How does an individual differ from a personality: analysis of concepts and examples of differences


Each person has not only universal
(mind, will, feelings, ability to work), but also
unique (personal) social qualities and properties that
from other people. The concept of individuality reflects the originality and uniqueness of the qualities, properties and abilities of a given individual.


qualities are expressed by:

a) independence

individual existence: the ability to be
, to act based on one’s own motives, maintaining
with oneself
, to be independent within the framework of one’s whole (clan, family, team, society).

b) integrity

: this means that the qualities and properties of a given personality
are not divisible
cannot be separated
from it, i.e.
do not exist as something independent of a given individual; Each person has a clear consciousness of the orderliness and internal integrity of his subjective world, in the system of which he considers all his experiences (sensations, ideas, feelings, desires and inclinations, etc.), assigning each of them its place in this system.

What is individuality?

All manifestations can be divided into three large groups. These are the features:

  • External. These include the uniqueness of the anatomical structure, the chosen style, and the way of dressing. Having an individual style means having a subtle feel for the combinations of clothes, shoes, and jewelry. Make sure that the image corresponds to the internal content and reflects it.
  • Behavioral. These include: habits, habits (including negative ones), gait, non-verbal verbal methods of communication. These are any actions that are expressed through behavior. They are completely controlled by the individual. Although sometimes subconsciously.
  • Mental. These include the expression of emotions, as well as resentment, anger, and envy. Their positive individual traits are humor, resourcefulness, perseverance, and good memory.

Talent needs to be highlighted separately. This is what distinguishes us greatly and qualitatively from the majority. While many people have creative abilities, often acquired over several years, there are very few truly talented performers, actors, and artists. They can definitely call themselves an individual.

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Archetypes of the collective unconscious according to Jung

By archetypes, Jung means universal mental structures that are in a person from birth; they are part of the collective unconscious.

There may be countless archetypes, but Jung identifies only a few of the most significant: mask, shadow, anime and animus, self:

  1. A mask is a mask, a public face that a person puts on when going out into society and interacting with other people. The function of a mask is to hide one's true face, in some cases to achieve certain goals. The danger of wearing a mask often lies in the alienation from true emotional experience and characterizes a person as stupid and narrow-minded.
  2. The shadow is the complete opposite of the previous archetype. It includes everything secret, dark hidden, animal component that cannot be pulled out due to the subsequent negative reaction from the public. However, the shadow also has a positive component - it contains a person’s creativity, an element of spontaneity and passion.
  3. Anime and animus refer to the androgynous predisposition in all people. In other words, it speaks of the presence of the feminine principle (anima) in a man, and the masculine principle (animus) in a woman. Jung came to this conclusion based on observations of the production of hormones of the opposite sex in men and women.
  4. The Self is the most important archetype around which the others revolve. When the integration of all parts of the human soul occurs, the individual feels completeness and harmony with himself.

Partnerships of individual enterprises

Now you know that an individual private enterprise differs from a joint stock and state enterprise in that all profits are concentrated around one person. However, this does not mean that in such a business there is no place for various forms of association. One of the most common cooperatives is a partnership, the types of which are described below:

  1. General partnerships. An organization of this type is based on the principles of solidarity and full responsibility. Participants in this form of business are responsible to each other not only with the property of the enterprise, but also with their personal property.
  2. Limited Liability Partnership. The difference from the previous type is that there is less responsibility to the participants of the cooperative. In case of bankruptcy, the participant loses only his business.
  3. Mixed partnerships. This form of business includes not only business participants, but also third-party investors, for whom the person accepting the investment is responsible.

As you can see, with the help of a partnership you can significantly expand your opportunities for business development, however, along with this, a certain responsibility arises to other participants. That is, an individual enterprise, to some extent, ceases to be completely individual, and the owner risks losing not only his business, but also his personal property.

Individual and development

Self-improvement, development, accumulation of knowledge - all this happens gradually. The individual is not limited to development in the early stages, but continues to develop dynamically throughout life. It happens that a person reaches the peak of his perfection only in old age.

This state is akin to the unity of all components, merging into one whole; only the integrity of the individual will give him happiness and bring complete harmony. The pursuit of this goal is called individualization. It implies the desire for integrity of opposing intrapersonal forces. It turns out that the archetype of the self combines opposites and is the peak in which everything is organically connected with each other.


The degree of individuality formation may vary. Psychodiagnostics helps to determine it using conventional testing.

Personality test. Questions

I. A circle of friends is discussing a film that you personally liked, but others did not like. You:

  1. you will immediately change your opinion about him;
  2. change your opinion only after you are shown its weaknesses;
  3. stay with your opinion;
  4. change your mind because others understand it better.

II. You have been told something bad about a person you have seen, know, but have never personally interacted with. You:

  1. remember everything you said so you can tell someone else;
  2. immediately change the topic of conversation;
  3. you will listen, but will not take it seriously until you communicate closely;
  4. believe everything they say.

III. You want to buy something for yourself in the store, but your significant other talks you out of it. You:

  1. don’t buy because your significant other wants it;
  2. buy it next time you go to the store without your significant other;
  3. buy it anyway;
  4. don’t buy it because you don’t like the item.

IV. You travelling. However, the route planned by the guide does not include the attraction that you really want to see. You:

  1. you go with a guide, but then you’ll kick yourself for missing the opportunity to see the attraction;
  2. try to combine your interests with the plans of the guide;
  3. go along your own route;
  4. You completely trust the guide: he knows best what to see on the excursion.

V. You have learned about some innovation that destroys the generally accepted tradition. Your reaction:

  1. study the information, but at the same time you will be guided by the opinions of your friends about the innovation;
  2. carefully study the information about the innovation inside and out;
  3. you won’t even think about it: most likely, this is just another nonsense;
  4. Completely trust the opinions of your friends.

VI. Someone you know is pouring out their soul. You:

  1. think about what others would say about it;
  2. listen carefully, try to help;
  3. you listen inattentively;
  4. looking for something in his story to laugh at.

VII. What interests you most:

  1. gossip;
  2. science articles;
  3. policy;
  4. other people's opinions about you.

VIII. We read a sensation on the Internet. Your reaction:

  1. believe unconditionally;
  2. analyze sources, trying to understand whether it is true or not;
  3. do not believe what is written;
  4. you ask the opinions of others about this - you completely trust them in this matter.

IX. What is most important to you in life:

  1. personal life;
  2. spiritual growth;
  3. career;
  4. financial stability.

X. Your worldview does not coincide with your best friend's view of the world. You:

  1. change your worldview;
  2. try to understand the reasons;
  3. think this is quite normal;
  4. this is impossible, since your worldview always coincides with his.

Processing responses

Give points for each answer:

  • for each answer under No. 1 - 2 points;
  • under No. 2 - 3 points each;
  • under No. 3 - 4 points each;
  • No. 4 - 1 point.

Count their total number.

Test interpretation

Number of points scored: 10-15

The level of individuality is zero.


  • someone else’s opinion is your guiding star in life;
  • by personality type you are a stickler, who attaches to the majority;
  • you never have your own point of view, you always unconditionally accept what others say;
  • you disappear into the faceless crowd.


  1. A complete lack of individuality is most often a problem coming from childhood. To solve it, it is better to contact a professional psychologist.
  2. Increase your self-esteem.
  3. Start small: read a book (or watch a movie) and think about whether you liked it and why. Then ask others for their opinions. Don't change your point of view if it is different. Try to defend it.

Number of points scored: 16-25

The level of individuality is low.


  • you value other people’s opinions too much, although they are not always decisive for you;
  • by personality type you are a chameleon who changes his opinion depending on the situation and adapts it to others;
  • even if you think and count in your own way, you will not demonstrate this, because you are too afraid of condemnation and disapproval;
  • you go with the flow that the crowd sets.


  1. Learn to defend your point of view.
  2. Try to delve into the reasons and essence of what is happening, and not take everyone’s word for it.
  3. Develop independence.

Number of points scored: 26-34

The level of individuality is normal (average).


  • you respect and acknowledge other people's opinions, but they do not affect yours in any way;
  • by personality type you are a dolphin - smart, reasonable, trying to understand the essence of everything that happens, always ready to help others;
  • do not be afraid to express your own point of view, even if it differs from others, but at the same time do it delicately, without imposing it on anyone;
  • you can change your opinion if you are convinced that it is wrong - you are that rare person who knows how to admit that you are right;
  • stand out in the crowd.


  1. Continue to develop your individuality.
  2. Make sure she doesn't cross the line of "normal."
  3. Help other people with personality development.

Number of points scored: 35-40

The level of individuality is increased.


  • someone else’s opinion means nothing to you, since you consider yours to be the only correct one;
  • by personality type you are a camel who looks down on others and doesn’t “give a damn” about what others think;
  • you often get involved in completely unnecessary quarrels, trying to impose your opinion on everyone;
  • never admit you are wrong;
  • You stand out from the crowd as too bright a spot.


  1. Learn to take into account the opinions of others.
  2. Understand what is happening thoroughly before getting involved in disputes in which you are completely incompetent.
  3. You have high self-esteem, which should be lowered to a normal level.

There are also other questionnaires that allow you to determine the presence and degree of individuality.

What is the difference between an individual and a personality?

Before understanding the difference between the concepts of personality and individuality, you need to consider such concepts as “individual” and “individual”. Both of them appeared in Latin. The first means someone among the crowd, and the second means someone outside the crowd. In this case, the individual is the prototype of personality.

From here follow personality and individual differences in concepts. Personality is determined by the social environment, and the individual merely belongs to a group. Unlike an individual, a personality not only has qualities that distinguish it from others, but is also capable of influencing the environment.

Each of us contains three of these components simultaneously. Individuality as a unique set of qualities, an individual as a representative of the human species and personality, as a formed or emerging individual. The difference between an individual and a personality is that the first is simply a person from a mass of his own kind, and the second is actions, character, appearance.

The differences between the individual and the personality are visible when the personality manifests itself under the pressure of circumstances. A person just sitting on the shore is an individual, but if he gets to his feet and leads an army, he is already an individual. Of course, in order to be a person it is not necessary to become a military leader, every adult has personal qualities, and a child has the makings of a personality, but we can all develop or degrade within the limits of life, become insignificant, outstanding or invisible.

Personality has the ability to change, acquire new traits along with life experience and accumulated knowledge. Personality cannot be formed in isolation from society, but individuality can. In general, these concepts are closely intertwined in human nature, but it is personality that distinguishes us from other representatives of the animal world. Possessing individuality, a goat or a dog does not become a person to the fullest extent, due to low intelligence; this is characteristic only of people.

In some societies, the manifestation of individuality is not welcomed, but personality is still formed in the process of life, as a response to the surrounding reality. In a world where everyone dresses the same, sings the same songs, where there is strict censorship and a code of conduct, identities are erased and invisible, but they exist, just like individuals. An example would be countries with a socialist system or authoritarian states.

Even in such conditions, people appear for whom the generally accepted framework of behavior becomes cramped, and they strive to stand out. Personalities on a planetary scale appear once every century, but there will always be strong or weak ones as long as humanity as a whole exists and division into countries, societies, families, in a word, the surrounding society.

On the problem of individuality in psychology

Why is it so important to study this psychological phenomenon? It would seem that everything is clear and precise: people are different, each of them is an individual. Then what's the problem? The fact is that not only psychology, but also any science about man, when analyzing any experimental data, for example, reading speed, is faced with individual expressions of a trait in a person

The same height and weight are also different, but their fluctuation is within a certain limit of the norm, unless, of course, we take into account the cases of gigantism and dwarfism

The fact is that not only psychology, but also any science about man, when analyzing any experimental data, for example, reading speed, is faced with individual expressions of a trait in a person. The same height and weight are different, but their fluctuation is within a certain limit of the norm, unless, of course, we take into account the cases of gigantism and dwarfism.

This means that any scientist who undertakes an experiment must take into account the individuality of each of his subjects. And in the study, the results will be the sum of the distinctive characteristics of different people.

But individuality is not a static concept. With age, certain indicators identified in tests may change in one subject. For example, a fifth grader always reads faster than a second grader. It turns out that a person’s abilities do not remain static and unchanged, they develop. And in the same way, individuality itself develops. determined that the difference between an individual and a personality is as follows:

Interaction with society. To remain an individual, a person just needs to be himself. But he can become a person only through social interaction, which manifests itself either in cooperation or in confrontation. Adequacy. Every person is born an individual, but he becomes a personality only in the process of conscious life. Quantity. There are about 7 billion individuals in the world, and individuals, according to various estimates, from several hundred to several tens of millions. Confession. Every person has equal rights with other people, that is, his right to individuality is inalienable. However, individuals express themselves somewhat more clearly, receiving certain social privileges (authority, power, recognition). Mindfulness. To remain an individual, it is enough to simply live, fitting into the framework of society or isolating yourself from it. The path to personality development is a conscious action, accessible only to a select few.

The concept “man” is used to characterize the universal qualities and abilities inherent in all people. This concept emphasizes the presence in the world of such a special historically developing community as the human race.

Humanity differs from all other communities of the natural world only in its characteristic way of life. Thanks to this feature, man at all stages of historical development in all parts of the globe retains his certain ontological status.

Humanity is an abstract philosophical and social image, consisting of its concrete representatives - people. An individual representative of humanity is designated by the concept “individual”. An individual is a single representative of the human race, a specific bearer of all the social and psychological traits of humanity: reason, will, needs, interests, etc. Therefore, the concept of “individual” is used in the meaning of “a specific person”, without taking into account his biological and social features such as age, gender, social status, educational and cultural level, etc.

However, in order to reflect all of the above social advantages of a person, which reflect his social status, the term “personality” is most often used. From the point of view of social philosophy, personality is considered as the integrity of a person’s social qualities, a product of social relations, the result of historical development. The main feature of the individual is the presence of autonomy, which is expressed to some extent as independence from society, the ability to defend its ideals. The individual controls himself, which becomes evidence of his high internal self-organization, which arose thanks to prudence, adequate self-esteem and self-control. High self-organization of a personality arises due to its self-awareness, which is transformed into a life position. The latter is a principle of behavior based on worldviews, social values, ideals and norms.


So, what is the difference between a personality and an individual? An individual is a single, original representative of the entire human race, in other words, a specific person. Translated from Latin as “indivisible, whole.” Its characteristics: mental and physical integrity, stability in relation to the surrounding world, activity.

There are the following individual needs (needs that prompt a person to take certain actions):

  1. Natural. Needs that are necessary to preserve and maintain life. These are food, drink, sleep, the need for housing, clothing and relationships with a being of the opposite sex.
  2. Cultural. Occur throughout life. As you know, a person depends on society; he needs communication and activity within it. They can be material (household items, tools, modern technology) and spiritual (desires to watch films, listen to music, go to the theater).
  3. Social. Subtype of spiritual needs. It is carried out in the readiness to communicate with other people, to have status in society, the desire to be a member of a certain social group.


There is another concept that is easily confused with others. Individuality is a property that distinguishes each individual person. Manifests itself in communication, behavior, professional and social activities. This is the totality of those individual properties that a person is endowed with. This is a unique, special person with an original set of mental, social and physiological characteristics.

According to the Russian psychologist and teacher V.I. Slobodchikov, individuality is a separate, original world that develops without the intervention of other people. Thanks to it, a person manifests himself in all spheres of life, becomes a participant in historical and civil events, and embodies the characteristics of the entire human race.

It’s amazing how multifaceted the seemingly ordinary concept of “person” can be. Individual, personality, individuality are similar, but different words that should be distinguished if you decide to professionally engage in psychology.

The concepts of “personality” and “individual” are widely used by people. However, not everyone understands how they differ from each other, so they are often confused. Psychology studies the properties of personality and the individual.

The difference between personality and individual

If you want to understand how a personality differs from an individual, you need to know the statement of the famous psychologist A.G. Asmolova: “ One is born as an individual, one becomes an individual, individuality is defended.”

" This saying speaks perfectly about the differences between the concepts of “personality” and “individual”.

An individual is characterized by the uniqueness that a person receives from birth (skin color, hair, eyes, facial features, physique). According to this, all people are individuals: an unintelligent newborn, an aborigine of a primitive tribe, a mentally ill person, and even identical twins, who, despite all their similarities, have their own unique ones (for example, moles).

Personality, unlike the individual, is not a biological, but a socio-psychological concept. An individual becomes a personality in the process of growing up, learning, development, and communication. Personality differences are especially noticeable in identical twins who grew up apart from each other.

Personality traits:

Another important quality of personality that is different from the individual is the need for recognition by society. For example, in Indian tribes a person was given a name only when he performed some important act

The main motive that determines an individual’s activity is interest. The process of cognition in this case depends on the desire or unwillingness of a person to learn the properties of an object and understand it. A person is more often guided by beliefs, which are the basis of a person’s principles and worldview.

Individual and individuality are two words with the same root that have different meanings. Despite this, they are often confused or misunderstood.

The word individual comes from the Latin " individuum"

"and is translated as indivisible or individual. Based on this origin of the word, it is easy to conclude that an individual is a member of one species or another. To put it even more simply, an individual is a certain species, for example, a person, a mammal, a bird, and so on. But this definition is not entirely correct, since the term individual refers more to a person and is of little use to other living beings.

In essence, every person is an individual and this identity is given to him by the fact that he was born a human. In general, the definition of this term lies in the word itself, namely the root “species”, which in this case should be taken literally.

A very similar word, which, in fact, consists of the previous one, but at the same time it has a radically different meaning and to some extent carries the opposite meaning. Individuality is a collection or set of any social, biological qualities that distinguish one person from all others. If we talk about individuality, then it is a category of difference, and the individual is a category of similarity. Individuality appears in a person during his life’s journey, and at the moment we can say that some people cannot boast of such a characteristic, since they do not differ in any way from their fellow tribesmen.

Despite the fact that individuality can also be characterized by biological differences, it would be more correct and logical in this matter to pay attention specifically to the social aspects of a person’s personality. They are the ones who can make a person different from others, give him some kind of individuality, and such biological differences as black hair or a long nose do not yet make this person different from other representatives of his species

The concept of individuality

The concept of individuality has entered into several scientific fields and is based on different components of the definition, respectively. From a biological perspective, this concept includes the uniqueness and originality of each individual within a species, and the species itself among other living beings. Biological characteristics of individuality include genetically transmitted parameters, such as appearance, life expectancy, age-related changes, intraspecific and feminine-masculine features of manifestation.

However, regarding the human being, it is worth considering individuality as a special unique form of being in society; this allows us to move away from an exclusively biological consideration of this concept, where everything is initially laid down by nature

Since it is impossible to consider only the uniqueness of the retina or fingerprints as individuality, it is necessary to take into account social qualities and the psychological aspect; uniqueness consists of unique combinations of biological and social

Let's dwell on the psychological characteristics. A person’s individuality appears as a set of psychological categories: temperament, intelligence, character, habits and hobbies, communication and choice of activities, features of perceptual processes

However, simply having unique qualities is not enough to understand individuality; it is very important to pay attention to the type of unique relationships between these qualities

In psychology, individuality is the analysis (qualitative and quantitative) of a person's unique characteristics. Individuality can manifest itself in one or several areas at the same time. The difference in the degree of development and predominance of any characteristics and qualities, together with different ways to use the stored data, gives rise to the uniqueness of each.

Man is not an isolated, separate being, but a member of a collective. An individual is individual when he prefers not to be limited by collective norms, but transforms them and his own personality in order to achieve a higher level of consciousness.

Individual personality traits are largely considered acquired, with the exception of those few characteristics that are characteristic of each individual. The dissimilarity of each person develops and is formed from several basic components. The first component is heredity. The biological property of a living organism in humans predetermines both external signs and behavioral reactions to certain types of events. The second component is the environment. This includes the culture in which a person was born and raised, norms of behavior, ideals, and values ​​of this culture; family, where life scenarios, behavioral stereotypes, prejudices about people and phenomena originate; belonging to certain social groups. The third component is the characteristics of temperament, character, i.e. The very individuality of a person also has no small influence on the formation of further individuality.

Nowadays, the issue of erasing individuality with the help of the media is increasingly being raised, where reactions are standardized, the ability for active thinking and analysis is weakened, the variability of behavioral reactions is reduced, so everything is presented in a ready-made form, with priorities set and hints to the necessary conclusion. For people who have not formed their individuality (children, teenagers), this can lead to standardization of thinking and actions, lack of criticism and a stop in the formation of their own personality. When society imposes standards of behavior and response, it calls into question the formation of personality as such. There is a massification of consciousness, the disappearance of individuality, personal responsibility, and one’s own decisions.

A person with a formed individuality is a mature person who is quite independent, relies in decisions on his own opinion, independent of the majority, and whose motivational sphere is developed.



- the most difficult concept.
This is the social image of a person
It is society that shapes the individual into a personality. This is what distinguishes a person from an animal. An individual raised separately from others, for example on a desert island, will become an individual. But he will not become a person, because the key factor here is communication and relationships with other people. To become an individual, a person goes through a path of socialization
, and its formation occurs throughout life.

Basic elements of socialization


  • communication;
  • upbringing;
  • education;
  • mass media;
  • social control system.

In the process of socialization (personality formation), a person develops physical skills and abilities, psychological characteristics, moral factors, scientific knowledge, political worldviews, religious values, etc. Sociologist Leontiev described personality as a set of social relations that are realized in various types of activities. Simply put, an individual is a member of society

, and in this definition - everything that can be meant by this.

Personality is a product of social relations

If an individual is born, then a person becomes a person in the process of interaction with the social environment. Some people receive the right to this “title” earlier, others later, but definitely at a conscious age, when the individual can independently make decisions and be responsible for their consequences.

If an individual is biologically given, then a personality cannot be formed outside of society; this requires a process of socialization.

Concept and characteristics of personality

The concept of personality evolved gradually. For a long time it meant the social role that a person played in society. And the more important this role was, the more significant the person was considered. It is not for nothing that the Russian word “personality” comes from the obsolete “mask” - mask. And the similar Latin term persona also originally meant a theatrical mask.

But nowadays the concept of “personality” is considered more broadly, although it still retains an assessment of the social significance of a person. Naturally, the question arises, who can we call a person? And somewhere in the depths of our souls there lives the confidence that he is definitely her. It’s not difficult to answer this question; it’s enough to “try on” three main personality characteristics:

  1. A personality is a social individual, that is, a person brought up in the traditions of a particular society, who has undergone socialization and learned the norms accepted in this society. Because of this, he can be considered a full-fledged and full-fledged member of society.
  2. A person is an independent and independent individual who independently makes decisions and is responsible for them to society.
  3. A personality is an active individual, that is, a person who takes part in the life of society, is part of its system and contributes to the development of social relations. By the way, participation in the physical reproduction of society (the birth and upbringing of children) is also such a contribution.

As you can see, the majority of fairly mature and capable people fall under the definition of “personality.” But children, at least until adolescence, do not. They are potential, developing personalities, but have not yet become them.

Another question arises: can one consider the personality of a criminal, a maniac, a person who started a war and destroys society? Yes, after all, he was also brought up within a certain culture and learned social norms, just not the same as you and me. He is also a product of social relations.

But dogs and cats, with all my love for them, are not individuals and will never become them. But another concept is quite applicable to them - individuality. I'll tell you about it later.

Personality structure

Personality is a complex formation that includes a number of components and levels. These components may even contradict each other, then the person experiences an intrapersonal conflict. There are various options for personality structure, and in our domestic psychology it includes the following groups of human qualities:

  • individual psychological characteristics: temperament, character, abilities, etc.;
  • motives that govern human behavior and value orientations, which also influence activities, attitudes towards the world and others;
  • orientation: a set of views, ideological principles, beliefs, attitudes, interests, formed under the influence of society;
  • experience: knowledge, abilities, skills acquired by a person in the process of upbringing and self-education, education and self-development.

Sometimes these components are also supplemented by social status and the roles that a person plays in society. But this, in my opinion, is an external manifestation of personality and has nothing to do with its internal structure.

When does it happen

Most psychologists believe that the process of socialization is not limited to childhood and lasts throughout life. lays the foundations of personal values. And in relation to adults, this process involves changing external behavior and acquiring the necessary skills.

According to one theory, in the process of socialization of adults, children's myths, for example, about the inviolability of authority or one's own super-value, become obsolete. Gradually, on the basis of the experience gained, the individual whose definition is given above is formed.

Communication in a group and relevant experience makes it possible to adjust the unique internal attitudes of an individual with the general qualities characteristic of his social environment.

Study approaches

Individuality is considered from the point of view of behavior, appearance and inner world of a person (this includes volitional attitudes, mental characteristics, worldview). Some psychologists focus primarily on socialization, the ability to build interpersonal relationships and become a leader. The second - on the features of the physique and face. Still others focus on character accentuations.

In connection with such discrepancies in psychology, the main approaches to the typology of individuality have been formed:

  • explanatory - establishing psychophysical correspondences (Kretschmer’s constitutional typology and Sheldon’s somatotypes);
  • descriptive - drawing up individual typical portraits (methodology of Gannushkin and Lichko);
  • therapeutic - highlighting individual personality traits (Jung's psychological types).

Many experts believe that individual traits cannot be typologized, since they manifest themselves differently in each person.

Today in psychology, integral individuality is most often considered - a concept introduced by the Soviet psychologist V. S. Merlin. These are the characteristics of the human personality at different levels:

  • biochemical;
  • general somatic;
  • neurodynamic;
  • psychodynamic;
  • mental;
  • socio-psychological;
  • socio-historical.

In Russian psychology there is also the Teplov-Nebylitsyn school, which considers individual traits as manifestations of temperament.

Expression of individuality

The concepts of “personality and individuality” cannot be identified, since the first concept is a characteristic of the second. It is individuality that gives a person a set of unique properties and traits that distinguish him from the social mass.

A person can show his individuality in different areas of activity: in profession, in creativity, in communication. Individuality makes it possible to demonstrate versatile abilities while maintaining the integrity of the psyche.

A person’s individuality is in constant dynamics, manifesting itself in various unexpected situations and conditions. A person’s individual qualities find their vivid expression at critical moments, when it is necessary to quickly make a non-standard decision or take responsibility. At the same time, society’s assessment will not always be positive. The reaction from the outside is an additional stimulus for the development of the subject, determining its direction.

If there is a stop in development, then we can talk about degradation. Its causes can be internal motives, as well as the influence of external factors, when suppression or submission to someone else’s will occurs, excluding the choice of actions or deeds.

About the concept of individuality

Behavior, habits and reactions to everything that happens will be different for each of them. The definition of the word individuality is the presence of a number of unique qualities of each person, his peculiar characteristics, which only he possesses. Among such distinctive characteristics we can safely include not only the interests of a person, but also her habits, experiences and even her mood, which is constantly changing. And this is not to mention the talents, inclinations and abilities, thanks to which a person can be called holistic, that is, unique. A person demonstrates his individuality through behavior in society, taking into account different reactions to certain events, as well as situations in general. It should be noted that the media has a key influence on the development of a person.

A number of television programs are key parameters for standardization and unilateral personal development. The ability to think and analyze is slowly suppressed and it is not so easy to “correctly” place emphasis and draw one’s conclusions. Such thinking is, first of all, very dangerous for teenagers; their personality has not yet been fully formed and the person is at the stage of socialization. Any authoritative theory that is publicly stated with propaganda of support can become the truth.

So, the concept of man and personality: what is the difference

At the dawn of our civilization, despite the fact that all people had different bodies, they had no division into personalities in their sensations. They felt like one.

As society developed, the sense of oneself as a body separate from others also grew. At first it was only at the level of sensations. Then it moved to the level of the mind. People began not only to feel that they were different, but they also began to understand that they were different.

Along with this, selfishness also grew. That is, the feeling and understanding are mine, not mine. Since selfishness was just in its infancy, in order to prevent people from killing each other, a law was created and rules of behavior in society were invented.

Each person in society was called a separate individual. Although in reality this is an illusion. At the deepest level, we are all one consciousness.

Think for yourself, the animal does not consider itself a separate person. It was one of the rules of society to call each person an individual, a person.

Before a person’s egoism began to grow and there was first a feeling and then an understanding of himself as separate from others, a person was simply a “living being,” just another manifestation of nature.

Today there is no single view of human nature. But I am a supporter of the new views of quantum physics scientists and a systematic approach to nature. The essence of the systems approach is that the whole world is a fractal. We live in a holographic Universe. This means that everything is one and created according to one principle, “in the image and likeness,” as the Bible says.

From Wikipedia:

Personality is a concept developed to consider a person as a subject of social and cultural life, defining him as a bearer of an individual principle, self-revealing in the contexts of social relations and communication.

“Personality” can be understood either as a human individual as a subject of relationships (“person” in the broad sense of the word), or as a stable system of socially significant traits that characterize an individual as a member of a particular society.

If personality is a conventionally invented social person, then a person is expressed by the psyche. And what is included in the concept of “man”, what is human nature, we’ll talk next time.

To summarize.

A person is a consciousness manifested in the form of a psyche/soul in a specific body. That is, one identifies oneself NOT with the body and the corresponding social masks and roles, but with the consciousness/soul. The answer to the question “Who am I?” will be: “I am the soul manifested in this body.”

Personality is the identification of oneself with the body and the social masks and roles corresponding to it. The answer to the question: “Who am I?” will be: “I am a woman, mother, wife, teacher.”

In the video I will talk about my experience, which proved to me that I am not the body.

Human personality is the object of study in many humanities, such as psychology, philosophy, and sociology. The concept of “person”, “individual”, “personality” is often found in both scientific and everyday language. In everyday life, these words are considered synonyms, but in fact, each has its own semantic connotation. Let's try to understand this in more detail.

How to work out

Of course, everyone wants to stand out from the rest. The main thing is that this does not run counter to generally accepted rules of behavior in society and is not accompanied by infringement of the rights of others. A bright personality, if it is positive, allows a person to achieve a lot:

he will be given preference at a job interview; his loved one will single him out from all other applicants; he attracts sincere attention; often becomes a leader; has many friends and acquaintances.

These are not all the benefits of standing out from the crowd. Therefore, at any age, it makes sense to think about how to emphasize individuality, develop, develop, and direct it in a positive direction. Psychologists have a large number of ways and techniques to do this.

In children

The formation of individuality should ideally occur in childhood. Therefore, every parent who cares about the full development of their child should contribute to the formation of qualities in him that will distinguish him favorably from others. This issue should be approached comprehensively.

Develop a taste

To do this, children need to be taught beauty from an early age. Listen to classical music, go to museums, theaters and art galleries. Observe the beauty of nature. Surround yourself with elegant things. Teach neatness and self-care rules. Talk about color combinations. Choose clothes together. With age - follow the fashion and individual styles of various stars

This will help you create your own unique image in the future and attract attention in any society with an impeccable appearance with a twist.

Learn to communicate

First of all, teach the rules of behavior in society. Provide him with the opportunity to communicate with peers. Invite his friends home, watch their interactions, carefully correct your own child’s mistakes. Make sure that he does not have obsessive movements or uncontrolled facial expressions. Develop leadership qualities, if any.

Form your own point of view

At the same time, develop your own vision of everything that happens around you. The most basic technique: after reading a fairy tale or watching a cartoon, ask which characters, from the child’s point of view, are good and which are bad, and why. As you grow older, you need to show that the general opinion may not always be correct. Everyone feels sorry for the cheerful and mischievous Kolobok, who was eaten by the Fox. But is he really a positive character if he disobeyed his grandparents and ran away from them?

Enrich your inner world

To promote the development of creativity: send it to an art studio, dance, or sports, where the child can realize himself. Broaden your horizons by reading books, listening to classical music, visiting museums.

The development of adequate self-esteem also has a great influence on the formation of a child’s personal characteristics. If any problems are noticed with it, it is better to seek help from a professional. Talk to your children every day and ask them to review what happened that day.

In adults

The main thing is to understand that purple hair and a nose piercing are far from an expression of individuality. In order to develop it, it is recommended:

  • spare no money and time and sign up for thematic psychological training;
  • constantly work on yourself: develop willpower through time management, level up self-esteem with the help of affirmations;
  • study the stylistic uniqueness of various world-famous stars, take an interest in fashion, work with a stylist and makeup artist to find and create your own unique image;
  • train the ability to discuss;
  • do something truly useful (not in words, but in deeds) for your city;
  • develop creatively: draw, weave, sculpt, build, write to reflect your own view of the world;
  • develop your intellectual abilities and memory, expand your horizons.

As the famous German romantic writer Hoffmann said, most people are like coins, on which the same images are minted, but there are those who are like medals, struck only for a special occasion. The latter are individuals. And what to be in this life - a stamped coin or a ceremonial medal - everyone decides for himself.

Individual and individuality

Despite the similarity in roots, it is necessary to distinguish between these two words. Individuality means the totality of qualities and characteristics inherent in the individual that have accumulated in the process of development.

The point is that a person is an individual by the fact of his birth, without having an individuality that grows over time. The embryo in the mother's belly is able to respond to external stimuli: sound, light, touch.

This involves shining a light on the mother's belly and touching the belly. And since the embryo has the ability to perceive, then we can safely say that it becomes an individual in the intrauterine state. There, it is also possible for some features to form, i.e., the emergence of individuality.

Individual characteristics

Having enormous potential for self-development and development as an individual, every person, after birth, manifests himself in certain properties. This is called individual development.

In social science, the concept of “individual” is used to denote the specific characteristics of an individual person. Firstly, each subject has unique external characteristics, eye color and bodily constitution, that is, he acts as a single representative of the species homo sapiens. Secondly, psychological differences can be identified between individuals: emotionality, temperament, character. Thirdly, everyone has a set of specific abilities.

From the point of view of some experts, the fetus in the womb already develops a peripheral and central nervous system in the second month. At five months, the embryo acquires the ability to hear and distinguish sounds, and in the third trimester it can already experience emotions (get scared, react to affection, conversations). Scientists insist that it is in the last months of gestation that the child’s intellectual abilities and psycho-emotional background are formed.

Therefore, there is an opinion that the formation of an individual begins not after birth, but immediately at the birth of a new life. We can briefly highlight its characteristics:

  • high level of social activity;
  • environmental sustainability;
  • psychophysical unity of the organism.

The concept of “individual” in psychology is distinguished from the term “individuality”. It means a set of properties and features that determine the uniqueness of the subject. It manifests itself not only in behavior, but also in the specifics of preferences and interests. Individuality is formed in the environment in which the subject grows and develops, his associations acquired at an early age, and the characteristics of his upbringing. Psychologists say that one is born as an individual, one becomes an individual, and individuality must be defended.

The result of the development of an individual is a personality that is considered as an exclusively social entity.

What characterizes a person as a person

The word “personality” itself had a negative connotation, since since ancient times it has meant a mask under which a person’s true face is hidden.
Typically, the word “mask” was used to characterize a person’s social image, and most often it was used as an insult.

But a lot of time has passed, and now the word “personality” is widely used both in everyday life of ordinary citizens and in educational literature.

Manifestations of personality can be both permanent and temporary: at one moment a person can show willpower, and in another situation he can simply remain silent.

This topic is studied at school in the 6th grade, in a social studies lesson, and already in the 8th grade this topic is fully covered.

What does “outstanding personality” mean in social studies?

We come across all the terminology listed above at school. But the basis for everything is human predispositions. The structure of human development can be presented sequentially as follows:

  1. Congenital prerequisites - physical and genetic characteristics.
  2. Upbringing, communication, political situation, cultural influence or lack thereof.
  3. Perception of social taboos, prohibitions, requirements, norms, traditions, rituals.
  4. Self-adjustment of behavior.
  5. Active exploration of the world through books, textbooks, films and communication with people.
  6. Forming your own opinions, beliefs, postulates.

Points 5 and 6 can alternate endlessly. This is a normal tendency for a mature personality. With the progress of knowledge, changes occur. If they have not been there for 30-40 years or more, we can talk about orthodoxy and rigidity of thinking.

An “outstanding personality,” according to a social studies textbook, has the following qualities:

  • strength of will;
  • determination;
  • extraordinary abilities, including mental and physical.


A very similar word, which, in fact, consists of the previous one, but at the same time it has a radically different meaning and to some extent carries the opposite meaning. Individuality is a collection or set of any social, biological qualities that distinguish one person from all others. If we talk about individuality, then it is a category of difference, and the individual is a category of similarity. Individuality appears in a person during his life’s journey, and at the moment we can say that some people cannot boast of such a characteristic, since they do not differ in any way from their fellow tribesmen.

Despite the fact that individuality can also be characterized by biological differences, it would be more correct and logical in this matter to pay attention specifically to the social aspects of a person’s personality. They are the ones who can make a person different from others, give him some kind of individuality, and such biological differences as black hair or a long nose do not yet make this person different from other representatives of his species.


The terms individual and individuality belong to the field of psychology and have similar sounds, but different meanings. Despite the differences in interpretation, these two terms are closely related and individuality is not possible without the existence of the individual.

Individuality is a qualitative characteristic, and an individual is a concept or definition, it is belonging to a race of people. Individual is a term that refers to both humans and animals. And individuality only applies to people.

People and societyComment

The individual and his structure

An individual's personality can be divided into three interacting structures, as Jung says: the ego, the personal unconscious and the collective unconscious. The first contains the entire set of thoughts, feelings, sensations and memories, thanks to which a person perceives himself holistically, fully and feels like one of the people.

Conflicts and memories, previously well imprinted in the memory, but forgotten over time, belong to the category of the personal unconscious. The reason why these memories are left behind and become forgotten lies in their lack of vividness. There are echoes of Freud in this, but Jung went further and said that the personal unconscious contains complexes that hiddenly influence the behavior of the individual.

For example, if an individual has a hidden thirst for power, he will even unconsciously strive for it. A similar scheme also works with a person who is under significant influence from parents or friends.

Once formed, a complex is difficult to overcome because it takes root in any relationship. What about the collective unconscious? This is a deeper layer of structure in which universal human memories and thoughts of ancestors are latent. Feelings and memory of the universal human past lie in every individual. The content of the collective unconscious is the same for absolutely all people and is a legacy of the past.

List of qualities

Personality structure includes temperament, volitional qualities, abilities, character, emotions, social attitudes and motivation. And also separately the following qualities:

Independence; Intellectual self-improvement; Communication skills; Kindness; Hard work; Honesty; Determination; Responsibility; Respect; Confidence; Discipline; Humanity; Mercy; Curiosity; Objectivity.

A person’s personal qualities consist of internal perception and external manifestations. External manifestation includes a list of indicators:

  • innate or acquired artistry;
  • attractive appearance and sense of style;
  • oratory skills and clear pronunciation of speech;
  • a competent and sophisticated approach to non-verbal communication.

The main qualities of a person (her inner world) can be classified according to a number of characteristics:

  • a comprehensive assessment of the situation and the absence of conflicting perceptions of information;
  • an inherent love for people;
  • open-minded thinking;
  • positive form of perception;
  • wise judgment.

Personal characteristics for a resume can be divided into several groups. Each of them has its own characteristics, but from all these subsections you should choose the most basic points. So, let's look at them separately.

Working moments

You can briefly outline the employee's job qualifications for a resume from the list below. It can include:

  • hard work;
  • high ability to work;
  • focus and dedication;
  • ability to think analytically;
  • sense of responsibility.

Here you can also add such qualities as discipline and the ability to solve complex work problems.

The list of qualities for a resume must contain information about how well you know how to get along with people

In this case, employers pay attention to:

  • communication skills;
  • friendliness;
  • ability to resolve conflict situations;
  • psycho-emotional balance;
  • a penchant for teamwork;
  • ability to show politeness.

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What is personal experience based on?

The “social mirror” is constantly in front of each of us. In childhood, when assessing one’s own abilities, a person is based on the opinions of those closest to him, and with age, on the assessments of competent specialists. A mature person understands that he is an individual, and his individuality is unique.

The influence of personal experience cannot be underestimated. That is why children raised in the same family are very different. They have similar group experiences (but not identical ones). In addition to the family, children communicate in the external environment and with different people. Even twins with the same set of genes cannot constantly be in exactly the same conditions, meet the same people and experience identical emotions.

This is why every personal experience is unique. According to psychoanalysts, certain incidents that happen to people may well turn out to be critical, setting the tone for subsequent emotional reactions.

Forming factors

A person’s individuality and its formation are influenced by various factors.


Determines the appearance and some behavioral traits unique to this person.


Forms behavioral stereotypes, life attitudes, worldview, attitude towards work, the environment, and people. Brings its own flavor to each of the listed aspects, the totality of which subsequently becomes what is called individuality. For example, everyone in childhood is taught to take care of nature. However, someone complements this stereotype by going for a walk in the evenings with a garbage bag and collecting candy wrappers and bottles from the lawns, because this is what he did with his parents as a child. This is his individual characteristic, formed by family upbringing.


Determines behavior patterns and self-esteem. If, for example, at school a person was constantly belittled and not allowed to express his opinion, the level of individualism will be low.


Even if heredity, upbringing and socialization have not formed individual traits and patterns of behavior in a person, he can always develop them on his own. There are many ways.

Features of mental development

The type of nervous system and character accentuations can form behavioral patterns that do not coincide with stereotypes. However, most often they are dictated by various personality disorders. As an example, we can cite world famous people who were distinguished by their bright individuality, but at the same time had severe mental illnesses: Isaac Newton (diagnosed with paroxysmal progressive schizophrenia), Vincent Van Gogh (he was treated many times in mental health clinics), Ernest Hemingway (had suicidal tendencies).

Correlation between the concepts of individual and personality

If we talk about the relationship between the concepts of “individual and personality,” then a person does not cease to be an individual; during its formation, the mental qualities that were laid down at birth develop. A person’s activities, his spiritual development and interaction with society develop distinctive properties and traits in him.

Personal properties include:

  1. Self-awareness is the conscious need for activity, development, self-improvement.
  2. Maturity is the readiness of the psyche for changes at a certain stage of development.
  3. Socialization is dependence on society and development in interaction with it, adequate perception of knowledge, norms and values ​​of society in the process of achieving one’s own goal.
  4. Orientation is the manifestation of aspects of the psyche, the ability to express oneself in different social and public roles.
  5. Privilege is the dependence of the influence of position in society on the strength of the individual.

The relationship between the components of the personality structure is built on the relationship between the concepts of “personality and individual”. Thus, the natural inclinations of an individual determine the type of his temperament, based on the innate characteristics of nervous activity. Manifestations of temperament are observed in human behavior. Behavior is a reflection of a person’s inner world, his maturity and spirituality.

Registration of an individual enterprise

As mentioned earlier, organizing an individual enterprise is a relatively simple process that does not require much effort. Today anyone can become a business owner. Registration of all necessary documents takes about 10 days, and the cost of state duty ranges from 800 to 1000 rubles (depending on the region).

The remaining investments depend on the complexity of the enterprise that is planned to be organized, but usually they do not exceed several million, or even a couple of tens of thousands of rubles. If you want to register as an individual entrepreneur, then you should contact the tax office of your city to do this. The only documents you will need are a passport and a receipt for payment of the state fee.

Man, individual, personality, individuality

Man occupies the highest phase in the origin and development of life. The theory of human evolution is called anthropogenesis. Man is a product of nature, which is closely interconnected with society.

The biological nature of man belongs to the higher mammals that appeared on Earth approximately 550 thousand years ago. As a biological being, a person has anatomical and physiological inclinations, that is, he has a muscular, circulatory and nervous system, in addition, gender and age characteristics. But the nervous system and the processes responsible for existence are programmed so that a person can adapt to different conditions of existence.

Psychological nature includes a person’s imagination, thinking, feelings, character, and memory.

The social essence of a person includes moral qualities, worldview, knowledge, values, and skills. A person is formed as a social personality only when he comes into close contact (communication, relationships with society) with another society.

Differences between human nature and animal nature:

  1. The person speaks clearly and has thinking skills. Of all the species of mammals, only humans know how to evaluate their present and think about the past and future.

True, several species of monkeys also have minor communication, but they cannot transmit information to each other about the objects around them. People know how to concentrate on the main thing in their speech.

  1. A person can master creative activities, in particular:

- anticipate the development and nature of some natural processes;

- choose a role in society, model your behavior in it;

- demonstrate value-based attitudes.

Animal behavior is based on instincts; their natural actions are initially programmed.

  1. A person has an impact on the environment - he is able to transform reality and create culture, that is, to form spiritual and material values.

In animals, the way of life is established by nature - they adapt to environmental conditions.

  1. Man knows how to independently produce the means for material wealth.

Some animals are capable of using natural tools, but not a single species of mammal can make tools.

So, man is a unique, spiritually incomplete, universal and holistic being.

Main characteristics:

  • Presence of consciousness.
  • Unique body structure.
  • Receptivity to work.

An individual is a representative of a person in a single genus. He is the bearer of human social and psychophysical traits.

In other words, an individual is a “person in the singular.”

Basic qualities of an individual:

  • Activity.
  • Resistance to the reality that surrounds a person.
  • Unity of the psychophysical state of the body.

The personification of the qualities of an individual is the personality.

In ancient times, personality meant some kind of social face that a person took on when he played various roles in the theater, that is, a certain “guise”.

A personality is a certain person, prone to experiences, understanding the world around him, having consciousness and establishing certain relationships with the surrounding society.

People differ from each other by personal properties, that is, by traits inherent in one individual. The definition of “individual characteristics” denotes psychological and somatic (from Latin “body”) definitions of a person: height and figure, skeletal formation, eye color, hair, and so on.

An individual personality trait is the facial expressions of a person. A person’s face reflects not only the anatomical, but also the psychological specificity of a particular person. For example, when they say: “this person has wicked eyes”, “you have a conscious face”, they mean precisely the peculiarity of a psychological character inherent in a particular individual.

Let us summarize individually - psychological characteristics into four facets of personality:

  1. Social qualities (moral orientation, worldview).
  2. Biological qualities (vital needs, temperament, inclinations).
  3. Individual traits that have a different mental nature.
  4. Experience (a set of skills, habits and skills).


It is important for any psychologist to understand the difference between a personality and an individual, to know their definitions, and to be able to navigate these concepts. To fully understand the differences, you must first know who a person is. According to the definition, which can be remembered from school days, a person is a being who stands at the highest stage of evolution, a subject of historical and social activity and communication. The concept is used when they mean the general qualities and abilities that everyone has.

Man is a biological and social being. Anthropogenesis is the science of its origin, which studies the process of its appearance and further development. When talking about the biological essence of a person, we mean his nature, which is manifested in anatomy and physiology. The social characteristics of a person are his place in social life, his connection with society, his intelligence, responsibility, and ability to work.

Conclusions website

  1. Interaction with society. To remain an individual, a person just needs to be himself. But he can become a person only through social interaction, which manifests itself either in cooperation or in confrontation.
  2. Adequacy. Every person is born an individual, but he becomes a personality only in the process of conscious life.
  3. Quantity. There are about 7 billion individuals in the world, and individuals, according to various estimates, from several hundred to several tens of millions.
  4. Confession. Every person has equal rights with other people, that is, his right to individuality is inalienable. However, individuals express themselves somewhat more clearly, receiving certain social privileges (authority, power, recognition).
  5. Mindfulness. To remain an individual, it is enough to simply live, fitting into the framework of society or isolating yourself from it. The path to personality development is a conscious action, accessible only to a select few.

In psychology and sociology, the problem of human formation, which is associated with the stages of his growing up, is very important. The separation of the concepts of individual and personality is the cornerstone of assessing a person’s activity

People are not only born unique, but also become unique in the process of life. To the question “what have you achieved?” Almost every person answers differently. An individual is a unique combination of human properties received from his parents at birth and acquired during his life. This concept is characterized by integrity: a set of qualities without which a person will lose his identity. Special features include details such as gender, age, height and weight, character, eye color, skull shape and much more. A personality is a unique representative of the human race, which has manifested itself in socio-cultural action. This is a stable system of traits that manifests itself only in the process of living in society. A person who is on a desert island retains his identity, but becomes a person only through the recognition of other members of society. This property is best manifested in Indian culture: having performed a significant action, a person receives a name, that is, public support. Each person is an individual by nature, and he becomes an individual in the process of growing up and communicating with other people. At the same time, the preservation of the human genetic code, its transmission and development is carried out according to the will of nature. But any representative of the human race can become a person, even if he has limited capabilities (no limbs, internal organs, speech, hearing). You can remain an individual regardless of how others treat you. But recognition, authority, characteristic of an individual are those “medals” that only society can award. Torn out of society, a person quickly loses his individual traits, ceases to understand other people and even forgets his language. At the same time, the need for personalization and uniqueness is one of the highest human needs.

Life, death and immortality in the spiritual experience of mankind. The problem of the meaning of life.

Philosophical interest in the problem of life is dictated by the following circumstances: firstly, a philosophical explanation of the nature of man himself, which requires the use of natural scientific ideas about life; secondly, the need to use methodological principles in the course of scientific knowledge of life; thirdly, by understanding the laws of the structural and functional organization of living things, which contributes to the correct answer to one of the most pressing philosophical questions - what is the meaning of human life? In the life of every normal person, sooner or later there will come a moment when he wonders about the finitude of his individual existence. Man is the only creature who is aware of his mortality and can make it a subject of reflection. But the inevitability of one’s own death is not perceived by a person as an abstract truth, but causes a strong emotional shock and affects the very depths of his inner world. Death and potential immortality are the most powerful lure for the philosophizing mind, for all our life's affairs must, one way or another, be measured against the eternal. Man is doomed to think about death, and this is his difference from an animal, which is mortal, but does not know about it. True, animals feel the approach of death, their dying behavior most often resembles a painful search for solitude and tranquility. Probably, death in general is the price to pay for the complication of the biological system. Unicellular organisms are practically immortal. When an organism becomes multicellular, a mechanism of self-destruction, as it were, is built into it at a certain stage of development, associated with the genome.

A person cannot come to terms with the fact that he will have to leave this magnificent world where life is in full swing, but, thinking about this, you begin to understand that death is perhaps the only thing before which everyone is equal, which erases the inequality on which earthly life.

In this case, it is not so important who “controls” the world - God, Spirit, Cosmic Mind, objective reality, laws of Nature. It is important that a person must only realize this order and find in its depths, in its structure, a gap for “relative independence”, in which he will see the meaning of his existence

Interest in the problem of death is due to several reasons. Firstly, this is a situation of a global civilized crisis, which, in principle, can lead to the self-destruction of humanity. Secondly, the value attitude towards human life and death has changed significantly in connection with the general situation on Earth. In fact, we are talking about a triad: life - death - immortality, since all the spiritual systems of humanity proceeded from the idea of ​​​​the contradictory unity of these phenomena. There are two fundamentally different ways to explain the eternal questions of life, death and immortality.

The first approach can be described as objectivist. It is associated with the names of such philosophers as Spinoza, Holbach, Hegel, Lafargue, with the dogmatics of Judaism, Christianity and Islam and, partly, with the principles of natural science. It is based on the idea of ​​a primordial, unshakable world order, in which all events of social and personal destiny are predetermined, all stages of world history are “scheduled.”

The second approach places human subjectivity, his initiative, and creativity at the forefront. Its essence is well expressed by aphorisms: “Man is the measure of all things,” “Man is the creator of himself,” “I create, therefore I exist.” Reflection on this issue turns out to be the starting point in developing the main “line” of life, which subordinates the behavior and actions of a person at different levels: society as a whole, the work collective, family, close friends, etc.

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