Characteristics of the psychopathic personality type

A psychopath is a person who has a congenital or acquired at an early age disorder in the functioning of the nervous system, leading to personality deformation and the inability to experience emotions, empathize with others and build healthy relationships.

A psychotic person does not always come to the attention of specialists. Even the patient’s relatives and friends may not suspect that he has a problem. Patients are not always distinguished by aggressive behavior, but it must be taken into account that they are good manipulators.

Psychopathy - specificity of the disease

Disorders of the human psyche have many forms; the course of the disease is aggravated by antisocial behavior and lack of control over one’s actions. In modern society, there are often individuals whose condition is borderline and is somewhere in the middle between normal and pathological. To prescribe treatment, the doctor must conduct a diagnosis, the purpose of which is to determine the type of mental disorder, its subcategory (if any), and the specifics of the course.

Psychopathic personality disorder is accompanied by mental disharmony and problems in the emotional and volitional sphere. The disease code according to ICD-10 is F60, and has several varieties.

Specific signs of pathology:

  • the ability to adapt to new living conditions and the normal environment of society is reduced or absent altogether;
  • not treated until complete recovery, present until the end of the individual’s life;
  • Pathology completely controls the personality, affects mental abilities, emotional background, and mood.

Basic classifications of psychopathy

The problem of psychopathy has interested many world-class scientists. This led to the creation of many classifications. We will look at the most common ones, those most often used in clinical medicine.

According to the main groups (O.V. Kebrikov) the following are distinguished:

  • nuclear psychopathy (depending on the constitutional type of a person, in which the main role is played by heredity);
  • marginal psychopathy (arising due to problems of a biological nature and social reasons);
  • organic psychopathy (caused by organic brain lesions, and manifesting itself at the stage of personality development, at the age of 6-10 years).

An additional role in the development of psychopathic traits is played by:

  • separation of the child from his parents and family;
  • overprotection, developing painful self-esteem;
  • lack or complete lack of attention to your children;
  • “Cinderella” syndrome – relegation to the background of an adopted child, or the formation of a complex in children as a result of parental intense attention paid to one child at the expense of others;
  • the “idol” phenomenon is a painful perception of caring for other children by a child who is the “favorite” of family society.

Please note: existing psychopathic character traits can clearly manifest themselves due to defects in upbringing and give rise to painful emotional reactions and pathological behavior.

The main medical classification of psychopathy divides the disease according to the leading psychopathological syndrome.

In practical medicine, psychopathy is distinguished:

  • asthenic;
  • psychasthenic;
  • schizoid"
  • hysterical;
  • epileptoid;
  • paranoid;
  • excitable;
  • affective;
  • heboids;
  • with sexual disorders and perversions

Types of psychopathic personality disorder

The disease is within the competence of psychiatrists. Experts combine all pathologies of this nature into two large groups:

  1. Excitable. The processes of excitation of the nervous system prevail over inhibition.
  2. Brake. A completely opposite picture is observed with the predominant processes of inhibition.

Any psychopathic personality disorder can develop gradually, the clinical picture is variable. In some cases, it is very difficult to diagnose the type of disease; for this, the doctor uses several methods - a conversation with the patient and his relatives, clinical tests, laboratory tests.

Common excitable psychopathy:

  • Epileptoid.

Patients are distinguished by their desire for ideal order; they are neat and pedantic. If something disrupts their plans, it causes panic and irritation. Everything new is perceived with great fear until the patient understands what the current circumstances threaten him with. A person lives one day at a time and has no plans for the future. His mood is constantly bad, the patient is embittered, and at the same time experiences melancholy. Minimal physical activity and inertia contribute to social isolation.

  • Hysterical.

Patients are characterized by changeable behavior and mood. Some circumstances arouse strong hatred in them, while others contribute to the emergence of euphoria. Emotions are not always adequate and do not in all cases correspond to a specific situation. The patient is often in a state of passion. All words and actions are pretentious and overly demonstrative.

  • Paranoid.

This is a psychopathic personality disorder, accompanied by excessive willfulness and suspicion. The patient cannot control his thoughts, fears and feelings; they appear as if out of nowhere. The character becomes secretive, patients constantly think that those around them are plotting against them. It is very difficult to live in the same territory with such people. They constantly spy and eavesdrop, as if trying to find out what is being plotted against them.

Common inhibitory psychopathies:

  • Psychasthenic.

A person is not confident in himself and his abilities, he is constantly afraid of everything in the world - people, events, signs. A high level of anxiety prevents you from fully engaging in professional and everyday activities. In the presence of a psychotraumatic factor, an excessively acute emotional reaction to everything connected with it is observed. Being in constant anticipation of trouble, they escalate the situation and make those around them nervous.

  • Anankastnaya.

This type of disorder is characterized by the presence of obsessive-compulsive disorders. Patients create a certain ritual and follow it strictly.

  • Schizoid.

A person has despotic character traits, while his emotional background is limited. The vulnerability of the individual leads to the patient being offended by others even for a minor reason. It is difficult to communicate with him, there are traits of pedantry and autism. Often, when trying to find out the essence of the conflict, such a person seems to erect a wall in front of himself. He does not want to see or listen to what he is told.

  • Mosaic.

This is a complex psychopathic personality disorder, when one patient has several varieties of this pathology. The psyche has traits of changeability, symptoms often replace each other. Social adaptation in such conditions is seriously complicated.

What to do?

Despite the terrifying consequences, and the thought that life will never be the same, it is quite possible to correct it. It won't be easy, but it will be possible. Of course, to do this you will have to realize that you have fallen into the clutches of a psychopath, and then limit contact with him. Sometimes “cutting off the ends completely.”

It will be important to restore the relationship not only with once close people, but also with yourself, regaining your right to be and feel. Check out the article “The best methods for achieving success that will help you finally believe in yourself.”

They will try to bring you back - try to resist, confessions and actions will be just another manipulation, as at the beginning of the relationship, aimed at bringing you back into your network. If you feel that you can’t cope and you don’t have the strength to fight the pain, be sure to use the recommendations described in the article “How to find a way out of depression yourself: the most effective methods.”

Signs of the disorder in men

Psychopathic men often display feigned feelings for others and prefer to manipulate others for personal gain. Close people are perceived as “objects”; they become a tool in the hands of a sick person. Personal relationships in such patients often do not work out and are short-lived. The reason is the lack of standards of tact and morality; for these people there is no concept of decency or decency. Additional signs of a male psychopath include:

  • tendency to mental and physical violence without reason;
  • frequent betrayals and search for dubious, momentary pleasures;
  • abuse of trust of loved ones.

Hysterical psychopathic personality disorder has the most unpleasant features. Such a man is perceived negatively by society. Sometimes patients attempt suicide; aggression is directed at themselves.

How to recognize a psychopath?

Psychopathic disorder is considered a rather complex personality disorder because psychopaths often appear “normal,” even charmingb. Due to the mystery and complexity of psychopathy, it can often be difficult to recognize a psychopath.

However, there is still a universal set of behavioral patterns exhibited by psychopaths. The psychopathic personality is primarily characterized by a lack of impulse control, which, together with any semblance of emotional consciousness, leads to acts of hostility. Psychopaths may not always physically harm someone, but they are almost always verbally abusive and emotional.

Psychopaths are in a relentless search for thrills. They choose actions that stimulate their insatiable desire for danger. And it doesn’t matter to them whether such actions will harm themselves or other individuals. They also care little about the legality of their actions. The described category of persons is prone to manipulation. They are skilled “jugglers” of human emotions, actions, and deeds. They are also expert deceivers. They often manipulate or deceive individuals for the sole reason of having fun.

Basically, most psychopaths suffer from overly inflated self-esteem. This category of people considers themselves much more intelligent and influential than they actually are. They like to “attach themselves” to successful individuals, to people with power, because this increases their personal status. They are convinced that they deserve better treatment than other human subjects. Their exorbitant sense of personal importance often leads to cracks in the “mask of normality.” When psychopaths feel that people are not giving them the “important” status, the status of proper attention, they seek to deliberately inflict pain.

Psychopathic individuals are impulsive and irresponsible. Both of these qualities are a sign of the disorder in question. Psychopathic individuals do not notice anything worthy of reproach in their own behavior, as well as in their way of existence. They are characterized by a pronounced desire to avoid responsibility for their own decisions or for the consequences of decisions made.

The category of people under consideration are egocentrists, therefore their actions are determined by whims, current mood, and desires. They can deceive, steal, offend only because that’s what they want at the moment. Their intimate relationships are often characterized by variability and constant change of partners.

Psychopaths have a deficit of personal ethics. As a rule, they do not adhere to strong moral standards. They act only in ways that are beneficial to them at a particular moment. They have little interest in the fact that others may suffer from their actions.

In addition to the listed signs, a psychopath is characterized by:

– rancor;

– short sleep;

– lack of gratitude;

– inconsistency;

– a lot of unfinished business;

– in minor conflicts, accusing the enemy of vices and lies;

– lack of long-term love affairs;

– extreme hobbies;

– groundless jealousy;

– sexual perversion;

– non-standard thinking.

In the sons of Adam, the violation in question manifests itself in the form of a well-thought-out strategy of behavior in society, masking real facts, success in the professional field, and high activity.

In women, this disorder is manifested in emotional imbalance and incontinence, and depressive moods. They are characterized by callousness and disregard for the feelings of loved ones. Since psychopathic women are dominated by cold calculation based on personal aspirations over other emotions, lack understanding and a sense of love, and have developed selfishness, they arouse the interest of many men.

Signs of the disease in women

Women with psychopathic disorder are less common than men, therefore there is a lack of research into the clinical picture and the mechanism of development of the pathology. A patient diagnosed with psychopathic personality disorder has an unstable emotional background. Her mood changes very sharply, from a state of euphoria she quickly moves to depression and vice versa.

Aggression in female patients is lower than in male psychopaths, and a tendency to affect is rarely observed. Sometimes they do things that they later regret. Many patients lead an antisocial lifestyle: alcoholism, drug addiction, addictive behavior. The formation of such addictions occurs at an early age or during puberty.

Etiology and pathogenesis

Psychopathy is (in psychology this disorder has different forms of manifestation) a painful state of the psyche, the development of which is due to the influence of the following causal factors:

  • growing up in a single-parent family without a father or mother;
  • suppression of the child’s personality at different stages of his growing up (the impact of authoritarian parents);
  • birth injuries;
  • previous infectious diseases that led to damage to the central nervous system;
  • hereditary predisposition to the development of psychopathic conditions;
  • anomalies of intrauterine fetal formation;
  • psychological trauma experienced in childhood, after which the development of a full-fledged personality stopped (sexual or physical violence, public humiliation, other psycho-emotional shock from what he saw);
  • consequences of traumatic brain injuries.

The reason that provoked the formation of a personality with psychopathic tendencies must be established during the diagnostic examination. This will greatly facilitate the process of further treatment.

Treatment of psychopathic personality disorders in Moscow

After diagnosis, the specialist determines the triggers that lead to psychopathic personality disorder. Treatment begins with their correction; patients are prescribed medications and psychotherapeutic sessions. The doctor selects a medicine taking into account the patient’s condition; the use of vitamins, immune and sedative drugs is mandatory.

Medicines are necessary to maintain the body during the period of exacerbation of psychopathy. Groups of medications that directly affect mental properties are also used. If the patient experiences a state of passion, quite often, he is prescribed antipsychotics. With constant stimulation of the nervous system and instability of the emotional background, patients take tranquilizers. Antidepressants are indicated for individuals who have a predominant low mood and are prone to suicide.

Psychotherapy sessions involve the use of cognitive behavioral therapy or a rational approach. The patient must realize what patterns of his behavior are socially acceptable, which helps to achieve personal harmony. Group and individual consultations are possible not only for the patient, but also for his loved ones. Classes in such groups have the sole purpose of teaching participants how to interact effectively.

What kind of psychological assistance do we provide?

We have accumulated extensive experience in solving the following problems faced by clients who contact our center:

  • Treatment of depression

  • Psychological consultations and treatment of neuroses

  • Psychological consultations and psychotherapy for phobias

  • Psychotherapy and treatment of psychosis

  • Psychoanalysis of sexual deviations

  • Psychological assistance to families (couples) and children

  • Psychotherapy for eating behavior: anorexia and bulimia

  • Free consultations with psychologists on the psychological forum

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