Models of behavior in conflict depending on the status of the parties and the situation


Model, Behavior, Individual, Personality, Quality, Conflict, Attitude, Social In the literature, there are three main models of individual behavior in a conflict situation: constructive, destructive and conformist. Basic models of personality behavior in conflict:

Constructive. Seeks to resolve the conflict; Aimed at finding an acceptable solution; distinguished by endurance and self-control, a friendly attitude towards the opponent; open and sincere, laconic and taciturn in communication.

Destructive. Constantly strives to expand and aggravate the conflict; constantly belittles the partner, negatively evaluates his personality; shows suspicion and distrust of the opponent, violates the ethics of communication.

Conformist. Passive, prone to concessions; inconsistent in assessments, judgments, behavior; easily agrees with the opponent’s point of view; avoids pressing issues.

Each of these models is determined by the subject of the conflict, the image of the conflict situation, the value of interpersonal relationships and the individual psychological characteristics of the subjects of conflict interaction. Patterns of behavior reflect the attitudes of the participants in the conflict regarding its dynamics and method of resolution.

Giving a general assessment of the above behavior models, we note that the desirable and necessary model is constructive. A destructive model of behavior cannot be justified. It can turn a constructive conflict into a destructive one. The danger of a conformist model of behavior is that it contributes to the aggressiveness of the opponent, and sometimes even provokes it. In other words, this model is essentially destructive, only with the opposite sign. But the conformist model can also play a positive role. If the contradictions that caused the conflict are insignificant, then conformist behavior leads to a quick resolution of such a conflict.

Patterns of personality behavior in conflict

Analysis of conflicts and methods of their resolution allowed conflict scientists to identify and describe the most typical models of behavior of subjects within the framework of a conflict.
Thus, in the professional literature there are three main models of individual behavior in conflict:

  • constructive,
  • destructive,
  • conformist.

Each of these models is predetermined by the subject of the conflict, the general characteristics of the conflict situation, the values ​​of the subjects, as well as the individual psychological characteristics of each of them. Behavior patterns also reflect the dynamics of the conflict and possible ways to resolve it.

Note 1

Determining the model is a desirable and necessary step in cases where there is a need to resolve a dispute.

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Thus, the following main models of individual behavior in conflict are distinguished:

  • Constructive. The subject strives to resolve the conflict and is aimed at finding an optimal solution. In addition, he is characterized by restraint, self-control, a friendly attitude towards his opponent, openness, a positive attitude, and conciseness in communication. Tries to highlight only the most important thoughts.
  • Destructive. Within the framework of this model of behavior, the person constantly strives to expand and aggravate the conflict, to belittle the partner, negatively evaluates his personality, and shows both suspicion and distrust of the opponent. Communication ethics are often violated.
  • Conformist. The subject is passive, prone to concessions, inconsistent in his judgments, as well as in his behavior. He easily agrees with the point of view of his opponent and tries to avoid resolving sensitive issues.

The danger of the latter model is that it not only promotes aggression on the part of the opponent, but also periodically provokes it. This strategy is also destructive, but only with the opposite sign. The conformist model can play a positive role in resolving a conflict when the subject of the conflict is not significant. In this case, this model will allow you to quickly resolve the conflict that has arisen.

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Personality as a subject and object of social relations

Life shows that no matter how different and incomprehensible people are to each other, they will

together, if the subject of their attention is the joy of their neighbor and their own ability to rejoice in him. A

therefore, every person should strive for plasticity, flexibility in relationships, to be easy on

transitions from dominance to dependence, from openness to greater autonomy, etc. The easier it will be

these transitions, the less often a person pays attention to them, the less mutual resentment, irritation,

discontent, conflicts. The desire to better understand your loved ones, friends, colleagues, to see in a new way

3 pages, 1113 words

Psychogenetics of human behavior. Behavior patterns

Patterns of behavior. In the Psychogenetics of Human Behavior section, we discussed that: the quality of our beliefs, attitudes, thoughts determines the quality of our life; the quality of thoughts is determined by what models and beliefs we inherit; patterns or role models of behavior, thinking and emotional reactions are acquired by us through the process of genetic inheritance, so ...

relationships with them, learning to constructively overcome difficulties of mutual understanding are the main

factors of interaction between people in society.

When talking about an individual, we usually mean an individual, a person or

individuality. These concepts, being the same in meaning, are not completely synonymous, they are not identical.

They define different aspects of a person’s essence.

An individual is a living organism, a biological

being of the human race and in this capacity his birth, inherent in him, is recorded

physiological state and psyche, possibilities of adaptation to the social environment. Individual –

subject of existence, element of the social system of material production and consumption,

which at the same time is formed and developed in the process of activity, assimilation and reproduction

established methods of work and management determined during the historical movement.

Personality expresses a broader set of human qualities than the individual, which

are formed under the influence of both natural properties inherent in all people and social factors.

If a person is born an individual, he becomes a person, to one degree or another overcoming

inconsistency and relative independence of their natural, social and spiritual essences,

showing the ability to understand and transform the surrounding world. Unlike the individual, personality

not a statistician of historical development, but an actively acting subject and object of social relations and


Individuality is the manifestation of the traits of a specific personality with its originality and uniqueness,

a measure of how an individual differs from others of his own kind. This is a man, as if in a single copy, in all his

originality, including external features, character specificity, intelligence capabilities, etc. So, to

For example, the individual qualities of a person are emphasized when they state: Adam Smith, whose

25 pages, 12060 words

016_Man. Its structure. Subtle World

... the application of such methods in all spheres of social activity and personal life. In one of his books, Robert ... laws direct the spirit towards extensive construction. It is precisely the conscious attitude of the earthly being to the traversed World and the fiery awareness... that the very concept of death has been trampled upon. People have heard enough about the need to change the shells of a mortal personality. It is enough to understand that the changes...

his name is inscribed in the annals of world history as a classic of political economy, the founder

labor theory of value and a number of other economic doctrines, was the most educated person of his

time, possessing extensive knowledge and impeccable moral authority.

Foreign and domestic psychologists understand the subject as a personality or human

a community that is extremely active and persistent in achieving its goals

goals, create their own destiny, enriching themselves with life experience.

The object of public relations

people act when they are passive, completely subordinate to external circumstances,

being content with the smallest results of their own activities.

Each individual person is a social being, possessing self-awareness, actively

active, i.e. capable of work, creativity, and purposeful change in the surrounding world. Before

In all, what is important is a person’s inherent ability to work and other activities that include a goal,

the means, the result and the process of expedient action. Every person is a representative

state, nation, class or layer and acts respectively as a citizen, representative of the nation,

worker, peasant or intellectual. It is in deeds, creation, creativity that a person not only

discovers and manifests himself, but in them he is formed and develops as a personality.

Possessing social certainty, the individual is included in one or another type of social

relationships as a bearer of specific qualities of the corresponding communities. Outside public

relations there is no personality, and outside of social-class relations there is no political personality. Personality

lives in time and can evaluate itself by comparing it with itself in the past or in the desired future. Many

psychologists believe that self-esteem is not enough for self-esteem. Each self-assessment indicates the severity of

as much of a given quality in a person as of the degree of his deviation from some standard, point

reference in assessment. (1)

Personality is a multidimensional phenomenon. “There are hours,” wrote George Sand, “when I escape from the very

myself when I feel like grass, a bird, the top of a tree, a cloud, running water, the horizon,

1 page, 471 words

V. Student personality structure.

Characteristics of Varshavsky Gavrila I. General information about the student: Varshavsky Gavrila Germanovich, 8 years old, student of grade 2 “B” of comprehensive school No. 121. The boy is healthy and organically developed. II. Conditions of family education: Mother - Varshavskaya Anna Leonidovna, Candidate of Psychological Sciences, Professor of Kazakh State University; Father – Varshavsky German Lvovich – cardiologist surgeon. Parents are actively involved...

color, shape and sensations, transient, indefinite;... I live in what constitutes the environment

development, which is, as it were, an extension of my own being.” (2) Scientists often ask themselves

question: “Where are the primary sources of self-knowledge, where is the Self born, which is destined to see itself kinder

how…?" From a materialistic point of view, the determining role of relationships with other people in the development of

personality was first conceptualized by Ludwig Feuerbach. “The individual,” he wrote, “is like something

the isolated does not contain human essence either as a moral being or as a


The human essence is present only in communication, in the unity of man with man, in

a unity based only on the reality of the difference between I and Thou.” (3) These ideas became some of the

key in Marxism: “... a person first looks, as in a mirror, into another person.” (4)

People are born free and equal in their human dignity and rights, nevertheless

the realities are not the same. From the unconditional recognition of the fact of the diversity of people it follows

the conclusion that there is no person consisting only of merits, without any flaw or

weaknesses. In order to better understand people, be conscious of conflicts and understand those

the reasons by which they are caused, you need to know complete information about the person with whom you are communicating and

interact. It is impossible not to take into account the fact that the behavior of any person, his actions and deeds

determine the individual’s reaction to a particular life situation.

Psychologists call the main qualities of a person - intellectual, strong-willed and

emotional. Intellectual qualities include such properties as thinking, combination

a person’s knowledge, his desire for truth, as well as his views, principles and life position. Strong-willed

qualities are associated, first of all, with motives that encourage action, manifestation of abilities

a person, his disposition towards other people. Emotional qualities absorb the most

various nervous arousals, experiences and feelings associated with such moral values,

like goodness, duty, honor, friendship, love, etc. Emotions taken together can effectively signal

6 pages, 2573 words

Theories of personality behavior in conflict

Department of Psychology and Pedagogy With a course of medical psychology, psychotherapy and software METHODOLOGICAL INSTRUCTIONS FOR STUDENTS in the discipline “Pedagogy and Psychology” for specialty_060101 – ___general medicine__ (__full-time_form of study) (indicate code) (indicate the specialty/direction of training with a capital letter and the form of study with a lowercase letter letters) PRACTICAL LESSON No. 34 TOPIC: “Styles ...

actualization of vital forces, about the individual’s readiness to bring benefits to people, to be responsible to society and

yourself for your actions.

Among the most important properties of a person, which accumulate his qualities with their special social

justice, responsibility and legal awareness stand out as important. All these personality traits, without

doubts influence the emergence of conflicts, their subsequent development and resolution. Specialists

focus on one more property of a person - reflection, i.e. self-analysis by each of their knowledge

and actions, thinking about their boundaries and meaning, how they are perceived and evaluated

other people.

A number of human qualities inherent in him genetically deserve special attention. First of all,

there is an indirect relationship between conflict and temperament - those stable

properties of an individual that characterize the dynamic features of the psyche of a given person, including

since the time of Hippocrates to sanguine, phlegmatic, choleric or melancholic people. It is known that

a sanguine person is active and quick, gets along with people easily, is cheerful and active, but cannot tolerate

monotony and monotonous work. The phlegmatic person is more restrained in behavior and patient, controls himself, but

as a rule, little active. Choleric people can be quick-tempered and overly straightforward, often demonstrating

high performance, his activity and energy alone either go over the edge or experience temporary

decline A melancholic person is impressionable, emotional and responsive, but often shows indecision and

slowness, does not adapt well to new conditions, experiences failures painfully, easily falls into

despondency. The influence of individual make-up, clearly expressed mental properties of a person on his

conflict appears to be more noticeable. Temperament has a significant impact on behavior

person in interpersonal conflicts. For example, a choleric person can easily be drawn into a conflict situation, and

A phlegmatic person, on the contrary, is difficult to anger.

An important role in the emergence and development of conflict is played by personality traits, its basic

characteristics. There are two main psychological axes of personality: extraversion - introversion;

emotional instability – emotional stability. Extroverts are people who demand

5 pages, 2317 words

Psychological and social characteristics of the personality of an unemployed person

Contents Introduction Chapter 1. Personality and psychological status of the unemployed Chapter 2. Social portrait of the unemployed in Russia Chapter 3. Socio-psychological characteristics of the unemployed who have lost their previous social status Conclusion References Introduction The problem of the growing number of unemployed, and the procedure for reduction is one of the most pressing problems states. Reduction …

constant stimulation, “feeding” from the external environment. They are sociable and eager to try new things.

impressed, prone to risk, love change. Introverts derive incentives for vital activity from

from the inside, they live mainly by their inner world. They are reserved, love order, are friends with few people,

but faithfully. Emotionally unstable people are characterized by constant emotional

tension, the experience of personal threat, increased sensitivity to failures and mistakes.

Emotionally stable people - they are characterized by emotional balance, inability

deeply empathize with other people's experiences. This typology of character traits was given by Karl

Jung (1875-1961) in the book “Psychological Types” (1921), which is still considered one of

the most convincing and is widely used in both theoretical and practical psychology.

According to the views of A. Adler, the formation of personality character occurs in the first five years of life

person. During this period, he experiences the influence of unfavorable factors, which give rise to

he has an inferiority complex. Subsequently, this complex has a significant impact on

a person’s behavior, activity, way of thinking, etc.

This typology convincingly shows that people’s characters are different (at least there is

16 types of characters).

Misunderstandings due to mismatched character types begin when

only their own preferences are uncompromisingly defended. The better people know the traits

their character, the more fruitful their interaction with other people will be. The essence of Eric's theory

Erikson (1902-1994) is that he put forward and substantiated the idea of ​​the stages of psychosocial

personal development, each of which each person experiences his own crisis. But on every

At the age stage, either a favorable overcoming of a crisis situation occurs, or an unfavorable one.

The level of personal development is another important factor influencing the emergence of interpersonal

conflict. Personality develops and improves in the process of its socialization, active assimilation and

reproduction of social experience. A person has to adjust his actions in accordance with

4 pp., 1649 words

Expressive behavior

Expressive behavior in communication and its understanding. Expressive behavior [lat. expressio - expressiveness] - an expressive, vivid manifestation of feelings and moods. The terms expression and expressiveness are used when it is necessary to emphasize the degree of expression of a person’s spiritual world or indicate the means of its expression. Expressive behavior or what is meant by it...

generally accepted norms and rules of behavior of others. For this manifestation of one’s temperament and

character must be kept under constant control.

The concept of socialization is one of the central concepts of such academic disciplines as

sociology, psychology, political science and others. Although each of these disciplines invests in

the concept of socialization has its own meaning; in general, socialization is understood as the totality of all social

processes through which an individual acquires social experience as a result of communication and activity

acquires certain norms and values ​​that allow him to function as a member


Strategies for dealing with conflict

The issue of behavior strategy in conflict is considered by various scientists, not only conflictologists, but also psychologists. In particular, such scientists as A.Ya. Yantsupov, S.V. Baklanovsky are focused on studying the attitude of an individual or a group of people in relation to the conflict, thus determining the form of people’s behavior.

R. Kilman and K. Thomas developed a two-dimensional and three-dimensional model of the strategy of individual behavior in conflict. Its essence lies in the fact that each participant in the conflict evaluates and correlates his interests with the interests of other people, finding out what he will gain in the event of a positive or negative resolution of the conflict, what losses he will suffer. Based on the current situation, the opponent consciously chooses a strategy for his behavior, which can exist in the following options:

  • care;
  • compulsion;
  • compromise;
  • concession;
  • cooperation.

In addition, according to psychologists, analysis of the interests of another person often occurs unconsciously, especially when the conflict is spontaneous and the situation is characterized by powerful emotional tension. Individuals evaluate their interests in a conflict by choosing the appropriate model of behavior, which can be correlated with quantitative parameters. However, maintaining your own interests or the interests of your opponent depends on three main circumstances:

  • content of the subject of the conflict;
  • presence of interpersonal relationship values;
  • personality characteristics, including individual psychological ones.

A special place in the conflict is occupied by the value of interpersonal relationships between the subject and his opposing side. If the relations between the subjects do not represent any value, that is, relations of friendship, love, camaraderie or partnership are not established between them, then such a conflict will be destructive, and it is also possible to use strategies such as coercion, struggle or rivalry. On the contrary, if interpersonal relationships are important to the subject, then compromise, cooperation, withdrawal or concession may occur.

Figure 1. Behavior strategies in conflict. Author24 - online exchange of student work

Thomas Styles

K. Thomas identified 5 styles of behavior of people in conflict situations, recognized by the majority of specialists working in the field of conflictology.

The author argues that it is best to use one of the styles depending on the cause of the conflict and the person with whom you have to conflict.

  1. Competition. This style is characteristic of active, strong-willed people. With it, the main goal is not to achieve cooperation, but, first of all, to satisfy one’s own interests. This style is justified in the following situations: it is necessary to make an urgent decision with sufficient power, the need to take on the role of a leader in a difficult conflict, the great importance of the outcome of the conflict for the person using this style of behavior. If a conflict is resolved positively in this way, the person using it can earn a certain authority, however, if the most important goal is long-term further cooperation, it is not recommended to use it.
  2. Care .
    This style is characterized by a passive attitude towards conflict, lack of cooperation to solve the problem. However, it is justified in cases where the tension between the parties to the conflict is too great, when there is no real opportunity to resolve the conflict in their favor, as well as in a situation where there is no opportunity to carefully think and make the right decision, or there is a possibility that the problem Over time it will resolve itself without additional effort. The disadvantage of this style is the possibility that the opponent will interpret such behavior as an unwillingness to resolve the conflict. It is also possible for the initiative to pass into his hands.
  3. Device .
    This style is aimed at acting together with an opponent, but without defending one’s own interests. It is justified in cases where the outcome of a conflict situation is extremely important for the opponent and is not significant for you. Most often it is used in relationships with close people, when the relationship itself is much more important than the outcome of the conflict. However, its use is not recommended if the recipient experiences internal discomfort. Outwardly, the style of adaptation may be similar to withdrawal, but in the latter case the person avoids solving the problem, whereas with adaptation he actively contributes to solving it in the interests of the opponent.
  4. Cooperation . In this style, both parties to the conflict have the goal of satisfying their own interests as much as possible while continuing cooperation. This usually requires quite a lot of effort and time, but allows the interests of both parties to be realized to the maximum. It is important that both parties adopt this style of behavior when resolving a conflict when the relationship with the opponent has a long history and will continue in the future.
  5. Compromise .
    The compromise style is characterized by the fact that both sides of the conflict concede their own principled positions in order to achieve a solution to the problem. The difference from the cooperation style is that in this case the realization of all the interests of both parties is impossible. This style is recommended for use in situations where there is an urgent need to solve a problem, when this allows maintaining relationships at the required level, as well as in cases where the simultaneous achievement of the interests of all parties is unattainable.

There is no single best , universal style of behavior; for each situation, if there are certain nuances, different styles will be more justified.

Types of behavior of people in conflict:

Characteristics of the main strategies of people's behavior in conflict

The characteristics of the main strategies of people’s behavior in conflict can be represented in the form of a three-dimensional model:

  • Coercion - includes struggle, competition, confrontation. Subjects interact with each other, causing each other mutual damage. One's own interests are assessed as high, and the opponent's interests as low. The choice of strategy ultimately comes down to the fact that it is necessary to choose either interest or the establishment of friendly relationships. At this stage, destructive models of behavior are formed, as subjects actively use power, the force of law, connections, authority, etc. However, the use of this strategy in many cases is ineffective, with the exception of two cases: when protecting oneself from an attack or when protecting one’s interests from a conflicting person.
  • Withdrawal is a strategy of behavior in conflict, which is characterized by the opponent’s desire to avoid resolving the problem that has arisen, that is, it implies avoidance of the conflict. It is characterized by a low level of opponent responsibility
  • Concession is a type of behavior strategy in a conflict, which is characterized by the desire of one subject to escape from the conflict, to concede in the realization of any interests. It is necessary to be able to analyze the reason for leaving. More often than not, personal interests are low here, but the opponent’s interest is highly valued. In other words, the subject who has chosen this strategy highly values ​​the opponent’s interest and sacrifices his own interests.
  • Compromise is a type of behavior strategy for a subject in a conflict that is focused on mutual cooperation. A compromise is characterized by the presence of a balance of interests of the parties. The compromise strategy allows you not to spoil interpersonal relationships, especially if they are important for the subject.
  • Cooperation is a type of behavior in conflict, which is characterized by the presence of mutual efforts on the part of the parties, which are aimed at resolving the problem that has arisen. Here, not only one’s own interests are realized, but also interest in the goals and motives of the opponent’s behavior is shown, and interpersonal relationships are established. In some cases, cooperation is excluded when the subject of the conflict has vital interests for the subject; in addition, cooperation is one of the most complex strategies and can include all of the above types of strategies.

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What are they based on?

Strategy of behavior in a conflict situation is certain forms of behavior in the event of a conflict situation.

  • rivalry , with this strategy, a decision or opinion that is beneficial to itself is imposed on the conflicting party, regardless of its position,
  • cooperation , in which each of the conflicting parties makes concessions in principled positions and finds a solution that maximally satisfies all parties to the conflict,
  • adaptation is a sacrifice of one’s own interests and acceptance of the demands of the conflicting party without any active action on one’s part.

When a conflict arises, either one of these strategies in its pure form or a combination of them can be used; this largely depends on the development of the situation and other circumstances.

Rational technologies

Technologies of rational behavior in a conflict situation are methods of psychological correction , the purpose of which is to achieve constructive interaction to resolve a given conflict.

It is important to understand and always remember the negative consequences of reacting emotionally in stressful situations.

There are three basic rules for self-control of emotions:

  1. React as calmly as possible to the emotional outburst of your opponent in a conflict situation . You should not give in to emotions like the conflicting party.
  2. Rational exchange of emotions with an opponent .
    In this case, there is a controlled exchange of emotions with the opponent, both parties share their experiences, but this does not go into an uncontrolled phase. As a result, both sides receive emotional release, but the possibility of further constructive resolution of the conflict remains.
  3. Supporting high self-esteem in yourself and your opponent . One of the reasons for a strong emotional reaction in a conflict is low self-esteem. However, with its support at a sufficiently high level, there are more opportunities to eliminate unwanted emotional manifestations.


Using a few simple rules will help minimize the occurrence of problems in a conflict situation and approach its resolution in the most constructive way:

  1. Be fair towards your opponent . Accusations can provoke unconscious resistance, but first of all you need to think about whether the instigator of the conflict is right in his claims. Remaining calm and patient, you should listen to the accusations and only after thinking about them, proceed to further actions.
  2. Do not expand the conflict . When resolving a conflict, you should not move away from its cause or remember past conflict situations with this opponent, as this threatens with irrational insults, detachment from the true cause of the conflict and, as a consequence, the impossibility of resolving it.
  3. Use positive language in a conflict situation . This rule makes it possible to remove an excessive negative assessment of the situation, maintain high self-esteem of the participants in the conflict and move on to a constructive solution.
  4. Demonstration of emotional endurance. Try to remain calm.
    Often the initiator of the conflict raises his voice and experiences sharply negative emotions. Self-control on your part will prevent the conflict from escalating and, perhaps, set an example for your opponent to move on to a calm solution to the problem.
  5. Depersonalization of the conflict. When a conflict situation arises, attention should be focused not on the personality of the opponent, but on the true cause of the situation.

How to behave in a conflict so as not to suffer defeat? Find out from the video:

Is it possible to avoid a conflict situation?

You can learn how to resolve conflict correctly and control your emotional state. It will be possible to avoid a quarrel if one of the opponents does not want to enter into it.

How to avoid:

  1. Before expressing your opinion, take your time and answer yourself: “What was the reason for the dispute? Do you need it? What will you lose if you give in in an argument?”;
  2. The answer should be short and measured. This response lowers the intensity. And you don’t have the opportunity to say too much.
  3. Do not provoke with unnecessary phrases and jokes. Don't pick on a person if he's not in the mood. It’s better to communicate with colleagues after lunch; everyone is more tense in the morning.
  4. Control your correspondence in instant messengers and social networks to avoid provocation. Unscrupulous people can use it against you.
  5. Try not to communicate with people who often initiate conflict situations or keep communication to a minimum. Do not meet with them outside of working hours, do not relax with them in company.
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