Individual personality properties. Temperament, character, abilities.

All people are different. Individual psychological characteristics of a person determine the uniqueness of each person. Research in the field of differential psychology is devoted to the study of the uniqueness of people. The achievements of this science explain why some people strive to be leaders, while others feel more comfortable in the role of performers; why one person is burdened by noisy companies, while for another, loneliness seems unbearable.

All people are different

Despite the fact that people have the same brain structure, their nervous system is capable of inhibition and excitation, there are still no two completely identical men or women. They are distinguished by individual psychological properties of the individual.

Manifestation of individual psychological characteristics

Unique psychological characteristics of the individual are manifested in human behavior and activity. They are expressed:

  • In the speed of work;
  • The ability to control your emotional reactions;
  • In sociability or isolation;
  • In the tendency to defend one’s point of view, to take initiative;
  • In the severity of anxiety.

Attention! The main components that determine the uniqueness of a person are temperament, character and abilities.

Strong-willed qualities

Will is a skill that allows an individual to control desires and suppress them at the right time. With the help of will, you can achieve your goal by giving up benefits.

Willpower allows a person to move forward past obstacles, to sacrifice interests for the benefit of others.

Man is unique from birth. Throughout his life, he shows individuality in behavior, decision-making, and attitude towards others. Psychologists study features to understand how they affect mental development.

What kind of temperament is there?

Psychology of human personality

Temperament is an innate component of personality structure. It is customary to distinguish 4 types of temperament:

  1. Choleric is an impetuous, emotional person. His feelings flare up quickly, then fade away just as quickly. The impulsiveness of choleric individuals is manifested in speech, lively facial expressions, and sweeping gestures. Such people are often conflict-prone, do not know how to compromise and build constructive relationships with others.
  2. A melancholic person is an extremely sensitive person who is very easily upset. Such people have low resistance to stress and experience failures painfully and for a long time.
  3. A sanguine person is a cheerful, merry fellow who takes life’s troubles lightly and does not worry about trifles. It is extremely important for him to get different experiences, otherwise he will get bored. The feelings of such people are superficial, and their contacts are numerous.
  4. A phlegmatic person is a slow, thoughtful person. He has a balanced character and it is almost impossible to anger him. His facial expressions are scanty, and the emotions he experiences are not externally manifested.


Temperament properties determine such personality traits and characteristics of a person as:

  • Sensitivity (some people are resistant to pressure from others, while others are vulnerable);
  • Susceptibility to criticism and destructive behavior of others;
  • Cognitive activity, energy, efficiency (there are many obstacles on the way to achieving success, some people easily cope with difficulties, while others fall into despair and refuse to carry out their plans);
  • Ability to concentrate in any conditions;
  • Relative balance in the processes of the nervous system, which ensures successful interaction with people;
  • Speed ​​of mental processes (it is expressed in intelligence, speed of successful memorization of information, rate of speech, speed of writing, walking);
  • Extroversion (for such people, communication and numerous contacts with different people are a necessary condition for good health);
  • Introversion (a person’s focus on his own inner world provides him with a comfortable stay alone);
  • The ability to quickly adapt to a new environment, changing conditions (this quality is professionally important for professions such as investigator, psychologist, doctor);
  • Personal flexibility in communicating with people, the ability to find a common language with almost any person;
  • Rigidity, conservatism, desire to follow stereotypes.

The type of temperament determines not only a unique set of personal qualities, but also a person’s character.

Additional Information. The names of temperament types invented by Hippocrates have survived to this day. However, this individual quality is now determined not by the proportional distribution of fluids in the body, but by neuropsychological characteristics.

Phlegmatic people

These people are difficult to move, they are inert and often go with the flow. The main personal characteristics are:

  1. Closedness. It does not manifest itself in such volumes as in the same melancholic person, but people with this type of GNI prefer to carry everything within themselves and once again not open up to others.
  2. Tendency to loneliness. Despite the outward friendliness of a phlegmatic person, the best company for him is his own person.
  3. Poor adaptability. For a phlegmatic person, a global life change will be a real tragedy. These people prefer predictability and stability.

Character and its classification

Personality qualities - what is it in psychology, characteristics

Character consists of stable traits that explain the behavior and characteristics of a person’s activities. The typology of a person’s character is manifested in his work, communication with people, and handwriting.

Manifestation of character in communication

In psychology, there are several scientific approaches to understanding character:

  • Constitutional biological approach. The founder of this concept is E. Kretschmer. According to his views, character is a combined combination of a person’s physique and temperament.
  • Psychoanalytic approach. This characterological theory was developed by the masters of psychoanalysis Z. Freud, K.G. Jung and A. Adler. They explained manifestations of character by the presence of unconscious drives in a person.
  • Ideological approach. The author of this concept is Robeck, who believed that character is formed as a result of the fact that a person subordinates his desires to the established rules and norms of society. In addition, Robek believed that the social position of an individual largely determines his characterological traits.

While studying character structure, B.G. Ananyev identified in it such components as personality orientation, level of development of communication skills, habits, and features of the emotional-volitional sphere.

N.D. Levitov believed that character is formed on the basis of a person’s attitude to society and other people, to himself and his activities, things.

The similarity of different approaches is seen in the fact that all researchers confidently stated that character depends on a person’s living conditions and his temperament. The basis of character is made up of stable traits that a person can accept and be aware of, or may deny or not be aware of.

Attention! Unlike the type of temperament, character is not an innate property of a person; it is formed in the process of life.

It all starts from childhood

Childhood is a wonderful time of carelessness and security. It seems to the child that the world around him is beautiful, huge and simply beckons. A growing child begins to explore it in childhood, when he is not aware of himself, but the development of his personality is already beginning.

If we talk about the behavior of a very young child, he already has his own characteristics and basic qualities. A child’s personal characteristics are inherent in him from infancy. It is not for nothing that parents who have two or more children, when making comparative characteristics, note for themselves the different behavior patterns of their offspring. And very often you can hear stories from friends in which they say that their children are completely different, although they were born by the same parents. One, from childhood, was distinguished by stubbornness, willpower and mobility. He grew up to be a real spirit, he does everything in life by running, but efficiently. And the second one grew up “foul-mouthed”, modest and inert. As an adult, he remained as infantile as in childhood.

The personal characteristics of a child depend on genetics, someone will say. Actually this is not true. Genetics can bring surprises, and successful parents give birth to real brats. Parents are beginning to find out where this comes from. And they remember that grandfather was too modest and unable to show willpower in any matter.

Personal characteristics are influenced by the following factors:

  1. Genetics.
  2. Family education.
  3. Environment.

And if we have already talked about the first factor, then the next two are worth considering more carefully.

Concept of abilities

Psychological trainings for adults

Abilities are special personality properties that allow a person to achieve success in a particular type of activity. Abilities are formed on the basis of natural inclinations. Features of the functioning of the brain, the degree of sensitivity of the analyzers are the main inclinations of the development of abilities.

Unique ability

The level of development of a person’s abilities determines the success of a particular activity. In school classes, the teacher divides students into weak and strong based on the level of development of abilities. In a production team, the level of development of abilities determines the speed of advancement up the career ladder. In the sports section, the coach, based on developing the abilities of young athletes, assembles a team to participate in competitions.

Interesting. Having different levels of development of abilities, people use different ways to achieve goals and methods of solving problems. Through abilities, a person can transfer acquired skills from one area of ​​application to another, using proven tools for various practical tasks.

General and special abilities

Psychophysiologists classify abilities into general and special. General abilities are necessary for the successful mastery of skills such as reading, writing, counting, and self-care skills. Special abilities determine a person’s success in creative activities and sports.

Important! The development of special abilities is based on general abilities. Without mastering general academic skills, a child will not be able to succeed in creative activities.

Feelings and emotions

Feelings and emotions are reflected in the individual typological characteristics of the individual. Their manifestations depend on the strength or weakness of the nervous system, its mobility or inertia, as well as the level of culture and upbringing of a person.

Moral, intellectual and aesthetic

Moral, intellectual and aesthetic feelings, the degree of their expression are determined by the living conditions of a person and his upbringing.

An individual's moral feelings are manifested if he evaluates someone's action from the standpoint of its morality or immorality. In addition, the presence or absence of a person’s sense of duty, goodwill, and empathy indicates the degree of development of his moral side of personality.

People also differ in the degree to which they develop their intellectual senses. These include emotional experiences that arise at the time of mental activity: cognitive interest, thirst for discovering new knowledge, passion for scientific research.

Intellectual feelings

Aesthetic feelings express a person’s ability to notice and appreciate the beautiful in everyday life. People differ from each other in their ability to be surprised, to be moved, to experience joy and sadness, to enjoy the contemplation of nature or to empathize with a literary hero.


If you or someone close to you has this type of GNI, then you are very lucky. The most sober and balanced people are sanguine people. Their main personal characteristics are balanced judgments and actions. The most pronounced qualities include:

  1. Practicality - representatives of this personality type know how to look forward. They are very practical in their actions, they calculate everything in advance.
  2. Patience is one of the best qualities of a sanguine person. At the moment of failure, he will not fold his “paws”, but will be patient, clench his teeth, get up from his knees and start all over again.
  3. Sobriety - we mentioned this above. A sanguine person does not panic like a choleric person. He is able to turn on “cold thinking” in the most emergency situations. In ordinary life, a sanguine person looks at the world without rose-colored glasses, soberly assessing his own abilities and capabilities.

What is the will characterized by?

Willpower determines people’s ability to cope with difficulties and strive for their goals. As an individual typological characteristic, will determines the arbitrariness and self-control of people's behavior.

Willpower determines the presence or absence of such qualities in a person as perseverance, determination, determination, independence, endurance, initiative, courage, discipline, diligence, and organization.

Attention! Will is expressed in the behavioral, cognitive and emotional characteristics of the individual. You can observe the manifestation of will when a person analyzes his actions and bears responsibility for his actions.

Individual psychological characteristics of a person make people different from each other. The uniqueness of each person makes him unique in his activities and communication. It is noteworthy that you can purposefully develop certain aspects of your character in order to attract the right people to you.

Attractive personality

( 1 rating, average 5 out of 5 )
Did you like the article? Share with friends:
For any suggestions regarding the site: [email protected]
Для любых предложений по сайту: [email protected]