Youth. Features of personality development at the age of 15–16 to 20 years

Throughout adolescence - 15 - 20 years - a person achieves a high level of intellectual development, mental experience is enriched, his individuality, his own inner world are significantly considered for the first time, a holistic self-image is formed, self-determination is carried out in professional and life plans, and his own view is consciously directed into the future, which indicates her transition to the stage of adulthood.

The diverse characteristics of youth as

During adolescence, a person reaches the threshold of relative maturity; during this period, his first socialization, unbridled development and growth of the body are completed.

Determining themselves and establishing themselves in their worldview, striving for individual uniqueness, girls and boys demonstrate a higher level of communication and educational activity compared to adolescence, and in their vision of the future they coordinate distant and near perspectives, often experiencing an identity crisis.

In adolescence, the characteristics of mental development in most cases are associated with the specificity of the social development situation, the basis of which is the setting by society of a vital, urgent task for young people - to accept, directly in this period, professional self-determination, and precisely in terms of real choice.

During this age, the hierarchy of needs is actively changing, the process of complication, and personality formation. Adolescence is of particular importance when solving problems of choosing a life path, self-realization and self-determination associated with choosing a profession.

What is personality formation

Personality formation is a complex process that is not interrupted at any stage of human life. Simply put, it is infinite. The very concept of “personality” is very multifaceted, and there are two popular professional views on this phenomenon. One of them says that the formation of a child’s personality depends on natural innate data. The second opinion indicates that personality is a social phenomenon, and only society influences its formation.

In fact, the entire period of a person’s life, from birth to adulthood, is a process of personal growth or degradation. It is believed that development occurs in activities that are significant to the individual. The driving force can be called internal contradictions between the needs of a growing child and the real possibility of their implementation. The child’s activities are almost always determined by the parents and, to one degree or another, directed by them. Conclusion: the process of upbringing is the leading factor in the formation of a child’s personality.

Becoming a social person

If we want our children to realize their potential as global citizens, then they will have to consider the other person's opinion without losing sight of their own point of view. Despite countless opposing and conflicting views, they need to be able to stick to their identity, their ideas, opinions, preferences and intentions. Being a social person means being able to cooperate, understand fairness and take into account the context in which they find themselves. These qualities underlie healthy moral development and the ability to use words to communicate your thoughts and feelings to others.

Since 3-4 year olds are in the process of forming their personality, becoming a social being is not yet relevant for them.

Individuality must come before community, so the focus of young children is usually on themselves. Sometimes parents of little ones may worry that their child is too self-centered, but this is nature's intention - they must first learn to understand themselves before being influenced by the many views and points of view of other people.

Their brains are still developing, so they often lack patience, and they understand justice as an opportunity to do things their own way. They do not interact well with others, and it is completely natural for them to prefer loneliness and disappear into the world of their own fantasy.

As a child approaches the ages of 8-11, he becomes increasingly able to understand irony and paradox.

They finally get the jokes, they understand the puns, and they can now be more patient when they feel frustrated. With ideal brain development, by this time they will be able to experience mixed feelings and take into account not only their own point of view, but also that of others. They can show signs of true cooperation and consideration, and are also capable of courageous actions. If development is on the right track, they will interact better with others and work to resolve problems and conflicts. They will demonstrate more balance and stability in the expression of emotions, as their ability to reflect and understand what is happening to them has increased.

When a child begins adolescence, it seems that he has taken a step back, become unpredictable and less emotionally stable. This occurs due to changes in the brain and due to increasing self-awareness, which can overwhelm them with emotions and new experiences.

By the age of 14-15, ideally, balance emerges and emotional stability returns. Teenagers must increasingly begin to see the world not through a single point of view, but be able to take into account a variety of events and problems. The development of moral judgment and awareness of themselves as part of a larger society will begin to creep in from time to time in their statements or ideals. Their capacity for courage will allow them to confidently move towards their goals.

By the end of adolescence, the child must become ready for life in society and able to benefit it.

Individuality cannot be taught or imposed on our children; it must be nurtured, cultivated, preserved and protected. Realization of personal potential depends on our ability to evolve into individual, adaptive, and social individuals. Each of us has the seeds of a mature future within us, but it takes time, patience, understanding and the right kind of care for them to sprout.

Carl Jung, a Swiss psychiatrist, had a great idea that growth can only be appreciated by looking back at it, not while it is happening. Our children have the prospect of a mature future for which the adults in their lives act as midwives.

Deborah McNamara Translation by Irina MatsenkoSource

Dear readers! To continue getting acquainted with the topic of unlocking personal potential, as well as to delve deeper into the topic, we suggest you read this collection of articles.

Gordon Neufeld on personal potential

About unlocking inner potential

About periods of development

How a child's personality is born

On the importance of rest for development

Phases of personality development

There are three phases in the formation of a child’s personality


Lasts from birth until adolescence. The individual assimilates social experience - he adapts, imitates, adapts. During adaptation, there is an active adoption of social norms and mastery of various forms of activity. Having shown his own individuality in the group, the child cannot express himself as an individual until he masters the norms existing in the group.

He feels the need to be like others, adapting as much as possible in society. We can talk about a kindergarten or school.

Group activities can provoke the emergence of favorable conditions for the formation of the child’s personality and those traits that were not previously inherent in the individual, but which are characteristic of other members of the group.


The child has a desire to oppose himself to others, to stand out. A critical attitude towards the norms of society and established social rules is formed. The impetus for individualization is the contradiction between the result of adaptation and the need for personalization that was not satisfied at the initial stage. The search begins for methods that help in gaining individuality and fixing it. This can manifest itself in behavior, clothing, speech, and so on. If, during the formation of a child’s personality, he has successfully coped with adaptation, then gradually he begins to understand that individuality is being lost. The individual mobilizes internal resources and begins to search for a society capable of providing the necessary personalization.


The child has a desire to find his place in society, to fit into society. Integration is easy if society accepts the person. Other results are also possible. A person tries in every possible way to preserve his difference, which leads to aggressive interaction with society and people. Integration is characterized by contradictions between the subject’s desire to demonstrate his own individuality and the community’s desire to cultivate and approve only those individual qualities of the subject that correspond to its preferences.

Cognitive changes

In high school, learning is associated with significant complication and changes in the content and structure of educational material, an increase in its volume, and as a result, the level of demands placed on students increases. They are expected to have clarity, versatility, independence in solving cognitive problems, flexibility, and productivity of cognitive activity.

Orientation towards the future, setting goals for personal and professional self-determination is reflected in the entire process of mental development, including the development of cognitive processes. Educational and professional activity becomes the main one.

In high school students, in comparison with teenagers, interest in learning and school increases significantly, since learning accumulates immediate life meaning associated with the future. In turn, there is significant interest in various information sources - books, television, cinema. There is an increased need for individual acquisition of knowledge, a conscious attitude towards learning and work is growing, cognitive interests are becoming broad, effective and sustainable. Personal selectivity and direction of interests are associated with life plans.

During this period, there is an increase in the quality of memory of schoolchildren - the volume of memory increases, the methods of memorization change. Simultaneously with involuntary memorization, there is an extensive use of expedient techniques for voluntary memorization of material. High school students acquire metacognitive skills - self-regulation and self-control, which influence the effectiveness of their cognitive strategies.

Cognitive development in youth is characterized by formal-operational and formal-logical thinking. This is theoretical, hypothetico-deductive, abstract thinking, which has a connection with certain environmental conditions, existing at the moment.

During adolescence, a significant new formation in the intellectual sphere is theoretical thinking and the process of its development. High school and junior students are often concerned with the question “why?” Mental activity is more independent and active; there is a critical attitude towards the content of acquired knowledge and teachers. The idea of ​​interest in the subject has changed - teenagers value passion for the subject, its descriptive and factual aspects, high school students are interested in the unstudied, ambiguous, and anything that requires reasoning. The value lies in the non-standard form of presentation of the material and the erudition of the teacher.

Another characteristic of the intellectual sphere of this age is a pronounced zeal for the search for common principles and patterns that stand behind certain truths, a craving for generalizations. So, like high school students, no one gravitates towards “cosmic”, global generalizations, or likes “big” theories. At the same time, in adolescence there is a combination of a breadth of interests with the absence of a method and system in acquiring skills and knowledge - intellectual amateurism.

The third feature is a well-known youthful predisposition to exaggerate one’s own mental abilities and the strength of one’s intellect, independence and level of knowledge, a craving for fictitious, ostentatious intellectuality. In almost every senior class there is a certain number of bored, indifferent schoolchildren - learning for them is primitive and ordinary, the material presented by the teacher is axiomatic, boring, has long been known to everyone, unnecessary and has nothing to do with intelligence or real science. High school students love to ask their teachers tricky questions, and when they receive an answer, they shrug their shoulders and shrug.

During adolescence, there is also an increase in the rate of individualization in abilities and interests, and the difference is often supplemented and compensated for by negative behavioral reactions. Therefore, a high school teacher can easily identify a group of careless but capable students, a group of chronic C students, and excellent intellectuals.

Intellectual development in this period is the accumulation of skills and knowledge, a change in the structure and properties of the intellect, the formation of a special line of intellectual activity - a unique individual system of psychological means used by a person, spontaneously or consciously, with the aim of better balancing his own individuality with external, objective conditions activities.

Improves mastery of complex mental operations of synthesis and analysis, theoretical abstraction and generalization, presentation and argumentation. Girls and boys are characterized by systematicity, independent creative activity, establishment of cause-and-effect relationships, criticality and stability of thinking. There is a tendency towards an absolute and holistic assessment of various phenomena of reality, towards a generalized understanding of the world. J. Piaget believed that the logic of adolescence is a profound, correlated system that differs from children’s logic; it represents the essence of adult logic and the source of elementary forms of scientific thinking.

There is an active development of special abilities, in most cases related to the chosen professional field - pedagogical, technical, mathematical. Ultimately, in adolescence, cognitive structures acquire a complex structure and individual identity.

Variation in cognitive structures serves as a condition for the formation of the ability to reflect and introspect. The actions, feelings, thoughts of boys and girls are the subject of their mental analysis and consideration. Another significant aspect of introspection is associated with the ability to distinguish inconsistency between words, actions and thoughts, and to use ideal circumstances and situations. There is an opportunity to create ideals - human or morality, family, society, to try to realize them, to compare them with reality.

Often, without knowledge of the premises, on limited factual material, boys and girls have a tendency to theorize put forward hypotheses, to formulate broad philosophical generalizations.

In the future, in youth, the intellectual sphere presupposes higher and qualitative development associated with the formation of creative abilities, as well as the assimilation of information, the manifestation of mental initiative, the creation of something new - the ability to detect a problem, reformulate and pose a question, and find original solutions.

What factors influence the development of a child’s personality?

Many factors influence the formation of a child's personality. From a number of theories put forward by various psychologists, the main idea should be highlighted: personality development occurs on the basis of natural data, self-awareness and life experience. Formation begins at an early age.

Internal factors influencing: temperament, inherent at the genetic level. External factors: upbringing, social level, environment, and even the current era.

Many experts believe that genes have a significant influence on personality, containing information about the ancestors of the mother and father. A newborn person continues two genera at once. This does not mean that he will receive their character traits or talents. Nature will provide him with a basis for development, and all he has to do is use it.

The significance of the biological factor is high. This explains how people who grow up under the same conditions become unique and exhibit opposite qualities. Biological factors are the basis for the formation of a child’s personality. Socialization plays an equally significant role. Development occurs in stages. The perception of the world is influenced by the upbringing received by a person and the example of his parents.

Becoming a separate person

As an individual, the child must move towards increasing independence and responsibility for his decisions. He should develop a sense of control over his life, in which he confidently strives for his own goals and his own ideas. Realizing his potential as an individual means that the child sees himself as a unique being, he will rarely be bored, he will be full of vital energy and curiosity about what is happening in the world around him.

Signs of development into a separate personality in a 3-4 year old child will be the ability to play independently for short periods of time, as well as from time to time the expression of dissatisfaction with the restrictions and prohibitions imposed on him.

The more a child grows and forms his own intentions, the more frustrated he can become when those intentions encounter obstacles and the word “no.” Children at this age may show signs that they want to do things on their own, such as dressing themselves, potty training, and they are also willing to communicate their ideas and opinions about the world around us.

As a child reaches middle childhood, from 8 to 11 years old, he will develop more specific preferences and ideas about what he likes and who he is.

Children at this age may develop special interests and may become committed to certain activities. Ideally, they will be able to take more responsibility in household chores and complete their homework with only a little guidance. They will enjoy having more freedom and being able to communicate their ideas to those they trust.

Teenagers aged 14-15 who are developing as individuals will ideally be able to be alone and fill their time with creative activities such as drawing, writing, music or physical activity.

They should be able to set goals and confidently move towards them, for example, strive to work harder to achieve better grades or master a musical instrument. They may be annoyed by friends who copy others or cheat to achieve success. The more a teenager goes through the process of becoming himself, the more he will push away other people's ideas in order to create space for his own. In short, they become allergic to coercion.

Education and personality formation in the family: the importance of parents

Psychologists are convinced that parents have a decisive influence on a child’s personality, his perception of the world, feelings and aspirations. The relationship between father and mother, as well as between other relatives, is important to him. The attitude of the family directly towards the child plays a huge role.

The surrounding social environment also influences the formation of personality. Education is a purposeful process of influencing a person, and it is precisely this that is at the basis of the cultivation of personality.

Many people ask the question: “What plays a decisive role in personal development and consciousness - natural forces, social environment?” It is impossible to single out anything separately, but it is obvious that the first years of human life are fundamental. Children growing up in a family largely adopt their parents’ behavior, attitudes, and values. Subsequently, the personality may acquire additional minor touches, but it is in childhood that the foundation is laid. If the father and mother pay little attention to the baby, then he receives “material” for development from other available sources, which are not always beneficial. Parents should remember this and take care of daily quality interaction with their child. At an early age, reading fairy tales helps a lot, as it instills in the child an understanding of good and evil. Be sure to analyze what you read and think through other options for developing the story.

Development of personal characteristics in communication

Communication with adults and peers creates favorable conditions for the development of the personality of preschool children.

Most of all, children are busy with role-playing games, which involve following the rules prescribed by the plot. Before starting the game, preschoolers assign roles and agree on what rules they will follow.

This teaches diplomacy in communication, develops initiative, but at the same time the ability to coordinate one’s opinion with the opinion of others. The preschooler gets used to taking into account the interests of his peer, and in general perceiving him as a person, and not a mechanical partner in play activities.

In addition to business, moral qualities are laid in communication with peers. The preschooler shows sympathy if another is in pain and seeks to justify a friend if he is threatened with punishment.

The adults with whom the preschooler interacts show him an example of evaluating everything that happens around him. They approve, condemn, simply express their attitude. A child, like a sponge, absorbs such statements and forms his own value guidelines. For example, the only child in the family, who has all the toys at his disposal, will ask permission from a peer to take his car or doll only if adults explain to him.

It is impossible to foresee all situations that are important to teach a child. Therefore, the more a child is included in communication, the more fully his experience and system of moral guidelines will accumulate.

The development of a preschooler’s personality in social terms occurs due to the formation of a system of value orientations and norms of behavior. Internal positions and attitudes are formed. An older preschooler is already guessing how other people will treat him if he does this or that, acts this way or that way.

The Negative Impact of Negative Evaluation

Communication is unthinkable without evaluation. And the statements of adults also help the child form ideas about his capabilities. “You can’t jump off this ladder yet, I’ll help you,” “You can’t take a car from a boy. You will offend him,” “You can’t say that, it’s a bad word.” Such statements include prohibitions and denials, but they indicate important limitations to the preschooler.

Unfortunately, adults use many other types of negative assessments that emphasize the child’s inability and shortcomings. They can be divided into two types:

  • Negative assessment of what was done (badly folded the toys, drew them unsightly, spilled the soup again).
  • A predictive statement of a negative nature (don’t take it, otherwise you’ll break it; you won’t be able to; you’ll fall again).

Negative assessments of any kind inhibit the activity of a preschooler, distort the child’s opinion about his capabilities, harm the formation of self-esteem and limit personal development.

What mistakes do parents make when raising individuals?

When shaping a child’s personality, it is important for parents to avoid such common mistakes.

Categorical prohibition

The main mistake of education. Be patient with your baby and respect him. Without learning to understand it, parents make inevitable mistakes that lead to mental and physical problems. By ignoring the desires and interests of the child, responding to most of them with categorical prohibitions, you can even skip the initial stage of some disease. Example: you notice that the child has started eating lime. The first reaction of most parents: dissatisfaction, screaming, a ban on approaching the wall. Correct reaction: visit the doctor. The doctor will probably tell you that there is a lack of calcium salts in the baby’s body. In addition, such an attitude will create in the child a desire to perform certain actions on the sly. Many become secretive and distrustful.


When shaping a child’s personality, overprotection is not the best helper. Excessive care can have a negative effect on the baby. When he reaches a certain age and tries to show independence, this is often met with hostility. Example: a child wants to use a spoon himself, but the mother, fearing that he will get dirty or not be able to cope, continues to feed him herself.

Overprotection manifests itself in violent action, which can result in the emergence of neurosis. In other cases, guardianship unless absolutely necessary can result in the child never being able to make friends, because the mother and grandmother are always nearby. The individual may have difficulties with socialization; he does not acquire the ability to express and defend his opinion. Possible consequences: psychological problems that can only be eliminated with the assistance of specialists.

Excessive demands

For the full development of a child’s personality, it is necessary that he not only knows, but also understands what is allowed and what is prohibited. If you show excessive demands on him, without giving clear explanations of the reasons why you need to do as you say, then this will not lead to good. What traits will the personality acquire? Irritability, stubbornness. The best option: parents explain in detail the reasons for their demands, and over time they become the child’s personal beliefs.


The first factor provoking children's protest is lengthy lectures. Parents often believe that their child will learn information better by listening to long and repetitive lectures. There is no need for them. This approach has no constructive component. Particularly taboo is other children being held up as examples. Gradually, the child will begin to perceive them as personal enemies. Boring notations often cause a negative reaction, losing their educational value.

Immense pampering of a child

Parents who spoil their children too much create a big problem. This phenomenon is no less negative than lack of influence. Spoiled children, who do not know anything to be denied, who have no responsibilities, eventually face the impossibility of overcoming even minor life obstacles and problems. When a situation arises when their desires and reality do not coincide, they lead to overstrain of the nervous system, which can result in a breakdown.

Mental processes associated with determining future professional activity

During adolescence, professional and personal self-determination is carried out. In accordance with the concept of I.S. Kona, professional self-determination is divided into a number of steps.

  1. Child Game. Trying on the role of a representative of various professions, the child “plays out” some elements of behavior associated with them.
  2. Teenage fantasy. A teenage child imagines himself in the role of a profession that interests him.
  3. Approximate choice of profession. When considering specialties, young people are initially guided by their interests - “I’m interested in mathematics. I’ll be a math teacher,” then abilities — “I’m good at learning a foreign language. I’ll become a translator,” and then the value system: “I want creative work.”
  4. Practical decision making. A specific choice of specialty is made, which includes the following components: the choice of a specific profession and the determination of the level of qualifications of the work, the duration and scope of preparation for it.

The choice of profession is determined by social and psychological conditions. Social conditions include the educational level of parents—their higher education increases the likelihood that their children will desire to study at a higher educational institution.

Components of psychological readiness for self-determination:

  • development at a significant level of psychological structures - the foundations of a civil and scientific worldview, theoretical thinking, developed reflection, self-awareness;
  • the formation of needs that contribute to the meaningful fulfillment of the individual - the need for work, communication, to take an internal position as a member of society, time perspectives, value orientations, moral guidelines;
  • the emergence of prerequisites for individuality, which is facilitated by the awareness and development of one’s own interests, abilities and a critical attitude towards them.

Professional self-determination is extremely difficult and is determined by several factors: age; level of aspirations and level of awareness.

Social aspects are essential for developmental psychology. For the most part, personal qualities are very ambiguous and determined by social environmental circumstances. Thus, to characterize age, it is necessary to take into account both social and psychological data.

During adolescence, in the pattern of self-awareness, the process of reflection sharply intensifies - the desire for self-knowledge of one’s own personality, for the assessment of its abilities and capabilities - this condition is a required condition for self-realization. The subject of attention and careful study are one’s own thoughts, aspirations and desires, and experiences. In youth, a strong tendency towards personal self-affirmation is formed - the desire to show one’s own originality, to be different from others, to stand out in some way from the general mass of elders and peers.

When choosing a specialty, the level of awareness of young people about themselves and their future profession is important. In most cases, young people are poorly informed about the labor market, the content, nature and conditions of work, professional, personal, business qualities that are required when working in any specialty - this leads to a negative impact on the correct choice.

When choosing a profession, the level of personal aspirations, which includes an assessment of abilities, objective capabilities - what a person can actually do - becomes important.

Professional orientation is part of social self-determination; as a result, a successful choice of profession will be when young people combine social and moral choice with reflection on the nature of their “I” and the meaning of life.

Features of the cognitive sphere that are important when making decisions during a professional career are relativism, decentrism, and an individual’s openness to change. And also, the ability to plan, the absence of dogmatism and rigidity, a sense of action, information secrecy, integration and differentiation, creativity, a sense of alternativeness. These individual qualities, in accordance with professional activity, are manifested in the following personal characteristics:

  • ability to analyze information from the professional sphere;
  • the ability to analyze information about oneself in the language of professional activity;
  • the ability to build professional plans suitable for implementation.

An integral condition for professional planning for young people is the awareness and establishment of life values.

Thus, a professional project represents the unity of affective and cognitive components, the unity of continuity and discontinuity in the course of personal development.

What conditions will ensure successful personality formation?

Important conditions for the formation of a child’s personality.

Example of parents

It is important for a child to see that mom and dad do not follow a certain script, but really live a happy and fulfilling life. It is impossible to make another person happy if you yourself are unhappy. Many psychologists note that people who do not experience inner harmony often complain about problems in relationships with children. Only happy parents will be able to truly understand their child by building a trusting relationship with him. This contributes to the successful formation of personality. When trying to help your child with this, start with yourself. Reflect: do you know how to accept your feelings, do you allow yourself to truly be happy and sad. Or maybe you are restraining yourself and teaching your child excessive restraint, thereby suppressing his personality.

Communication with others

Show by example how to communicate with other people. Give yourself a little test by honestly answering the question: “Are you able to have an unbiased conversation with a person with whom you disagree in some aspects?” Is there a possibility that you are trying to impose an opinion on another person or are you submitting to someone else’s will? The child will probably adopt this feature from you.

Don’t impose your opinion and position – just share your values. Have you heard the definition of “heartfelt conversation”? Such dialogues arise when a person is ready to understand the interlocutor and share his opinion. In relationships, a person develops, allow yourself to learn new things and teach this to your child.

Care and attention

A person who has felt care and attention at the dawn of development will certainly feel confident and protected. Mother and father become important life references, exerting serious influence. It is great if a mother can demonstrate such qualities as forgiveness, acceptance, love. The child needs to feel affection and warmth. In a father, strictness and gentleness are important, acting undividedly.

Parents are the most important stage in the formation of personality. Everyone knows the words that raising children should begin with their own upbringing. Start with yourself if you want to help your child’s personality acquire important facets.

Becoming an Adaptive Personality

As children develop as adaptive individuals, they should show signs of being able to persevere when faced with challenges. They must become more and more resourceful and psychologically stable, and cope with failures. They are able to handle stress with confidence and accept that things don't always work out the way they intended. As adaptive individuals, they are able to give up their demands when it becomes clear that they are futile. In other words, they are able to hear the word “no” and accept the consequences that come with it. Adaptive children learn from mistakes, and adults' comments benefit them.

Children 3-4 years old are just beginning to understand the limits and limitations that exist in the world around them.

Tears will be a frequent occurrence for them, especially if they are faced with rejection. If close adults are patient enough to help them work through strong feelings as they face restrictions, children usually come to terms with the futility that is part of life, such as not having cookies before breakfast or running naked in the street.

They will be prone to violent outbursts when frustrated because the parts of their brain responsible for impulse control will not be activated until the age of 5-7 years (assuming development is progressing correctly).

Once children reach 8–11 years of age, they should demonstrate the ability to cope with difficult events, such as exams at school or the loss of their soccer team.

They may still be frustrated by their mistakes, but they are more patient when they do and don't explode with aggression every time. They seem more resilient and resourceful, accepting the inevitable limitations in their lives, and they may even remind younger children of the rules and regulations. At school, they are able to learn from mistakes, demonstrate concern and patience, and they can also persevere when faced with difficult tasks.

When a child enters adolescence, he may protest against prohibitions and restrictions, as he begins to taste the transformation into a separate human being.

When teenagers are already 14-15 years old, it can be difficult for them to hear the word “no”, especially if their peers and culture are pulling them in a completely different direction.

At this age, it is important to continue to maintain relationships with them, imposing necessary restrictions, for example, regarding the use of digital devices or dating. By this age, they should have gained enough experience in dealing with what is futile, and they already understand when it is necessary to insist, and when to change themselves.

Incentive sphere

Preschool childhood is a key and very important period of personality development. It is now that the formation of the main motives that will encourage the child to activity takes place. What is its specificity?

Motives appear related to the fact that the child strives to join adult life, to become more like his parents or their friends, to live like them. Often such motives are intertwined with the game, so kids often have fun playing “Mothers and Daughters”, “Shop” and the like.

In addition, we highlight the following motives:

To be better than peers, a competitive element. Establishing and maintaining positive relationships with adults

It is extremely important for a child to be singled out, praised, and rejoiced at his achievements. Moral motives are obedience, helping others, the desire to somehow please them. The motives for learning are the acquisition of knowledge, skills and abilities. It is common for a preschooler not to wait for praise, but to make certain efforts to receive it

In addition, it is during this period that a hierarchy of motives arises, their subordination

It is common for a preschooler not to wait for praise, but to make some efforts to receive it. In addition, it is during this period that a hierarchy of motives arises, their subordination.

The process of education as the basis for the personal development of children of different ages

The process of comprehensive personality education is labor-intensive. The definition of essence consists of what is included in the understanding of the educational impact on the child. For some it is obedience, for others it is punishment. However, the basis of the upbringing process should be the multilateral development of the child’s abilities and the formation, based on the existing base of natural inclinations, of a harmonious, full-fledged system called personality.

In any situation, the basis of the education process is the family. Its influence is discussed in the works of psychologists and teachers. In the absence of mother and father, this role is assigned to the child’s immediate environment. However, it is in a full-fledged harmonious family that the prerequisites for an adequate personality begin to form, traditions and customs are passed on, which in the future will form a worldview system. The manner of behavior that was a model for him in childhood will be the personal norm throughout the rest of his life. The role of family traditions in the formation of personality is enormous. They allow family values ​​and cultural characteristics to be passed on to subsequent generations, helping to maintain continuity.

For a young child, healthy family relationships are a priority. Rarely does a person as an adult be able to change the existing negative standard. In this case, the person must go through a difficult path of reassessment of values.

Education should not become an end in itself for parents. However, their task is to ensure development in such a way as to create optimal conditions for the purposeful formation of a harmonious personality and prepare it for further life in society. Some parents try to be perfect. You shouldn't be afraid to make mistakes. They are the basis for working on yourself and self-improvement. Moreover, we are talking not only about a child, but also about an adult. Parents must teach their child to be responsible for their actions and take responsibility for their life.

When organizing the education process, you should take into account some features of age-related development. Until the age of three, attention to him and his problems is of great importance for a child. At this age, mother and child are one. Therefore, ignoring requests and appeals is dangerous for mental development. At this age, the child’s cognitive activity is great. Dangerous objects should be excluded from visibility so that the learning process is accompanied only by positive emotions.

After three years, according to ideas in psychology, a child learns to manipulate an adult. Therefore, it is necessary to clearly define the concepts “possible” and “impossible”. The determining system of relations between an adult and a child should be explanatory and contractual. At the age of 5 to 7 years, a child develops fears. The main thing during this period is not to contribute to the development of phobias, but to gently destroy negative emotions.

How old does a person grow and how long does it take for his organs to develop?

How old does a person grow? The development and growth of our body - both the whole body and internal organs - is inconsistent and, one might say, spasmodic. The most rapid increase in body weight and size occurs during the period of intrauterine development. In nine months, a small egg reaches a weight of three kilograms. But even after birth, growth does not stop, although it slows down. In the first year of life, a healthy baby grows an average of 23 centimeters, but in the second year he gains only ten centimeters. Then, until the age of 11 in girls and 13 in boys, growth slows down, although it does not stop completely, so that during puberty it rapidly increases, by ten or even more centimeters at once. Then, as they say, the child “stretched out” and turned into a tall and angular teenager.

But even later, the body continues to develop in height, albeit imperceptibly - by a couple of millimeters or a centimeter per year. Previously, there was no consensus on how old a person grows. It was believed that up to twenty, although this figure is very generalized and conditional. At the age of 25, the formation of the body, all organs and vital functions is completely completed. From adolescence to twenty years, intensive work is carried out to strengthen internal organs - the heart, lungs. Sexual development occurs rapidly - a surge of hormones literally reshapes the female body, in one or two years turning an awkward, pimply teenager with protruding collarbones and sharp knees into a seductive beauty with soft feminine features. Typically, body lengthening in girls stops at the age of sixteen to nineteen, since all development resources are used to prepare the body for procreation.

How old does a man grow? Its upward growth continues on average until twenty, and for some young men it continues further - up to 25 or even thirty years of age. At the age of 20-25, the last period of rapid growth occurs, when a person can add half a centimeter per year. This means that the internal organs have finished forming, have strengthened, become denser, and the remainder of the resources for increasing the body have been devoted to lengthening the skeleton. After this “golden age,” when a man is said to be in his prime, and a woman is said to be “in her prime,” the body’s development in this regard stops.

In the question of how old a person grows, race and genetic inheritance play a key role. The period of puberty and general formation of the body in the Negroid race of people who live in southern Asia passes somewhat earlier. If European boys (especially in northern countries) at the age of 14 are still mere children, then in India and on the African continent they are already fully formed young men. This applies even more to girls, which is why the tradition of early marriage is connected. On the European continent, an earlier cessation of growth was also noted among southern peoples and a more extended period of maturation among northern peoples.

Heredity is also a decisive factor in how long a person grows. If both parents are tall and slim, there is a 90% chance that their children will also be taller than average. And, conversely, short people also have small children. Of course, there is still 10% left. What are these factors? Can we somehow influence them and, therefore, adjust our growth? Yes, because if you eat right and lead an appropriate lifestyle, then this, although slightly, can affect your body length.

Knowing how old a person grows, you can add an extra centimeter or two not allotted by nature. By consuming certain foods that help strengthen the bones of the spine and increase the elasticity of the intervertebral discs (cottage cheese, fatty fish, aspic or jellied meat), you can increase body growth. Special physical exercises that stretch the spine also help to increase metric characteristics. But the influence of carrots on the upward movement of our body turned out to be too exaggerated. Carrots only have a strengthening effect, like other fruits and vegetables.

UNTIL HOW MANY YEARS CAN CHARACTER CHANGE, how you can change character

If a person has been... nothing... since childhood, then it will be difficult to become a person later... I come to the conclusion that a child is already born with his own character. On a separate piece of paper, you need to write down those character traits that cause irritation, and opposite each one, write down exactly how they manifest themselves. After reaching thirty years of age, dramatic changes in character occur extremely rarely, but still it is never too late to change yourself.

In the future, the character will change somewhat based on personal meetings, relationships with other people; at an older age, some personality traits change again, but for different reasons.

During this age period, the young person is also significantly influenced by the media.

Already in the second year of life, a boy or girl demonstrates strong-willed qualities to adults, and by the age of 3-4 years, the child’s business qualities are already formed.

The most basic, basic character traits are laid in early childhood; we can confidently say that already at 5-6 years old a child has a sufficiently developed character.

According to psychologists, a person’s character is an individual set of personal properties that determine a person’s attitude towards everything around him and are manifested in the actions he commits.

Training, education and development of the necessary character traits and skills must be carried out in a playful manner, setting tasks for the child and gently pushing him towards the right choice.

Only those cases when a child persistently reacts to different situations with the same incorrect behavior over a fairly long period should cause concern.

After this, it is worth offering a game option when your child will have the opportunity to decide to give the toy, and then an option when he does not have to give it away.

There were cases when bad upbringing was corrected by life, but this was a breakdown of the personality. Each child is individual and how he behaved in the tummy, whether he caused trouble for his mother for all 9 months or was quiet and gentle - this is how the child will be in the future. You should first gently explain to your child everything that concerns your own or someone else’s thing, and when it is necessary to share, and when it is possible not to do so. You should not be angry with your child if he does not always meet his parents’ expectations, especially if these expectations contradict the child’s temperament and age.

If mom and dad have little contact with the outside world, then the children will have nowhere to learn to be sociable.

If parents often quarrel noisily, then the baby learns to solve all problems through a scandal, no matter how much you explain to him that screaming and swearing is ugly.

Looking at them, he learns to react to certain situations.

If the message was deleted by the author himself, the rating does not decrease. Having weighed everything written, it will be much easier for a person to control himself and prevent future unwanted actions on his part. In such a situation, a systematic approach will greatly help. In this case, you should first distract the child in a playful way, and then try to replay the situation with the possibility of an acceptable response.

The brain also loses activity. During puberty, it is difficult not only for teenagers, but also for their parents. At this time, changes take place in the cardiovascular and respiratory systems.

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