Individual typological characteristics of personality.


Person, Personality, Ability, Prevail, Nervous, Activity, Character, Property
The student must:
Have an idea:

  • about modern approaches to the psychological characteristics of temperament types.


  • characteristics of temperament types and the preferred field of activity for each temperament type;
  • main accentuations of character;
  • features of organizational abilities;

Be able to:

  • determine the type of temperament, character traits, communication and organizational skills, motivation and value orientations of an individual, using various methods of personality research (observation, conversation, tests, projective techniques).

Temperament. Types of temperament. Modern approaches to the psychological characteristics of temperament types.

Character and its nature. Character structure. Accented personalities.

The concept of abilities. Structure of abilities. Abilities and their development. Diagnostics of abilities.

Personality orientation and its structure. The concept of individual style of activity. The influence of personality traits on adaptation in a team.

Laboratory - practical exercise. Drawing up characteristics of individual psychological properties of a person.

Independent work:

Repetition of material

Temperament translated from Latin means “mixture”, “proportionality”. The oldest description of temperaments belongs to the “father” of medicine, Hippocrates. He believed that a person’s temperament is determined by which of the four body fluids predominates: if blood predominates (“sanguis” in Latin), then the temperament will be sanguine, that is, energetic, fast, cheerful, sociable, easily endures life’s difficulties and failures. If bile (“chole”) predominates, then the person will be choleric - a bilious, irritable, excitable, unrestrained, very active person, with rapid mood swings. If mucus (“phlegm”) predominates, then the temperament is phlegmatic - a calm, slow, balanced person, slowly, with difficulty switching from one type of activity to another, poorly

8 pages, 3900 words

Psychomotor and emotional criteria for visual diagnostics in various types of temperament and character accentuations

... character from temperament, then later, with the development of personality, the relationship between them changes: character becomes increasingly important, transforming the temperament ... of interlocutors. Courtesy, perseverance, focus, acting talent, the ability to captivate others, originality. Traits that repel... or make you angry. High activity significantly prevails over low reactivity, which is...

Temperament is those innate human characteristics that determine the dynamic characteristics of the intensity and speed of reaction, the degree of emotional excitability and balance, and the characteristics of adaptation to the environment.

Academician I.P. Pavlov studied the physiological foundations of temperament, drawing attention to the dependence of temperament on the type of nervous system. He showed that two main nervous processes - excitation and inhibition - reflect the activity of the brain. From birth, they are all different in strength, mutual balance, and mobility. Depending on the relationship between these properties of the nervous system, Pavlov identified four main types of higher nervous activity: 1) “unrestrained” (strong, mobile, unbalanced type of nervous system (n/s) - corresponds to the temperament of a choleric person); 2) “alive” (strong, agile, balanced type n/s corresponds to the temperament of a sanguine person); 3) “calm” (strong, balanced, inert type n/s corresponds to the phlegmatic temperament); 4) “weak” (weak, unbalanced, sedentary type N/S determines the temperament of a melancholic person).

Before moving on to the consideration of various types of temperament, let us immediately emphasize that there are no better or worse temperaments - each of them has its own positive sides, therefore the main efforts should not be aimed at remaking temperament (which is impossible due to the innateness of temperament), but at the reasonable use its negative sides.

Humanity has long tried to identify the typical features of the mental make-up of various people, to reduce them to a small number of generalized portraits - types of temperament. Typologies of this kind were practically useful, since with their help it was possible to predict the behavior of people with a certain temperament in specific life situations.

4 pp., 1843 words

Methodology for studying the structure of temperament by Ya. Strelyau (adapted by N.N. Danilova, A.G. Shmelev)

... to various properties of temperament. The answers to these questions cannot be good or bad, since each temperament has ... ease of switching nervous processes from excitation to inhibition and vice versa; rapid transition from one type of activity to... stereotype, not liking rapid and unexpected changes in activity, inert, usually showing a low ability to switch...

Let's look at the characteristics of the four types of temperament


Representatives of this type are characterized by increased excitability and unbalanced behavior. They are quick-tempered, aggressive, straightforward in relationships, and energetic in activities. Cholerics are characterized by cyclical work patterns. They devote themselves to their work with all passion and are carried away by it. But their strength is exhausted, faith in their capabilities has fallen, a depressed mood sets in, and they do nothing. Such cyclicality is one of the consequences of the imbalance of their nervous activity.


A person with a strong, balanced, mobile nervous system, has a quick reaction, and his actions are deliberate. A sanguine person is cheerful, due to which he is characterized by high resistance to the difficulties of life. He is productive when he has a lot of interesting things to do. Otherwise, he is lethargic, boring, absent-minded, etc.

Phlegmatic person.

He is solid, does not waste his energy, calculates it, and brings the job to the end; in relationships - even, moderately sociable, does not like to chat in vain. Disadvantages - inertia, inactivity, which leads to the fact that he needs time to sway and switch his attention to another object.


A person with a weak nervous system, with increased sensitivity even to weak stimuli. He is often sad, depressed, unsure of himself, and anxious; he may experience neurotic disorders.

Thus, many personality traits (impressionability, emotionality, impulsiveness, anxiety, concentration, etc.) depend on temperament, which greatly influences success in business communication.

Individual typological characteristics of personality.

Home Favorites Random article Educational New additions Feedback FAQ

Page 1 of 16Next ⇒

Personality structure.

Personality structure - the main parts of the personality and the ways of interaction between them. Personality structure is what (from what elements) and how the personality is built. The 1st substructure is called personality orientation

These include: drives, desires, interests, inclinations, ideals, worldviews, beliefs. The personality elements (traits) included in this substructure do not have innate inclinations, but are completely socially conditioned and formed through upbringing
. The most active and stable form of orientation is beliefs. The totality of them constitutes a person’s worldview, which can be passive - it is simply available. But the substructure of orientation also includes will - it is this that can give beliefs an active character, contributing to their implementation.

The 2nd substructure is called experience

It combines knowledge, skills, abilities and habits acquired in society through education
, but with a noticeable influence of biologically and even genetically determined human properties. Not all properties included here can be considered as personality properties. A skill that is just beginning to form or a one-time action is not yet a personality trait. But typical manifestations for a given individual, as well as consolidated knowledge, skill, and even more so ability and habit, are already indisputably a property of the individual. Experience can also be passive dead weight. But thanks to individual volitional skills, he can become active when knowledge and skills are not just “known”, but also used.

The 3rd substructure combines the individual characteristics of individual mental processes (functions)

: memory, emotions, sensations, thinking, perception, feelings, will.
After all, we all have different memories, emotions, perceptions, etc. These individual characteristics, when consolidated, become personality traits. Some have a “fine perception of art,” another has a “leaky” memory, and a third has “a flurry of emotions over a trifle.” All components of this substructure are formed through exercise
, that is, the frequency and method of using a given function. Since emotions and sensations are also characteristic of animals, we can say that in the personality traits of the 3rd substructure, the biological component begins to prevail over the social one.

The 4th substructure combines the properties of temperament

or typological properties of a person (as belonging to a certain type).
They almost completely depend on the physiological properties of the brain: the speed of nervous processes, the balance of excitation and inhibition processes, etc. This also includes gender and age characteristics, as well as personality characteristics caused by some pathology (disease). These biologically determined traits are difficult to change, but sometimes it is possible to shape (or rather, “remake”) the desired trait through training
But greater
role here than in previous substructures is played by compensation - the ability to replace an insufficient or “out of order” function with some other one.
For example, after watching an incendiary action movie before bed, your nervous system is overexcited, and you can’t fall asleep. Then you can “deceive” her with various tricks: “counting sheep,” imagining yourself on a hot beach, lying in your favorite “sleep” position, eating something, etc. The activity of the temperament substructure is determined by the strength of nervous processes
; if you have a weakness of nervous processes, then you will have a “weak” type of nervous system and a type of temperament with more passive behavior.

Individual typological characteristics of personality.

Personality in psychology refers to a systemic (social) quality acquired by an individual in objective activity and communication and characterizing the degree of representation of social relations in the individual.

The personality of each person is endowed only with its own inherent combination of psychological traits and characteristics that form its individuality, constituting the uniqueness of a person, his difference from other people. Individuality is manifested in traits of temperament, character, habits, prevailing interests, in the qualities of cognitive processes (perception, memory, thinking, imagination), in abilities, individual style of activity, etc.

Biological and social in the structure of personality.

Endopsyche (biological) as a substructure of personality expresses the internal interdependence of mental elements and functions, as if an internal mechanism of the human personality, identified with the neuropsychic organization of a person. Exopsyche (social) is determined by a person’s relationship to the external environment, i.e. to the entire sphere of what opposes the personality, to which the personality can, in one way or another, relate. The endopsyche includes such traits as receptivity, characteristics of memory, thinking and imagination, the ability to exert volition, impulsiveness, etc., and the exopsyche is the system of human relationships and his experience, i.e. interests, inclinations, ideals, prevailing feelings, formed knowledge, etc.

The biological, entering the human personality, becomes social.

Natural organic aspects and traits exist in the structure of the individuality of the human personality as its socially conditioned elements. The natural (anatomical, physiological and other qualities) and the social form a unity and cannot be mechanically opposed to each other, as independent substructures of the personality.

So, recognizing the role of both the natural, biological, and social in the structure of individuality, it is impossible to distinguish biological substructures in a person’s personality, in which they already exist in a transformed form.

The structure of personality consists of character, temperament and abilities.

Concept of character.

Translated from Greek, “character” is “minting”, “sign”. Indeed, character is the special characteristics that a person acquires while living in society.

Character is a set of stable individual characteristics of a person that develops and manifests itself in activity and communication, determining the individual’s typical modes of behavior.

The formation of character occurs in conditions of inclusion of the individual in social groups of different levels of development.

A person's character is always multifaceted. It can highlight traits or sides, which, however, do not exist in isolation, separately from each other, but are linked together, forming a more or less integral character structure.

The structure of character is revealed in the natural relationship between its individual traits. If a person is cowardly, there is reason to assume that he will not have the qualities of initiative (fearing an unfavorable turn of the proposal or action initiated by him), determination and independence (making a decision involves personal responsibility), selflessness and generosity (helping another may in some way disadvantage him own interests, which is dangerous for him). At the same time, from a person with a cowardly character, one can expect humility and servility (in relation to the strong), conformity (not to turn out to be a “black sheep”), greed (to insure oneself financially for the future), readiness for betrayal (in any case, when extreme circumstances threatening his safety), distrust and caution. However, a cowardly person cannot always behave this way; he can even behave arrogantly, thereby veiling his shortcoming, but of course, the above qualities will prevail.

Among character traits, some may act as the main ones. In life there are more integral characters and contradictory ones. Among the whole characters one can at least distinguish certain types.

A person's character is revealed by:

1. In the way he treats other people;

2. A person’s attitude towards himself is indicative of character;

3.Character is revealed in a person’s attitude to business;

4. Character is manifested in a person’s attitude towards things.

Accentuation of character traits.

When the quantitative expression of a particular character trait reaches extreme values ​​and is at the extreme limit of the norm, so-called character accentuation occurs.

Accentuation of character is an extreme variant of the norm as a result of strengthening its individual traits.

Accentuation of character under extremely unfavorable circumstances can lead to pathological disorders and changes in personality behavior, to psychopathology, but reducing it to pathology is wrong.

The following most important types of character accentuation are distinguished: Introverted character type, which is characterized by isolation, difficulty in communicating and establishing contacts with others, withdrawal into oneself; extroverted type - emotional agitation, thirst for communication and activity, often regardless of its necessity and value, talkativeness, fickleness of hobbies, sometimes boastfulness, superficiality, conformity; uncontrollable type - impulsiveness, conflict, intolerance to objections, and sometimes suspicion.

The main features of the neurasthenic type of character accentuation are predominant poor health, irritability, increased fatigue, and suspiciousness. Irritation against others and self-pity can lead to short-term outbursts of anger, but rapid exhaustion of the nervous system soon extinguishes anger and promotes peace, repentance, and tears.

The sensitive type is characterized by fearfulness, isolation, and shyness. Sensitive teenagers avoid joining large and especially new companies, do not participate in the pranks and risky enterprises of their peers, and prefer to play with small children.

They are afraid of tests and are often embarrassed to answer in front of the class, for fear of causing laughter with a mistake or the envy of their classmates by answering too well. “The feeling of one’s own inferiority makes the hypercompensation reaction especially pronounced (i.e., overcompensation is an increased desire to overcome one’s shortcomings). They seek self-affirmation not away from the weak point of their nature, not in areas where their abilities can be revealed, but precisely where they especially feel their inferiority.

Timid and shy boys put on a mask of freeness, but as soon as the situation requires courage and determination from them, they immediately give up. If you manage to establish trusting contact with them, then their sensitivity and exorbitant demands on themselves immediately become visible. If you start to sympathize with them, they may even cry.

Character and temperament.

From nature, a person receives only opportunities for development in a certain direction. They lie in the anatomical and physiological characteristics of the brain and endocrine system of the newborn child. On this basis, a person’s individual characteristics develop, in particular his temperament. Temperament refers to stable individual personality characteristics that are expressed in the dynamics of mental processes and actions.

Temperament traits include the strength or weakness of the experience of feelings and desires, their depth or superficiality, stability or variability of mood.

Temperament types:

choleric, melancholic, phlegmatic, sanguine.

Traits of temperament and character form an almost inseparable alloy that determines the general appearance of a person, an integral characteristic of his individuality.

Cholerics include energetic, hot-tempered, “passionate” people. The timid, indecisive, and sad were called melancholic; phlegmatic - slow, calm, cold. Sanguine people were considered to be hot-tempered, active, cheerful, lively people.

Character is largely the result of self-education. Thus, character is the lifetime acquisition of a personality that is included in the system of social relations, in joint activities and communication with other people, and thereby acquiring its individuality.[2;457]

The concept of abilities.

Abilities are those psychological characteristics of a person on which the success of acquiring Knowledge, Abilities and Skills depends, but which themselves are not reduced to the presence of these knowledge skills.

Abilities and knowledge, abilities and skills, abilities and skills are not identical to each other. In relation to ZUN, a person’s abilities act as a certain possibility. Just as a grain thrown into the soil is only a possibility in relation to an ear, which can grow from this grain only under the condition that the structure, composition and moisture of the soil, weather, etc. turn out to be favorable, human abilities are only an opportunity for acquiring knowledge and skills. Whether or not this knowledge and skills will be acquired, and whether the opportunity will turn into reality, depends on many conditions.

Abilities are revealed only in activities that cannot be carried out without the presence of these abilities.

Abilities are revealed not in knowledge as such, but in the dynamics of their acquisition, i.e. in how quickly, deeply, easily and firmly the process of mastering knowledge and skills that are essential for a given activity is carried out, other things being equal. The property of compensating for some abilities with the help of developing others opens up inexhaustible opportunities for each person, pushing the boundaries of choosing a profession and improving in her.

In general, a qualitative characteristic of abilities allows us to answer the question in which field of work activity (design, teaching, economics, sports, etc.) is it easier for a person to find himself and discover great successes and achievements.

The surest way to determine abilities is to identify the dynamics of a child’s success in the learning process.

Abilities are a set of mental qualities that have a complex structure.

The structure of the totality of mental qualities, which acts as an ability, is ultimately determined by the requirements of a specific activity and is different for different types of activity.

Among the properties and characteristics of a person that form the structure of specific abilities, some occupy a leading position, while others occupy an auxiliary position.

By studying the specific psychological characteristics of various abilities, we can identify general qualities that meet the requirements of not one, but many types of activity, and special qualities that meet a narrower range of requirements of a given activity. In the structure of the abilities of some individuals, these general qualities can be extremely clearly expressed, which makes it possible to talk about the presence of versatile abilities in people, about general abilities for a wide range of different activities, specialties, and occupations. These general abilities or qualities should not be opposed to special abilities or qualities of a person. General abilities or general qualities of a person are very specific psychological manifestations, which psychologists have already begun to study. Among these general personality qualities, which in the conditions of a specific activity can act as abilities, are individual psychological qualities that characterize belonging to one of the two dominant types of people. The artistic type is characterized by the brightness of images arising as a result of direct influence, living impressions, emotions . For the thinking type - the predominance of abstractions, logical constructions, theorizing. A person’s belonging to an artistic type can in no way indicate that he is fatally destined for the activity of an artist. Another thing is obvious - it is easier for a representative of this type than for others to master activities that require impressionability, an emotional attitude to events, imagery and vivid imagination. It is no coincidence that the vast majority of artists have more or less pronounced features of this type. The qualities of the thinking type create conditions for the most favorable development of activities associated with operating with abstract material, concepts, mathematical expressions, etc. It is easy to understand what a wide range of specific activities (mathematics, philosophy, etc.) may require precisely these qualities as prerequisites for successful mastery of an activity. The highest level of development of abilities is called talent. Talent is a combination of abilities that gives a person the opportunity to successfully, independently and originally perform any complex work activity.

Talent is a combination of abilities, their totality. A single, isolated ability cannot be an analogue of talent, even if it has reached a very high level of development and is clearly expressed.

Talent is such a complex combination of mental qualities of a person that it cannot be defined by any one single ability.

The structure of talent is determined, ultimately, by the nature of the demands that a given activity makes on an individual.

There is also such a concept as giftedness, it is not at all identical to talent, it acts as a prerequisite for the emergence of talent.

Personality Features:

1. Attentiveness, composure, constant readiness for hard work;

2. Willingness to work develops into an inclination to work, into diligence, into an irrepressible need to work;

3. Associated with intellectual activity: these are features of thinking, speed of thought processes, systematicity of the mind, increased capabilities of analysis and generalization, high productivity of mental activity.

If we talk about specific differences in giftedness, then they are found in the direction of interests. One child, after some period of searching, settles on mathematics, another on biology. Further development of the abilities of each of these children occurs in specific activities, which cannot be carried out without the presence of these abilities.

Therefore, the structure of special talent includes a complex of the above personality qualities and is supplemented by a number of abilities that meet the requirements of a specific activity. Thus, it has been established that mathematical talent is characterized by the presence of specific abilities, among which the following can be distinguished: formalized perception of mathematical material, which takes on the character of quickly grasping the conditions of a given problem and expressing their formal structure; ability to identify the essence of the problem; to the generalization of mathematical objects, relations and actions, etc.

Also, in addition to talent and giftedness, there is such a thing as mastery.

Talent in the totality of its general and special qualities is nothing more than an opportunity for creative success, it is only a prerequisite for mastery, but it is far from mastery; for this you need to work hard.

If talent is an opportunity, then skill is an opportunity that has become a reality. True mastery is the manifestation of a person’s talent in activity. Mastery is revealed not only in the sum of the corresponding ready-made skills and abilities, but also in mental readiness for the qualified implementation of any labor operations that will be necessary for a creative solution to the problem that has arisen. Abilities are not acquired by a person in a ready-made form, as something given to him by nature, innate, but are formed in life and activity. An essential factor in the development of human abilities is stable special interests. A special interest is an interest in the content of a certain area of ​​human activity, which develops into a tendency to engage professionally in this type of activity. It has been noted that the emergence of interest in a particular work or educational activity is closely related to the awakening of the ability to do it and serves as a starting point for their development.

3.Activities. Activity is understood as the activity of a subject aimed at changing the world, at producing or generating a certain objectified product of material or spiritual culture. Human activity appears first as practical, material activity. Then theoretical activity is separated from it. Any activity usually consists of a series of acts - actions or actions based on certain motives or motivations and aimed at a specific goal. Since under different conditions this goal can be achieved in different ways (<operations>) or ways (<methods>), the action acts as a solution to the problem.


There are three types of activity that genetically replace each other and coexist throughout the entire life course: play, learning and work. They differ in final results (product of activity), in organization, and in features of motivation.

The main type of human activity is labor. The end result of labor is the creation of a socially significant product. It could be a crop grown by a collective farmer, steel smelted by a steelmaker, a scientific discovery by a scientist, a lesson taught by a teacher.

The game does not create a socially significant product. The formation of a person as a subject of activity begins in the game, and this is its enormous, enduring significance. Training is the direct preparation of an individual for work, develops it mentally, physically, aesthetically, and only at the final stage of mastering a profession is it associated with the creation of material and cultural values. Labor is the process of human creation of material and spiritual values ​​of society.

In the mental development of a child, play acts primarily as a means of mastering the world of adults. In it, at the level of mental development reached by the child, mastery of the objective world of adults occurs. The game situation includes substitutions (instead of people there is a doll), simplifications (for example, the outside of a reception is played out). In the game, therefore, reality is crudely imitated, which allows the child for the first time to become a subject of activity.

The game is organized freely and unregulated. No one can oblige a child to play board games from 10 to 2 o'clock, and after 2 o'clock - mother and daughter games. A child’s play can be organized, but he must accept what is proposed. This does not mean that the child should not have a strict daily routine. Sleep, food, walks, play and activity times must be strictly defined. But the content of the game, the child’s involvement in it, and the termination of the game are difficult to regulate. The child himself moves from one game to another.

Learning and work take place in organizational forms obligatory for a person. Work begins at a precisely set time, and during it, labor products are produced in accordance with the plan and given productivity. The same picture is observed in teaching. Classes begin in accordance with the schedule, and throughout the entire lesson the student is engaged in this particular subject.

Different forms of organizing activities are also associated with their different motivations. The motive of the game is the pleasure that the child experiences from the very process of the game.

The main motive for study and work is a sense of duty, a sense of responsibility. These higher feelings are no less a strong stimulus for activity than interest. However, both in learning and in work, a person should be interested in the process of activity itself or in its results. It is equally important to create the habit of working.

Various types of activities complement each other, interexist, and interpenetrate. In kindergarten, a preschooler not only plays, but also learns to count and draw. The schoolboy plays with pleasure after finishing classes.

Game moments are successfully introduced into the organization of the lesson: A lesson with elements of game situations captivates schoolchildren. The game is an imaginary journey along a map of our country or a map of the globe in geography lessons, during which students, based on their imagination, tell what. they see". Schoolchildren willingly take on playing roles in foreign language lessons: teacher, guide, seller - and based on the role they actively master the language. The worker not only works, but also studies (at night school, at a technical school, at a higher educational institution, or engages in self-education). He can play chess and participate in other sports and recreational games.

Although activities do not exist in isolation, they have different meanings at different periods of a person's life. For one period of life, the leading activity is play, for another - learning, and for a third - work. Thus, we can talk about the types of activities that are leading in a particular period of personality development. Before the child enters school, the leading activity is play. The leading activity of a schoolchild is learning, and that of an adult is work.

A game. When analyzing a game as a type of activity, one should first find out its nature. In bourgeois psychological literature, biologizing theories of play are widespread, according to which a child’s play frees the innate biological need for activity, equally inherent in both animals and humans. They try to connect the development of a child’s play with the corresponding stages of development of human society. Interest in playing in the sand, digging holes - stages of arable farming, playing with animals - cattle breeding, etc.

Scientific analysis of play activity shows that play is a child’s reflection of the world of adults, a way of understanding the world around him. A convincing fact that demolishes the inconsistency of the biologization theory of the game is given by K. K. Platonov. An ethnographer discovered a tribe on one of the Pacific islands that lived isolated from others. The children of this tribe did not know how to play with dolls. When the scientist introduced them to this game, at first both boys and girls became interested in it. Then the girls lost interest in the game, and the boys continued to invent new games with dolls. Everything was explained simply. The women of this tribe took care of obtaining and preparing food. Men took care of the children.

In the child's first games, the leading role of adults is clearly evident. Adults “play with” the toy. By imitating them, the child begins to play independently. Then the initiative to organize the game passes to the child. But even at this stage, the leadership role of adults remains.

As the child develops, the game changes. In the first two years of life, the child masters movements and actions with surrounding objects, which leads to the emergence of functional games. In functional play, unknown properties of objects and ways of operating with them are revealed to the child. So, having opened and closed the door with a key for the first time, the child begins to repeat this action many times, trying • at every opportunity to turn the key. This real action is transferred to the game situation. When playing, children make a movement in the air that resembles turning a key, and accompany it with a characteristic sound: “backgammon.”

Constructive games are more challenging. In them, the child creates something: builds a house, bakes pies. In constructive games, children understand the purpose of objects and their interaction.

Functional and constructive games belong to the category of manipulative games, in which the child masters the surrounding objective world and recreates it in forms accessible to him. Relationships between people are conceptualized in story games. The child plays “mother-daughter”, “shop”, taking on a certain role. Role-playing games begin at 3-4 years of age. Until this age, children play nearby, but not together. Role-playing games involve collective relationships. Of course, the inclusion of a child in group games depends on the conditions of upbringing. Children raised at home have more difficulty participating in group games than children attending kindergarten. In collective story games, which become longer by the age of 6-7 years, children follow the intent of the game and the behavior of their comrades. Role-playing games teach children to live in a group. Gradually, rules are introduced into the games that impose restrictions on the behavior of partners.

Collective role-playing games expand the child’s social circle. He gets used to obeying the rules and requirements that are placed on him in the game: he is either the captain of a spaceship, or its passenger, or an enthusiastic spectator watching the flight. These games foster a sense of collectivism and responsibility, respect for fellow players, teach them to follow the rules and develop the ability to obey them.

Games by rules are widely represented in the lives of schoolchildren and adults. In sports competitions, solving crossword puzzles and other games that require mental effort, a person switches to another type of activity, improves his mental and physical strength, and receives emotional release.

Being the main activity of a preschool child, play does not exclude other types of activity. From the age of 3-4 years, the child becomes familiar with the work of self-care. He must wash himself, get dressed, put away his toys. At the age of 5, the child’s work responsibilities become caring for indoor plants, helping elders in cleaning the room, etc. In kindergarten, children willingly work in the dining room, in the living corner, and in the playroom.

Possible tasks around the house form and strengthen work skills and instill in the child positive character traits: a responsible attitude to work, caring for comrades.

Elements of learning are also included in the life of a preschooler. They are associated with didactic games that develop children’s cognitive abilities. For example, the “Animals” lotto is a game that teaches a child to classify objects shown on a card. In kindergartens, classes are held in native speech (enrichment of vocabulary), and in arithmetic. Currently, classes are organized in older groups to prepare children for school. There is positive experience in teaching music, drawing, and foreign languages ​​to preschoolers in kindergartens.

All of the listed activities: play, elements of work and learning - prepare the child for school.

Need is the source of activity of living beings. The most ancient needs in evolutionary terms are genetic programs aimed at preserving life, reproduction and development of the environment. The more useful needs a living organism has, the more active it is, the greater its expansion, the higher its competitiveness in the struggle for existence. Of all the living organisms living on Earth, humans have the most needs. Features of the needs:

1. Needs are always associated with a person’s feeling of dissatisfaction, which is caused by a shortage of what is required.

2. Needs determine the selectivity of perception of the world, fixing a person’s attention on those objects that can satisfy this need (“A hungry godfather has only bread on his mind,” “Whoever hurts, talks about it.”)

3. The presence of a need is accompanied by emotions: first, as the need intensifies, negative, and then, if it is satisfied, positive.

4. The number of needs increases in the process of phylogenesis and ontogenesis. Thus, the number of needs increases in the evolutionary series: plants - primitive animals - highly developed animals - humans, as well as in the ontogenetic series: newborn - infant - preschooler - schoolchild - adult.

5. Human needs form a hierarchical system, where each need has its own level of significance. As they are satisfied, they give way to other needs.

6. Various scientists have explained the essence of human needs in different ways:

An approachThe essence of the approachAuthor
Need as needThe state of an individual in need of living conditions, objects and objects, without which his existence and development are impossible.S.L. Rubinstein
Need as an attitudeNeed is a system of relations between the subject and the environmentYES. Leontyev
Need as a deviation from the level of adaptationA need is the result of a deviation of external or internal reality from the subject’s established expectations about this realityD.K. McClelland
Need as a stateNeed is understood as a dynamic state of increased tension that “pushes” a person to certain actions. This tension is “discharged” when the need is satisfied. Thus, in the process of the emergence and satisfaction of needs, a person goes through a series of dynamic states that differ in the level of their tension.

Classifications of needs. There are many classifications of needs. One of them divides all needs by origin into two large groups - natural and cultural.

. The first of them are programmed at the genetic level, and the second are formed in the process of social life. The second classification (by level of complexity) divides needs into biological, social and spiritual.

· To biological

can be attributed to a person’s desire to maintain his existence (the need for food, clothing, sleep, safety, sexual satisfaction, saving energy, etc.).

· Towards social

needs include a person’s need for communication, for popularity, for dominance over other people, for belonging to a certain group, for leadership and recognition.

· Spiritual

human needs are the need to know the world around us and oneself, the desire for self-improvement and self-realization, to know the meaning of one’s existence.

Interiorization (French interiorisation, from Latin interior - internal), a transition from outside to inside. of interiorization psychology after the work of representatives of the French sociological school (E. Durkheim and others), where it was associated with the concept of socialization, meaning the borrowing of the main categories of individual consciousness from the sphere of public ideas. The cultural-historical theory of the Soviet psychologist L. S. Vygotsky received fundamental significance for psychology; One of the main provisions of this theory was that any truly human form of the psyche initially develops as an external, social form of communication between people and only then, as a result of interiorization , becomes a mental process of an individual. The stages of interiorization are traced in detail in works devoted to mental actions, where it is shown that interiorization is not a simple transition to action in terms of ideas (J. Piaget, Switzerland), but the formation of an internal plane of consciousness. Accompanied by a number of other changes in action (generalization, reduction, etc.), internalization leads to the formation of a new specific mental process.

1Next ⇒

The reason for dividing people into types

The question of why in the same situation people behave differently, sometimes in sharply opposite ways, has arisen before everyone at least once in their life. In the modern world, which is developing at an accelerated pace, more and more attention is being paid to the study of psychotypes, both by specialists and individual citizens.

In psychology, with the help of typology, an individual psychological portrait of a person is compiled, which includes such qualities as:

  • temperament;
  • character;
  • capabilities;
  • inclinations;
  • emotionality;
  • motivation;
  • personal values.

Despite the fact that the identified psychotypes according to any of the theories are practically never found in their pure form, everyone can identify the predominant features of one of the types. Based on the compiled psychological portrait, experts can predict the behavioral model of an individual in a given situation.

  • Knowing the prevailing psychotype in oneself helps a person quickly find his purpose in life and increase self-esteem. A personal psychological portrait will tell you how to put your best qualities into practice and hide your shortcomings.
  • Data from psychological tests and questionnaires are increasingly used by HR specialists when hiring. The same tests allow you to determine which assignment is best given to which employee. It is also important to select team members whose interaction will be aimed at optimally performing tasks accurately.
  • Psychoanalysis allows you to identify weaknesses and predict the actions of a criminal or enemy. Used in law enforcement and military operations.
  • Many people use personality typology when choosing a suitable partner for starting a family. Knowing the psychotypes of relatives and understanding their actions helps resolve or smooth out family conflicts.
  • Drawing up a psychological portrait is of great importance for teenagers, as well as for their parents. Sometimes we have to admit that the goal chosen by parents is not suitable for the temperament and character of their child. Personality typology is an important component of choosing a professional direction.

Myers-Briggs typology

The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) is based on Jung's typology. Both of its creators did not have a psychological education, but after reading Jung’s “Psychological Types” they began to actively type in practice, conducting observations of people’s behavior and his research. Living during wartime, they had the opportunity to observe large masses of people in unusual situations, and based on this material they described the differences between types in more detail.

Further, MBTI was effectively developed as a system that allows you to form work teams, select personnel, and predict the behavior of employees in a company. Specialists using MBTI aim to build proper management in connection with the personality types of both the manager and subordinates. MBTI allows you to separate not only the strengths, but also the weaknesses of the subject and, concentrating on the strong characteristics, place the employee in the most suitable position for him in the organization.

According to the MBTI, a person's type comes in four formats. The first is the source of energy from where a person draws energy. An extrovert receives energy from the outside, he needs to constantly act and communicate, this is his way of survival and comfort zone. It is in the process of interaction with the external world that he receives the impetus for development and the material for it. An introvert, on the contrary, draws energy from within himself and therefore loves solitude.

The next one is the center of attention, a way of obtaining information about the world around us. Here we are dealing with sensory as a reliance on the senses, intuition as a supraconscious process of analysis, forecasting and anticipation of events. The sensory type is based on the present and past experience, while the intuitive is able to see figuratively, the whole picture, as if from above.

Next comes the decision-making center using the thinking or feeling mode. The thinking type reasons based on right and wrong, while the feeling type reasons based on personal values.

And the last pair of characteristics, judgment and perception, are related to the individual's lifestyle. People of judgment live in an orderly, predictable world, while people of perception live in a deep, elemental world with open options for all kinds of choices, which is why they do not make decisions until the last moment.

What is temperament in psychology?

Temperament is translated from Latin as “proper proportion of parts.” This term refers to the totality of a person’s individual characteristics, which determines his activity throughout his life. First of all, temperament manifests itself in emotionality, in the degree of manifestation of experiences, features of adaptation to the world around us. Temperament is manifested by the power of impulsiveness.

Temperament and character are concepts, although related, but they mean completely different categories. If temperament is determined already at the birth of a child and is a biologically determined parameter, then character is formed under the influence of the social environment and acquired experience.

Temperament does not change throughout a person's life; character traits can develop and change over time.

Feelings and emotions

Feelings and emotions are reflected in the individual typological characteristics of the individual. Their manifestations depend on the strength or weakness of the nervous system, its mobility or inertia, as well as the level of culture and upbringing of a person.

Moral, intellectual and aesthetic

Moral, intellectual and aesthetic feelings, the degree of their expression are determined by the living conditions of a person and his upbringing.

An individual's moral feelings are manifested if he evaluates someone's action from the standpoint of its morality or immorality. In addition, the presence or absence of a person’s sense of duty, goodwill, and empathy indicates the degree of development of his moral side of personality.

People also differ in the degree to which they develop their intellectual senses. These include emotional experiences that arise at the time of mental activity: cognitive interest, thirst for discovering new knowledge, passion for scientific research.

Intellectual feelings

Aesthetic feelings express a person’s ability to notice and appreciate the beautiful in everyday life. People differ from each other in their ability to be surprised, to be moved, to experience joy and sadness, to enjoy the contemplation of nature or to empathize with a literary hero.

Classification depending on temperament

Most often, a personality typology is compiled based on the division into temperaments. Despite its antiquity, the theory of Hippocrates is the most widely known and is still relevant today. Modern psychologists associate temperaments with the innate properties of the nervous system; Hippocrates associated them with the predominance of one type of fluid.

Temperament typeMain featuresPositive sideNegative sidePredominant liquid
  • Emotionality;
  • impulsiveness;
  • speed of reaction;
  • hotness;
  • passion.
Ardent EnthusiastRash decision making.Yellow bile (chole)
  • Mobility;
  • rich emotions;
  • optimism;
  • productivity at work;
  • stability;
  • cheerful character.
Energetic and flexible specialist in any field.Inconstancy, superficial hobbies.Blood (sangvis)
Phlegmatic person
  • Equanimity;
  • calm;
  • lack of emotions;
  • slowness;
  • stable attitudes and aspirations.
High level of responsibility and endurance in any situation.Dryness in communication, indifference to other people.Lymph (phlegm)
  • Weak will;
  • constant worries;
  • self-isolation;
  • sadness;
  • sadness.
Deep feelings, emotions.Shyness, tendency to depression.Black bile (melena chole)

Carl Gustav Jung also considered it correct to divide humanity into psychotypes based on innate temperament.

In his theory, he went further than Hippocrates; his classification is based on the division into 2 main types according to the direction of perception:

  • Introverts - attention is directed inward, the assessment of events and actions occurs based on personal perception.
  • Extroverts are focused on society, more focused on the surrounding reality than on internal experiences.

Jung based the addition of the classification on 4 senses:

  • thinking;
  • intuition;
  • emotions;
  • Feel.

As a result, Jung's classification of types is as follows:

Personality typeMain positive qualitiesFlaws
Thinking extrovertReasonableness in decision making, objective assessment of reality.Lack of emotions, ignoring moral laws.
Intuitive extrovertActivity, the ability to captivate.The type of adventurers who quickly catch fire with ideas and also quickly cool down.
Emotional extrovertAbility to correctly evaluate partners and situations, love of art.Emotionality is cold, without external manifestation of feelings.
Sensitive extrovertAesthetes enjoying life.Excessive craving for pleasure and pleasure at any cost.
Thinking introvertHigh intellectual sociability aimed at deepening knowledge.Difficulties in communicating with people around you, bad teachers and advisers.
Intuitive introvertAbility for imagination and art. Type of artists, mystics. Creativity is not always clear to others.
Emotional extrovertIncreased sensitivity to the needs of others.Emotions are hidden, tendency towards melancholy.
Sensitive introvertEmphasis on sensory perception.Difficulties in communication if the object does not evoke strong sensations.

Classification depending on character

Unlike temperament, which is considered an innate personality trait, character is a concept with a broader meaning. A person’s character is formed on the basis of innate temperament under the influence of the characteristics of the surrounding social environment throughout life.

Personality typology in psychology, based on character traits, determines types of people based on a set of constant behavior patterns and natural reactions to certain events.

Classification of characters according to Karl Leonhard identifies the following types of personality:

  • Demonstrative.
  • Pedantic.
  • Stuck.
  • Excitable.

Kretschmer's theory of determining character types, widespread in wide circles, proposes a division into 3 types of physique, which correspond to 3 types of characters:

  • An asthenic is a thin person with long limbs, a narrow chest, and a belly without fat. This type corresponds to the character of schizothym. The behavior of these people is dominated by seriousness and coldness. Communication with others is superficial, without deep inner content. Shikhotims are people with steel energy, stable and unshakable.
  • Picnic is a man of average height, with a dense figure, a wide chest and a massive belly. Character - cyclothyme, is determined by increased excitability, sociability, and a high degree of adaptability to the surrounding world.
  • An athlete is a person with a stately, proportional physique. Character – iksotim. Such people are calm, restrained, and inclined to adequately assess events. Sometimes change is difficult to cope with.
( 1 rating, average 5 out of 5 )
Did you like the article? Share with friends:
For any suggestions regarding the site: [email protected]
Для любых предложений по сайту: [email protected]