The relationship between motivation for professional activity and socio-psychological attitudes of the individual in a team

People are characterized by actions; each person is stimulated to them by his own factors. An individual who is far from psychology does not ask the question of what motivation is. Therefore, he moves towards the goal on a whim. If you understand the essence of the concept, you can not only quickly achieve success in achieving what you want, but also involve other people in the process.

Moving towards achieving the goal

Components of human motivation

Any activity is not chaotic actions, but movement towards a specific goal. It can be grandiose (for example, make a scientific discovery) or the most ordinary (renovate an apartment, buy a car, go to the sea). Each direction is motivational and has a specific meaning.


A person gets out of bed in the morning and performs his usual actions. He is driven by the need to get himself in order, have breakfast and go to work. If it’s a day off, you can slightly change your plans: get up later, go on a visit, go shopping, or sit in front of the TV for half a day.

In each specific case, a person decides for himself what he needs most at the moment. Therefore, need can be called one of the motivating factors. But on its own it does not provide a clear direction to action.


This concept translated from Latin means “I move.” Motive not only directs a person’s activity in the right direction, but also gives meaning to actions. Even the need to lie in bed the entire weekend has a reasonable explanation - the body is exhausted during the working week and requires passive rest.

There is a motive for this action

If the individual ultimately receives satisfaction from such behavior, it means that the goal was achieved and fully justified, and the need turned out to have a logical motivation.


Motivation is based on the 2 factors described. If the need is an instinct, a prerequisite or an unconscious desire, then this is not enough for the motive. To choose the direction in the implementation of the plan, one more factor is needed. In psychology it is called a goal.

In other words, there must be some real or abstract thing called the end result. In the above example, the purpose of passive action is to gain strength for subsequent (more active) motivations of the person.

Types of motivation

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Factors that motivate action have a certain classification. For each specific person, the motivation for activity is individual. A person independently sets goals for himself, determines directions for achieving them, and this is influenced by the needs of the person himself.

People do not live in a vacuum, so self-motivation can be influenced by the influence of others (family members, neighbors, colleagues, bosses, friends, enemies, etc.). Therefore, it is important to understand what types of motivation include.

Extrinsic and intense

These scientific names hide terms that are quite understandable to humans:

  • Extrinsic means external. A person is encouraged (forced) to move in a certain direction by some external circumstances or incentives;
  • Intrinsic motivation is the absence of outside influence, i.e. internal circumstances arising from the process of activity itself.

Intrinsic motivation

Note! Both forms of motivation are interrelated. If the internal one allows you to satisfy needs, then the external one corrects actions in achieving the goal.

Positive and negative

Incentives can be of different types. They determine the trajectory of movement: “from” or “to”. If a person’s actions are aimed at avoiding some negative situation (fine, reprimand, scandal, etc.), this is a negative motivation in psychology.

It becomes positive when the goal is a positive result that satisfies the need. For example, a child will gladly tidy up his toys if he knows that his mother will give him candy or read him a bedtime story.

Stable and unstable

Motivation depends on a person’s character, self-esteem and place in society. Therefore it may be unstable. If an individual is not confident in himself or does not quite understand what he is striving for, questions like: “Do I need this?”, “Do I have enough strength to carry out my plans?”, “Is it realistic to achieve the goal?” Such people's needs may change, and therefore their motives for satisfying them.

Attributes of motivation

Sustainable motivation does not require any explanation and is based on natural needs.

Components of sustainable motivation

Individual• comfortable living conditions (life); • the ability to avoid diseases; • do not feel hungry or thirsty
Group• join the community; • choose a place in the hierarchy; • have offspring and take care of them
Cognitive• receive education and practical skills for self-expression; • in broad terms – to achieve certain heights in scientific research; • master gaming skills, etc. perfectly.

It is sustainable motivation that determines the meaning of people's lives. Thanks to its incentives, a person performs specific actions every day, year after year.

Management methods

The modern classification includes three main groups of personnel management methods:

  • administrative;
  • economic;
  • socio-psychological.

The task of the first group is to create among workers a sense of duty and responsibility, as well as discipline, in order to form a clear organization of work. These methods are implemented through direct influence. Thus, every administrative act must be executed, otherwise appropriate sanctions will be imposed on the employee. The administrative group of management methods acts on the basis of internal acts of the organization and management directives.

Economic methods are based on material incentives for personnel, including bonuses and other additional payments. This is the basis of managerial influence, since in case of failure to fulfill duties, the sanctions provided for by management in relation to employees are most often of a financial nature. In the management field, these management methods occupy a leading place.

Socio-psychological management methods involve the use of social and psychological mechanisms to influence relationships in the workforce. The main feature of this group is the use for their own purposes of various informal factors or interests of individuals or the entire team. These methods affect objects in indirect ways.

All of the above methods can be used both in combination and independently of each other. This classification is not final and does not completely reflect the essence of each group. For example, administrative methods can solve some socio-psychological or economic issues. The results achieved by solving economic methods can be regulated by the administrative group.

Social and psychological methods of personnel management

Optimal relationships between people can be achieved using a set of various social and psychological methods of influencing personnel.

The successful completion of tasks is influenced by factors such as thinking, imagination, and other mental properties. Productivity may depend not only on the physical, but also on the mental and emotional state of the employee. This applies not only to individual employees, but also to all personnel, since efficiency also depends on relationships within the workforce.

Psychological methods are divided into several subcategories:

  • optimal staffing of subgroups and teams;
  • humanization of the labor process;
  • psychological motivation;
  • selection of specialists and further professional training.


The first subcategory of the socio-psychological management method helps to achieve the ideal ratio of employees in each of the work groups. Sociological research, surveys and testing help determine what sympathies or antipathies are manifested in a given team. Also, with their help, you can find out what place an employee should occupy, based on his psychological compatibility. The psychological climate in individual departments and in the workforce as a whole depends on these factors.

There are two types of compatibility:

  • psychological;
  • socio-psychological.

According to the first type, management processes must correspond to the psychology of each individual employee. The second type is formed if the best combination of behavioral types of employees is achieved, and at the same time it is based on the values ​​and interests of the work team.


If work at an enterprise is monotonous and does not involve creative efforts, it is necessary to make some changes by resorting to the humanization of work. You can use color or music to increase work efficiency and make the monotonous process less monotonous.


Also, for greater activity, you should use the motivation method. Thanks to him, the employee’s work will be somehow motivated. Motivation affects directly the object itself, that is, the employees.

Social and psychological methods of management include the following methods of motivation:

  • belief;
  • imitation;
  • suggestion;
  • involvement;
  • confidence;
  • compulsion.

The first method is most often used. Persuasion is carried out by influencing the team by logical means in order to relieve tension or the resulting psychological barrier.

Imitation occurs through personal example, which can be set by the head of an enterprise or department. He can become a model of behavior in the enterprise, and also indicate to the employee which employee he can follow as an example. Moreover, the company's management should always be a role model for all staff in order to command respect. This affects discipline in the team and the final result of the work. The employer's actions can be discussed and evaluated by employees. Thus, the leader is a behavioral standard for subordinates.

The team can be influenced by suggestion. This method is quite effective in most cases and is most often used in the event of a conflict situation. Social and psychological methods of management depend on the authority of the one who influences subordinates through suggestion. Moreover, it must be remembered that the suggestor must also have high moral qualities.

To activate the employee, as well as increase efficiency, you can use the technique of motivation (involvement). The employee should be involved in some interesting creative work, making him a participant in this process.

By providing trust, you can emphasize the positive qualities of a particular employee, for example, experience or a high level of qualifications. In addition, the manager expresses his confidence in the employee’s ability to complete any assignment. Unlike trust, coercion is used when it is necessary to force an employee to complete a task, sometimes against his wishes.

Motivation for any work can be promising and current. Thanks to long-term motivation, the employee must overcome any difficulties that arise during the task. This is necessary for the employee to further achieve the intended goal. Intimate motivation can significantly reduce an employee's productivity because he or she has no prospects for development. Often this ends with a transfer to another job.

Competition at the enterprise

Previously, work was perceived as a means of earning money. In other words, if a worker received adequate payment for the work performed, it was believed that he should be satisfied. However, as research has shown, salary is not the only motivation for achieving successful results.

One way you can increase your work efficiency is through competition. However, it should be remembered that not all enterprises can use such psychological management methods. For example, in a company where wages are too low, working conditions are poor, and the volume of tasks performed is too large, the decision to resort to competition may be seen as an attempt to squeeze the remaining strength from the staff.

Thus, the principle of competition at the enterprise should not cause the opposite effect, as a result of which the intensity of personnel changes can only increase. The reason may be a feeling of difference between the result of the work and the payment. Stimulation must be material, since moral incentives are not able to satisfy the basic needs of employees and become full compensation for the work done. In addition, competitions become effective when the amount of payment is the market average or exceeds it.

Usually, in a group of people whose interests coincide, a struggle for primacy begins in any case. Officially, such a competition is a struggle on the hierarchical ladder. Due to the success of the employee, a promotion awaits. Unofficially, it is limited to communication at an informal level in order to establish one’s authority in the team. As a result, friendly relations are formed between employees or conflicts arise. However, experienced company management is able to direct these processes in the right direction. Competition is a means by which each employee can demonstrate his best qualities and, as a result, achieve the desired production result.

According to research, the struggle for leadership occurs only between a certain number of employees. In any team there will be people who do not accept the conditions of competition and only perform their job duties. Often joining the competition occurs on a subconscious level, since most people do not want to stand on the side of the team. Their goal is to strive to imitate those who have achieved more. In order to properly use the existing potential, experienced psychologists are needed who can guide such a struggle in the right direction.

Factors that determine the level of motivation

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No matter how stable the motives, everyone has their own level of motivation. This is influenced by the prevailing circumstances, occupation, strength of desire and degree of expectations. In psychology, process motivation factors are:

  • the subject’s personal understanding of the standards and benchmarks of success;
  • correct assessment of the real, legitimate probability of achieving the desired;
  • the significance for the individual of the prospect of obtaining a result.

How to achieve your goal

Important! When planning to achieve a specific goal, a person must hope that he will succeed and believe that success is real.

Motives of personality behavior

The topic of human behavior has been of interest to psychology since ancient times. Answers to the question “why?” people do this and then behave differently, the greatest minds of our world were looking for. Today, human behavior can be considered to be influenced by many different phenomena. This may be a certain situation, a person’s personal qualities, external pressure on the individual, or the motives of the individual himself.

What do the motives of a person’s behavior influence? Considering the concept of personal motives, we can say that different motives not only influence a person’s behavior in every possible way, but also in certain situations, motives can determine a person’s behavior. The fact is that a motive is a fusion of an individual’s internal experiences, which often becomes an attribute of the individual and is formulated into a personal quality. For example, motives to become better, to help people and to change this world for the benefit of humanity can become characteristic of the person who experiences them and form into a separate trait - altruism.

Ways to motivate

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Motivation is a psychological process of controlling the actions of any person. Not everything here depends on basic needs. Desire is also influenced by the society in which a person exists. Therefore, his life will be moved towards achieving the goal in various ways.


Being surrounded by other people, the individual adjusts his life to the existing principles. If physical needs are an unconscious initial motivation aimed at satisfying hunger, thirst, etc., then social motives in psychology are the definition of the basis of acquired needs.

Factors in their formation are upbringing and training, the influence of parents, friends and existing norms of behavior. Depending on the culture, each group has specific motives.

All individuals strive to take their place in the social hierarchy. Some prefer to dominate others, while others are more comfortable coexisting with them as equals.

Social motives are the most powerful in guiding human actions. They are the ones who force you to conform to the norms of a certain social group. Behavior in this case is aimed not only at achieving a certain status - society influences tastes and choice of clothing style.

Motivation for learning

In a modern developed society, learning is not just the norm, it is a necessity. All children attend school. Some do it because they have to, others are interested in the process itself.

Having received the long-awaited certificate of education, someone will stop there. But the majority, realizing that they cannot achieve a certain status in society without knowledge, move on to the next stage of education.

Student motivation

The desire to learn new things is not enough here. External factors must be present. Much depends on how interested teachers are in motivating learning. Some with their attitude can instill a craving for knowledge, while others can cause a negative reaction.


If a person has no aspirations, external incentives alone will not motivate him to achieve high results. It is self-motivation that guarantees one hundred percent success. To achieve it, it is important to follow the rules:

  • want to achieve a goal, and it is desired;
  • The process itself should be enjoyable;
  • movement is relaxed, according to a simple and understandable algorithm;
  • there must be excitement in the business, eliminating routine.

A powerful factor of self-motivation is ambition. If a person believes that he is no worse than others and is able to prove this with deeds, then he will achieve great heights.

Social motives of the individual

As already mentioned, the social motives of an individual are generated from the needs of socialization in society. Abraham Maslow classifies attachment as a social motive. These motives represent the desire to be needed, useful, and to have approval from other people. In addition, social motives are determined by the need for respect, as well as self-esteem, which is no less important.

Every person exists in society and is connected with people. Relationships between people are never simple, so various conflicts, hostility and other unpleasant phenomena arise. But, one way or another, a person is born into society, but sometimes society itself gives birth to a person. For this reason, it is very natural that a person tries to find his place in society and establish his identity among the people he knows.

In this area, a person can act in various ways, guided by social motives. For example, in order to please other people, so as not to violate the ideas of society, a person can show conformity, that is, act like the majority.

Human nature is very complex and mysterious. Relationships between two people can also be very unpredictable. People are driven by social motives in order not to be lonely. Every person is looking for another person who is able to understand, support, and most importantly love him for who he really is. This desire forces people to seek compromises in disagreements, change their behavior, and change for the better. These are the most important social motives of a person.

It is also worth noting submission to authority. Even if people complain about the government in the country and do not consider it constructive, they recognize its legitimacy and are convinced that power is necessary for society. This leads to submission to authority, which is also a social motive for the individual.

Areas of application

Motivation is one of the areas studied by theory; it is used in practice in all areas. Knowing the basic principles of human behavior makes it easier to manage subordinate personnel.

In psychology

Human life consists not only of physical needs - there is also a soul. She suffers if deviations from certain norms and foundations occur. Psychologists help restore balance. They study the patient as a versatile person with his own interests and abilities, helping to direct motivation in the right direction.

In management

It is difficult to establish personnel management without getting them interested in the work process. The manager's goal is to challenge employees to achieve the main goal (for example, developing the enterprise, increasing gross income) and increasing their satisfaction.

This is done in several ways:

  • career growth;
  • material interest;
  • intangible values ​​(respect, honor).

How to get staff interested

Well-established management is a clearly formulated goal and correctly chosen motivation that directs the activity of personnel to the necessary needs.

In economics

Satisfaction comes from the type of work that satisfies needs as much as possible. In authoritarian enterprises with bloated management staff, employee income is within the average level. Therefore, salary is not a motivation for work records.

In private business, when profits directly depend on employees, there is a great interest in the development of the company. Especially if it is supported by an economic assessment (remuneration) of the functions of each employee.

Some believe that it is enough to read literature on how to achieve a goal, or watch a short video lesson with advice from others, and the desire to act will immediately appear. Such information is only a passive factor. In psychology, real motivation is defined as the result of an action that has begun.

Note! The main motivating and inspiring stimuli appear in the process of movement.

The need to develop management methods

The work process involves the establishment of social, economic, legal and psychological relations between the employer and the personnel of the enterprise. The main goal of improving such relationships is to create comfortable working conditions for company employees in order to obtain maximum results from their activities.

Today, many enterprises do not fully utilize their potential. Previously, very little attention was paid to this issue, since there were Soviet administrative and command methods of management. Today, in every company, management creates a system of relationships with staff practically from scratch. One of the reasons for the need for properly selected socio-psychological management methods is fierce competition in the current market economy.

The psychological factor is expected to become more important in manager-employee relationships in the near future. In this regard, the demand for professional psychologists will significantly increase, whose responsibilities will include creating an optimal psychological climate in the team and counseling company employees.

Also, one of the main tasks of psychologists will be to retain qualified workers at the enterprise. Today there is an urgent need for this, since there is very often an active change of personnel. Retention will require methods of keeping employees in the workplace, encouraging them to work, strengthening bonds between individual employees, as well as between subordinates and department heads.

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