Fundamentals of the formation of socially significant personality qualities in the conditions of modern Russia

DMITRY SUSLIN – teacher and writer

With his statement, Adam Smith wanted to convey to us the idea that every person should have the right to engage in business and this will benefit society.

From my social studies course I know what entrepreneurship is. Entrepreneurship is an independent activity, the purpose of which is to make a profit, carried out on one’s own behalf, at one’s own risk. Entrepreneurial activity is important both for the entrepreneur individually and for society as a whole.

The owner of the company, out of motivation to obtain maximum benefit for himself, wants to receive the greatest profit. Profit is the difference between income and expenses over a certain period of time. To achieve the highest level of profit, the owner of the company, that is, the entrepreneur, needs to produce goods and services that meet the requirements and demands of consumers. For this reason, an entrepreneur tries to beat competitors in an often difficult competitive business environment, tries to create a good and high-quality product, while at the same time minimizing costs. Low-cost goods and services appear on the market, have good quality and are in great demand among consumers, and bring profit to producers, which is beneficial for both producers and consumers.

In addition, entrepreneurial activity has benefits for the state. Entrepreneurs must pay taxes regularly. By paying taxes, they replenish the state budget. Also, entrepreneurship plays a significant role in the economic situation of the state. Entrepreneurship contributes to the economic growth of the state, since economic indicators such as GDP and GNP depend on the volume of products produced by entrepreneurs and on the entrepreneurs themselves.

I completely agree with Adam Smith's statement. Every person should have the opportunity to engage in entrepreneurship, and this activity will not only benefit the person who carries it out, but also the benefit of society.

As a first example, I will use the example of a successful 20th century entrepreneur, Henry Ford. Ford had a dream of creating a car that would be accessible to everyone. To do this, he created a standard of mechanisms and parts and simplified the design of the car. Such actions helped him increase the speed of production and reduce the cost. Henry Ford was the first to carry out assembly line production of cars and became a leader in the car production market and was able to achieve maximum profits. In this regard, he was helped by the innovative technologies introduced into production, the efficient use of production factors, as well as the creation of a product that is in great demand.

As a second example, I will give an example from the literature. Henry Rearden is a successful businessman and inventor, one of the main characters in Ayn Rand's novel Atlas Shrugged. Rearden's main goal was to earn as much money as possible. High profits served as an incentive for him to inventive and commercial activities. In his pursuit of money, he created a large number of things that turned out to be useful and accessible to society. As a result of his numerous ten-year efforts, Rearden created a metal alloy that had a special quality. The alloy, which was much stronger than steel, resistant to corrosion, and had an acceptable price despite all these factors, was used in the construction of railways. The reconstruction of the railway facilitated the transportation of goods throughout the country, and, as a result, helped the development of trade. Factories and research centers provided people with jobs, the taxes paid to them replenished the state budget and helped the development of the state.

Based on all of the above, we can conclude about the importance of entrepreneurship in the life of society. Entrepreneurship brings benefits to producers, society and the state, occupying an important stage in the life of society

Individual abilities of people

Individual psychological qualities of a person contribute to the achievement of success and excellence in a certain activity. They are determined by the social and historical practice of the individual, the results of the interactions of biological and mental indicators.

There are different levels of ability:

  1. giftedness;
  2. talent;
  3. genius.

The development of the algorithm of personal qualities and abilities of people is characterized by the ability to learn new things in the mental sphere. Special features are manifested in a specific type of activity (musical, artistic, pedagogical, etc.).

What personal positive qualities of a person should be included in a resume?

If there are usually no difficulties with listing places of work in a resume, then it is often difficult to name your positive qualities. A person does not know how to evaluate himself objectively, which can be an obstacle. Another reason is that the applicant feels that he needs to be more modest and not paint himself in bright colors. This is a misconception, because your resume is a kind of presentation. Therefore, do not be shy and think carefully about which positive qualities you would most like to include in your resume.

The enumeration should be based on several rules:

  • be restrained in your presentation;
  • Don't make an overly long list;
  • get away from the stereotypes;
  • choose positive qualities for your resume in accordance with the requirements of the vacancy.

You should not be ironic or make jokes if you are applying for a position that requires a serious approach. You can show your humor only in cases where the proposed work requires exclusively creative qualities. In addition, try to show that you are exactly the person the employer is waiting for. Avoid terms such as communication skills: this is found in almost every resume and has long become a template.

Having trouble describing positive qualities in your resume?

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Social and psychological qualities of personality

The properties and qualities of personality in social and psychological terms in social science do not have a single clear definition. In the scientific works of psychologists there are several different opinions on this topic. Here are the main ones:

  1. If we interpret the term “personality” as a synonym for the word “person,” then qualities mean characteristics. If personality is a component of qualities, then human traits are determined by social properties.
  2. Sometimes the concept of “socio-psychological traits” includes the opposition of basic and secondary properties (from the perspective of differences between personal and general psychological).
  3. The structure of an individual is perceived as a set of traits and properties. Or, on the contrary, as a specific system consisting not of qualities, but of other elements.

Based on this list, it is clear that it is difficult to unambiguously determine the socio-psychological properties of a person. Because, firstly, there is no specific list of such qualities and criteria for identifying them. Secondly, there are contradictions in the relationship between abilities and properties. All these aspects require close attention. Their essence will be studied by sociologists and psychologists for a long time.

Structural aspect of personality

For a more complete understanding of what qualities characterize a person, it is worth highlighting the structure of individuality. Conventionally, we can imagine four levels:

  • I. The level of temperament, including the characteristics of genetic predisposition, in particular the individual nervous system of a person.
  • II. The level of individual mental processes, revealing features determined by the peculiarities of perception and imagination, memory and will, sensations and attention, thinking.
  • III. A level that affects the experienced part of the personality, namely qualities in the field of knowledge, skills, abilities and habits.
  • IV. The level of social orientation includes features that reflect the individual’s relationship to the outside world. They guide and regulate the psychological foundation of human behavior - these are interests and views, beliefs and social attitudes, moral principles.

The connecting link between all four levels are such individual qualities that characterize a person as needs and character, abilities and egocentrism, which together with the above levels form the personal shell of the individual.

Traits of people that characterize their temperament

The innate qualities of a person shape him as a social being. Behavioral factors, type of activity and social circle are taken into account. The category is divided into 4 concepts: sanguine, melancholic, choleric and phlegmatic.

  • A sanguine person is a strong and balanced person who easily adapts to a new environment and overcomes obstacles. Sociability, responsiveness, openness, cheerfulness and leadership are the main personality traits.
  • A melancholic person is a weak and sedentary person. Under the influence of strong stimuli, behavioral disturbances occur, manifested by a passive attitude towards any activity. Isolation, pessimism, anxiety, tendency to reason and resentment are characteristic features of melancholic people.
  • Cholerics are strong, unbalanced, energetic personality traits. They are quick-tempered and unrestrained. Touchiness, impulsiveness, emotionality and instability are clear indicators of a restless temperament.
  • A phlegmatic person is a balanced, inert and slow person, not prone to change. Personal indicators show how to easily overcome negative factors. Reliability, goodwill, peacefulness and prudence are the hallmarks of calm people.

Ability Indicators

Individual psychological qualities of a person contribute to the achievement of success and excellence in a certain activity. They are determined by the social and historical practice of the individual, the results of the interactions of biological and mental indicators.

There are different levels of ability:

  1. giftedness;
  2. talent;
  3. genius.

The development of an algorithm of a person’s personal qualities and abilities is characterized by the ability to learn new things in the mental sphere. Special features are manifested in a specific type of activity (musical, artistic, pedagogical, etc.).

Methodology characterizing the individual

There is a technique that explains how to characterize a person. It requires an analysis of the individual’s behavior and a generalization of the data obtained.

It includes the following stages of analysis:

  • I. Determining a person’s own opinion regarding himself. The character traits that appear in relation to oneself, namely modesty, or confidence, or uncertainty, the ability to calculate one’s own strengths, self-criticism, or determination and courage, or self-control and perseverance, or lack of will and lethargy.
  • II. Determination of the attitude of the analyzed subject to the people around him. If such qualities as honesty and justice, sociability and politeness, tactfulness or rudeness, contempt, etc. are present, then you need to find out to what extent.
  • III. Determining the individual’s position in society and the opinions of other employees about him.
  • IV. Determination of psychological characteristics, in particular the characteristics of memory, thinking and attention.
  • V. Determination of areas of interest to the subject, namely the labor, or educational, or sports, or creative sphere.
  • VI. Determination of emotional sensitivity to a particular situation. This may be a quick response when solving problems or, conversely, the absence of any reaction.
  • VII. Determination of the degree of responsibility. For example, he takes his job seriously and does it well, whether he takes initiative or not.

Thus, it is necessary to analyze the subject based on the required characteristics objectives.

Special professional qualities

Each of these properties is considered in accordance with professional significance. For example, driving is contraindicated for a person who is unable to distinguish colors (color blindness). A person with low numerical ability will not be hired as a leading economist.

It is also necessary to list the following personality qualities, without which mastering a profession will in principle be impossible:

  1. Properties of an individual-typological nature (endurance, physical strength, lability of the nervous system) - in other words, stress resistance.
  2. Analytical properties that allow you to acquire unique abilities over time. Example: “technical hearing” is the ability to understand the cause of a mechanism malfunction without instruments, only relying on experience.
  3. Attentiveness directly depends on a person’s interest and desire to have up-to-date information about reality and to adequately evaluate it.
  4. Psychomotor skills are the special properties and perceptions of a person that guide him when choosing a course of action to achieve his goals. It also includes the speed of analysis and the ability to quickly analyze a situation and make decisions. As practice shows, this skill can be trained well.
  5. Mnemonic qualities. Associated with memory. Professional memory is also freely trained.
  6. Imaginative features - the ability to imagine and complex thought processes
  7. Strong-willed qualities - they are not required for every profession, but they are always necessary to overcome difficulties in the process of work.

Volitional personality traits

Strong-willed qualities personally

compiled goals. Let's touch on the main ones.

Purposefulness is a person’s focus on the chosen result of an activity. This property is divided into a strategic variety and a tactical one. The first is, in general, a person’s actions based on his moral positions, values ​​and ideals. The second is the movement of the individual “step by step”, from one micro-goal to another until the result is achieved.

Initiative is a person’s focus on taking action. Usually precedes the beginning of a volitional act. Independent individuals have this property. Initiative is associated with independence.

Independence is a person’s voluntary and active attitude to make decisions in accordance with his principles and beliefs.

Will is not considered an innate quality, but is considered by psychology as a quality, the formation of which occurs on the basis of a person’s personal choice.

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