OGE. Social science. THEORY according to the codifier. Social sphere. 4.6. Social conflict and ways to resolve it.

Conflict. Ways to resolve conflict situations. Multiple Choice Questionnaire.

Psychological maladjustment manifests itself:

  • in violation of the perception of space and time;
  • disorders of memory, attention, thinking;
  • in the manifestation of unusual mental states;
  • pronounced vegetative reactions.

Such changes have a significant impact on behavior and professional performance

Mental conditions

A mental state is an independent manifestation of the human psyche, always accompanied by external signs of a transient, dynamic nature, most often expressed in emotions, coloring all mental activity of a person and associated with cognitive activity, the volitional sphere and the personality as a whole.

  • feelings;
  • mood (euphoria, anxiety, frustration, etc.);
  • attention (concentration, absent-mindedness);
  • will (decisiveness, confusion, composure);
  • thinking (doubts);
  • imagination (dreams), etc.

Maladaptive mental states

The criterion for identifying maladaptive mental states is a decrease or loss of a person’s control over his condition, which in terms of the intensity of the experience or duration exceeds the person’s regulatory capabilities.

Yerkes-Dodson Law

Prevention of adverse mental conditions

Basic mechanisms:

The first mechanism is associated with the inclusion of volitional regulation;

The second mechanism involves cognitive reappraisal along the lines of “Not really necessary”;

The third mechanism includes indirect cognitive control (involves the involvement of additional organizational, group, and personal resources).

Social conflict

Social conflict is the most destructive way of resolving significant contradictions that arise in the process of social interaction, which consists in the opposition of the subjects of the conflict and is accompanied by expressed negative emotions and feelings.

Conflict affects:

  • mental states and, as a consequence, the physical health of participants;
  • relationships between opponents;
  • quality of individual activity;
  • socio-psychological climate of the group;
  • quality of joint activities.

Consequences of the conflict

  • Constructive
  • Destructive

Destructive consequences of conflict:

  • difficulties or impossibility of joint activities of the parties to the conflict;
  • strengthening of personal hostility of the conflict participants, up to the formation of the image of the “enemy”;
  • opposition between the parties to the conflict towards each other, which damages professional activity;
  • manifestation of unproductive competition in relation to other persons;
  • reduction of interpersonal communications up to their complete disappearance;
  • a decrease in the general background of mood and the effectiveness of individual activities among the participants in the conflict.

Constructive consequences of conflict:

  • in searching and developing mutually acceptable solutions;
  • in removing the hostility of the conflict participants towards each other;
  • in emotional release;
  • in psychological renewal of relationships;
  • in the emergence of a deeper and more adequate mutual understanding between people.

Structure of the conflict

  • Objective level
  • Subjective level
  • Objective level
  • the subject of the conflict, that is, what causes the conflict;
  • main participants in the conflict;
  • secondary participants in the conflict, that is, those who explicitly or implicitly support the main participants in the conflict;
  • factors of the physical and social environment that directly influence the conflict;
  • factors of the physical and macrosocial environment that indirectly influence the conflict.

Subjective level

  • image of the conflict situation of each party;
  • the needs of the parties;
  • concerns of the parties;
  • positions of the parties;
  • current mental state of the conflict participants;
  • dynamic components of the individual psychological characteristics of the participants.

Conflicts. Ways to resolve conflict

Relevance of the topic

In all spheres of human activity, when solving various problems in everyday life, at work or leisure, one has to observe conflicts that differ in their content and strength of manifestation. They occupy a significant place in the life of every person, since the consequences of some conflicts can be too noticeable over many years of life. They can consume the life energy of one person or a group of people for several days, weeks, months or even years.

When people think of conflict, they most often associate it with aggression, threats, disputes, hostility, war, etc. As a result, there is an opinion that conflict is always undesirable, that it should be avoided if possible and that it should be resolved immediately as soon as it arises.

Lack of agreement is due to the presence of diverse opinions, views, ideas, interests, points of view, etc. However, it is not always expressed in the form of an obvious clash or conflict. This happens only when existing contradictions and disagreements disrupt the normal interaction of people and prevent the achievement of their goals. In this case, people are simply forced to somehow overcome differences and enter into open conflict interaction. In the process of conflict interaction, its participants get the opportunity to express different opinions, identify more alternatives when making a decision, and this is where the important positive meaning of the conflict lies. This, of course, does not mean that the conflict is always positive.

Content of the concept of conflict. Classification of conflicts

Conflict (lat. conflictus) is a collision of oppositely directed, mutually incompatible tendencies in the consciousness of an individual, in interpersonal interactions or interpersonal relationships of individuals or groups of people, associated with acute negative emotional experiences. Any organizational changes, contradictory situations, business and personal relationships between people often give rise to conflict situations, which are subjectively accompanied by serious psychological experiences.

From an ordinary point of view, conflict has a negative meaning and is associated with aggression, deep emotions, disputes, threats, hostility, etc. There is an opinion that conflict is always an undesirable phenomenon and should be avoided if possible and, if it arises, resolved immediately . Modern psychology views conflict not only in a negative, but also in a positive way: as a way of developing an organization, group and individual, highlighting in the inconsistency of conflict situations positive aspects associated with the development and subjective understanding of life situations.

K. Levin characterizes conflict as a situation in which an individual is simultaneously acted upon by opposing forces of approximately equal magnitude. Along with the “force” lines of the situation, the personality itself plays an active role in resolving conflicts, understanding and seeing them. Therefore, Lewin's works examine both intrapersonal and interpersonal conflicts.

In L. Coser's theory of social conflict, conflict is a struggle over values ​​and claims due to a lack of status, power and means, in which the goals of opponents are neutralized, infringed or eliminated by their rivals. The author also notes the positive function of conflicts - maintaining the dynamic balance of the social system. If the conflict is related to goals, values ​​or interests that do not affect the basic existence of groups, then it is positive. If the conflict is associated with the most important values ​​of the group, then it is undesirable, since it undermines the foundations of the group and carries a tendency towards its destruction.

Ways to resolve conflict

Rivalry is about imposing a solution that is beneficial to the other side. Rivalry is justified in the following cases: the proposed solution is clearly constructive; the benefit of the result for the entire group or organization, and not for an individual or microgroup; the importance of the outcome of the struggle for those who support this strategy; lack of time to reach an agreement with the opponent. Rivalry is advisable in extreme and fundamental situations, in case of lack of time and a high probability of dangerous consequences.

Leaving or avoiding solving a problem or avoiding is an attempt to get out of the conflict with minimal losses. It differs from a similar strategy of behavior during a conflict in that the opponent switches to it after unsuccessful attempts to realize his interests using active strategies. Actually, we are not talking about a solution, but about the extinction of the conflict. Walking away can be a completely constructive response to a long-term conflict. Avoidance is used in the absence of energy and time to eliminate contradictions, the desire to gain time, the presence of difficulties in determining the line of one’s behavior, and the reluctance to solve the problem at all.

Smoothing. With this style, a person is convinced that there is no need to get angry, because “we are all one happy team, and we should not rock the boat.” Such a “smoother” tries not to let out the signs of conflict, appealing to the need for solidarity. But at the same time, you can forget about the problem underlying the conflict. The result may be peace and quiet, but the problem will remain, and eventually there will be an “explosion.”

Compulsion. Within this style, attempts to force people to accept their point of view at any cost prevail. The one who tries to do this is not interested in the opinions of others, usually behaves aggressively, and uses power through coercion to influence others. This style can be effective where the manager has great power over subordinates, but cannot suppress the initiative of subordinates, creates a high probability that the wrong decision will be made, since only one point of view is presented. It can cause resentment, especially among younger and more educated staff.

Compromise. This style is characterized by accepting the other party's point of view, but only to some extent. The ability to compromise is highly valued in management situations as it minimizes ill will, often allowing conflict to be resolved quickly to the satisfaction of both parties. However, using compromise early in a conflict over an important issue can reduce the time it takes to find alternatives.

Solution to the problem. This style is an acknowledgment of differences of opinion and a willingness to engage with other points of view in order to understand the causes of the conflict and find a course of action acceptable to all parties. Someone who uses this style does not try to achieve their goal at the expense of others, but rather looks for the best solution. This style is the most effective in solving organizational problems.

Back in 1942, the American social psychologist M. Folet pointed out the need for resolution (settlement), and not suppression. Among the methods, she highlighted the victory of one of the parties, compromise and integration. Integration was understood as a new solution in which the conditions of both parties are met, and neither of them will suffer serious losses.

Negotiations represent a broad aspect of communication, covering many areas of an individual’s activity. As a method of conflict resolution, negotiations are a set of tactics aimed at finding mutually acceptable solutions for conflicting parties.

Cooperation is considered the most effective strategy for dealing with conflict. It presupposes the desire of opponents to constructively discuss the problem, viewing the other side not as an adversary, but as an ally in the search for a solution. It is most effective in situations of strong interdependence between opponents; the tendency of both to ignore differences in power; the importance of the decision for both parties; impartiality of participants

Conflict resolution methods

Conflict management is a targeted impact on eliminating (minimizing) the causes that gave rise to the conflict, or on correcting the behavior of the participants in the conflict.

There are quite a lot of conflict management methods. Enlarged, they can be represented in the form of several groups, each of which has its own area of ​​application:

1) intrapersonal, i.e. methods of influencing an individual;

2) structural, i.e. methods for eliminating organizational conflicts;

3) interpersonal methods or styles of behavior in conflict;

4) negotiations;

5) retaliatory aggressive actions. This group of methods is used in extreme cases, when the capabilities of all previous groups have been exhausted.

  1. Intrapersonal methods consist in the ability to correctly organize one’s own behavior, express one’s point of view without causing a defensive reaction on the part of the other person. Some authors suggest using the “I-statement” method, i.e. a way of conveying to another person your attitude towards a certain subject, without accusations or demands, but in such a way that the other person changes his attitude.

This method helps a person maintain his position without turning another into his enemy. The “I statement” can be useful in any situation, but it is especially effective when a person is angry, irritated, or dissatisfied. It should be noted right away that the use of this approach requires skills and practice, but this can be justified in the future. The “I-statement” is constructed in such a way as to allow the individual to express his opinion about the current situation, to express his positions. It is especially useful when a person wants to convey something to another, but does not want him to perceive it negatively and go on the attack.

  1. Structural methods, i.e. methods of influencing primarily organizational conflicts arising due to improper distribution of powers, labor organization, adopted incentive system, etc. Such methods include: clarifying job requirements, coordination and integration mechanisms, organization-wide goals, and the use of reward systems.

Equally useful are integration tools such as cross-functional teams, task forces, and meetings. For example, when in one of the companies there was a conflict between interdependent departments - the sales department and the production department - an intermediate service was organized to coordinate the volume of orders and sales.

Organization-wide comprehensive goals. Effective implementation of these goals requires the joint efforts of two or more employees, departments, or groups. The idea behind this technique is to direct the efforts of all participants to achieve a common goal.

Thus, conflict can be functional and lead to increased organizational effectiveness. Or it may be dysfunctional and lead to decreased personal satisfaction, group cooperation, and organizational effectiveness. The role of conflict mainly depends on how effectively it is managed.

Map of the conflict

Side A's needsSide A's Concerns
Individual psychological characteristics of side A
Current mental state of party A

Side A position

Minor A members
Side A

conflict factors

Subject of the conflict

conflict factors

Side B

Minor Members B

Side B's position
Current mental state of party B

Individual psychological characteristics of side B

Party B's needsSide B's Concerns

Typology of conflicts

  1. Subjects of a conflict situation: intrapersonal, group, interpersonal, intergroup.
  2. Foundation: ethnic, economic, political.
  3. Conflict type: rivalry, competition, confrontation.
  4. Object of conflict: values ​​and interests.
  5. Consequences: constructive and destructive.

The subjects of the conflict are

: witnesses (observers), instigators (people pushing others into a collision), accomplices (people who help develop the conflict with advice), mediators (people trying to resolve a conflict situation).

Subject of the conflict

– possession of one or another resource.

Cause of the conflict

- circumstances that led to a clash between the two sides. The reason is expressed in the need to use resources.

Reason for conflict

- any event that contributes to the emergence of contradictions. Reasons are divided into spontaneous and intentional.


– disagreement of the points of view of the conflicting parties on economic, cultural, political issues.

Objective reasons

A natural collision of significant material and spiritual interests of people in the process of their life;

Poor development of legal and other regulatory procedures for resolving social contradictions that arise in the process of interaction between people;

Lack of material and spiritual benefits that are significant for the normal functioning of people;

Stable stereotypes of interethnic relations that contribute to the emergence of conflicts.

Social and psychological reasons

Loss and distortion of information in the process of interpersonal and intergroup communication;

Unbalanced role interaction between people;

Different criteria for assessing the results of activities and events;

In-group favoritism;

The atmosphere of competition and competition.


The most striking and famous example of a global social conflict is the Second World War. Many countries took part in this conflict, and the events of those years left their mark on the lives of most of the population.

An example of a conflict that arose due to divergent value systems is the student strike in France in 1968. This marked the beginning of a series of uprisings involving workers, engineers and office workers. The conflict was resolved partially thanks to the activities of the president. Thus, society reformed and progressed.

Forms of conflict resolution and opponents' behavior strategies

Side ASide BPermission form
RivalryRivalryescalating into another conflict
Side ASide BPermission form
CooperationCooperationresolving the contradiction that forms the basis of the conflict

Behavior Strategies

  • Rivalry
  • Compromise
  • Care
  • Concession
  • Cooperation

Dynamics of conflict

  • Stages of conflict development:
  • Development of the pre-conflict situation
  • Development of the conflict itself
  • Development of the post-conflict situation

Development of the pre-conflict situation

  • the emergence of an objective problematic situation of social interaction;
  • its awareness by the subjects of problematic interaction;
  • attempts to resolve in non-conflict ways;
  • the beginning of a pre-conflict situation.

Development of the conflict itself

  • incident;
  • transition of a pre-conflict situation into an open conflict;
  • conflict interaction;
  • attempts to end the conflict;
  • ending the conflict
  • Development of the post-conflict situation
  • partial normalization of interaction between parties to the conflict;
  • complete normalization of interaction.

Ways to resolve different types of conflicts

Types of communication in psychology - what they include, its functions

There are several types of conflict resolution. In practice, this occurs as the replacement of destructive behavioral patterns with constructive ones. A competent solution to the conflict will eliminate the causes of the confrontation:

  1. Permission. This method is suitable if all participants are committed to completely solving and eliminating the problem.
  2. Settlement. Both sides are actively involved in resolving the current situation. The presence of a third independent person is assumed.
  3. Attenuation. Cessation of opposition while maintaining tension.
  4. Elimination. It is assumed that the provoking conditions will be eliminated.
  5. Transformation. There is a change in the object of disagreement, as well as the motives.

In order to completely resolve the conflict and prevent a repetition of the situation, it is necessary to bring the resolution of all types and types of conflicts to the end. Conflict situations at school are an inevitable and complex phenomenon; they require resolution without traumatizing the child’s psyche. As a striking example, the struggle for leadership between students of the same class, when an “anti-leader” is automatically selected for constant bullying and bullying. In social studies lessons, the topic of social conflicts is studied so that schoolchildren can navigate correctly in adult life.

There are methods for relieving tension and preventing all types of conflict situations:

  1. Passion for a common cause that will meet the interests of both parties.
  2. Developing the ability to empathize.
  3. Formation of respect and understanding of each individual.
  4. Organization of holidays, joint recreation to relieve psychological stress.
  5. Completing trainings and courses on developing and strengthening interpersonal relationships.

Conflict resolution

Preventing conflicts in a team requires constant practice. To manage organizational conflicts according to all the rules of management, it is necessary to determine the type and causes, their characteristics and find the correct method of resolution.

Forms of emergence of contradictions

The broadest area of ​​research is the causes of social conflict. Here the classification occurs according to the area in which the initial misunderstanding occurred. The main areas of human conflict are political, cultural and emotional fields. These areas are often where 80% of social disagreements occur. The basis for their occurrence is the inherent human desire to be happy and avoid troubles. However, each individual has his own standards by which to measure a happy or unlucky situation.

For example, in some parts of the world, fair skin is considered a sign of beauty and high birth, in others people hide paleness by applying fake tan. Such disagreements can be classified as cultural, and the social conflict that arises on its basis will most likely take place in the area of ​​peace negotiations.

Having correctly identified the category of the reason that caused the dispute, it is easiest to find ways to solve it.

Based on the initial desire of individuals for well-being, the general criteria for achieving it are:

  1. Economic stability. Includes the availability of money, basic values ​​and vital resources.
  2. Security and the presence of basic freedoms - freedom to choose government, living conditions, fair trial, protection of basic human rights.
  3. Cultural diversity. This category includes free access to education, freedom to choose religion, and the development of science and art.

Based on basic factors that are vital to each person, but often differ in direction and form, most disagreements occur. The cultural sphere includes ideological, religious, moral, ethnic, family. The economic and security area includes political, legal, labor, and territorial disputes. There are many other forms, determined by the initial reason for the aggravation of reticence.

Types of contradictions

  1. Internal contradictions are a clash of interests of two parties, represented by individuals, groups or organizations.
  2. Antagonistic - open hostility that does not imply a truce; non-antagonistic – accepting compromises).
  3. Basic and non-basic contradictions;
  4. Objective and subjective contradictions.

At the beginning of any kind of conflict there are contradictions that manifest themselves in social tension; they are latent and static; conflict is an open form of conflict.

Social conflict is a stage of clash of interests of individuals, groups, institutions or organizations that increase opposing tendencies. It is expressed in the confrontation of individuals or groups for the use or possession of a good.

Structure of the confrontation process

To classify a particular conflict into a certain category, you need to know the standard structure of any contradiction.

Having determined these factors for a specific situation, we can draw final conclusions about what type it belongs to and in what form it can be resolved.

The constant components of the dispute are:

  1. The subject or parties experiencing dissatisfaction. This is an individual or group of individuals.
  2. The object in relation to which the situation arose (material or moral values, interests).
  3. The conditions of the dispute and its scale (how many people and values ​​are affected, in what form).
  4. The reason, or what was the spark to ignite the confrontation.
  5. The chosen tactics of opponents’ behavior and the possible social result.

By carefully studying the structure of the process, you can determine the type of collision that has arisen and find optimal ways to solve it.

Open and closed collision

The course of the conflict can be open or closed. All types of social interaction can be classified into one of these categories. The process is open at the stage when both parties have expressed their positions and are aware of what is happening. If dissatisfaction and complaints remain within a person or group, without going beyond its boundaries, even when they are directed outward, then psychologists call this form a closed conflict. Despite the external calm and silence, the process does not cease to exist. This form is more dangerous as it tends to accumulate energy, at some point turning into an explosion. An excellent example would be resentment, when one party accumulates dissatisfaction, but remains silent because it does not want to spoil the relationship, is afraid of being misunderstood, is ashamed of expressing its needs, and cannot correctly formulate the grounds for complaints.

The consequence of such a closed process will be a breakdown in relationships or an acute explosion of the situation when the “last straw” effect occurs.

Regardless of the complexity of the situation, open confrontations are much faster and easier to resolve. Both opponents are included in the resolution process, and an agreement is possible only if all controversial issues are made public and the opponents are willing to meet each other halfway. With a violent way of resolving issues, dissatisfaction often remains hidden when defeated, and the social incident goes into a closed form.

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