “Why are we arguing? Do I need this? What will I lose if I give in?”;
  • Answer slowly and briefly. The faster a person speaks, the more likely he is to say too much. Measured speech will calm the opponent, after which you can try to find a compromise;
  • Do not provoke with unnecessary phrases or inappropriate jokes. There is no need to touch a person if he is not in a good mood. It is better to set aside time after the lunch break to communicate with colleagues; communication can be tense in the first half of the day;
  • To avoid conflict at work, you need to monitor your correspondence. Modern people often use messengers and social networks. You cannot write unnecessary things, show emotions, they can later be used by provocateurs;
  • Limit communication with the provocateur. If a person provokes conflicts, you need to reduce communication with him to a minimum, do not cross paths after work or study, and do not be in public places in the same company.

A girl calms two people down

What strategy to use in a conflict is a personal decision for everyone. Depending on his position in society, point of view and ultimate goal, the person himself chooses the path of competition or seeks a compromise. If possible, it is better to avoid conflict situations, especially if they arise between close people.

Literature on the topic

In parting, I advise you to read Dale Carnegie’s book “How to Find a Way Out of Any Conflict Situation.” The work describes the phenomenon of conflict as a path of self-development, and provides practical recommendations for changing oneself and overcoming conflicts, including those involving difficult people.

I also advise you to read articles on the topic of conflicts: “Types of conflicts in psychology”, “Mechanisms of psychological defense”. May there be no conflicting or difficult people in your life!

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