What is motivation: main types and characteristics

Every person strives to achieve a certain goal. Inner desire plays a special role. Motivation is not just a nice word, but real work on yourself and your spirit. It is constant work, patience and perseverance that make it possible to turn the most unusual and daring dreams into reality. To understand where to start, a person must rethink his life, understand the true desires and motives of his actions. What is motivation?

The history of the word and its special approach

In ancient times, the word “motivation” was not used in Russian speech. Most often in communication, people tried to explain the incomprehensible state that prompted them to perform a particular task. This could be a desire to carry out an important and dangerous task that would benefit the family and people, or it could even incite them to criminal activity.

What is motivation, how does it affect a person’s life? The concept of “motivation” comes from the Latin word “movere”, which can literally be translated as movement, awakening. They began to actively use it to convey their own moods only at the beginning of the 18th century. Oddly enough, noble people used this concept exclusively in the stable phrase “to motivate oneself,” that is, to encourage oneself to act. It is worth noting that motivation is a function of management, which is quite popular in the West. It is used for networking and management.

Motivation - what is it? In the modern world, people quite often pronounce the concept of “motivation”, without fully realizing the true interpretation of the word. What is the concept of motive and motivation? There are currently several definitions:

  • motivation is a person’s conscious attraction to fulfill a certain goal, which can be compensated by both material and spiritual values;
  • motivation is a manifestation of human desire to achieve a given task, manifested in changes in internal and external states;
  • motivation is a definition that affects the spiritual aspects of a person’s state, his ability to set high goals for himself;
  • achievement motivation - the desire to achieve the best result, the desire to look for new goals and objectives;
  • motivation - the ability and desire to satisfy material, biological and spiritual needs;
  • motivation is the desire to achieve a result, a psychophysiological process that controls human behavior, emotions, and actions.

It becomes clear that motivation is a complex and highly individual concept. The desire to achieve success appears in a person in different situations, and, accordingly, the ways to achieve the result will differ. Basic elements of motivation: goals, objectives, policies, methods, tools, programs.

The best minds around the world have been studying motivation in detail. We can highlight the works of V.G. Podmarkova, I.F. Belyaeva, D.S. McClelland, J. Atkinson. Most psychologists and philosophers reflected the collected information in theories and ideas that even now help a person rethink life. The functions of motivation, as a rule, are aimed at achieving the assigned tasks. They give the entire system integrity and stability.

Stages of motivation

Motivation exists as a process and includes several stages:

  1. First there is a need.
  2. A person decides how it can be satisfied (or not satisfied).
  3. Next, you need to determine the goal and ways to achieve it.
  4. After this, the action itself is performed.
  5. At the end of the action, the individual receives or does not receive a reward. Reward means any success. The effectiveness of an action influences further motivation.
  6. The need for action disappears if the need is completely closed. Or it remains, but the nature of the actions may change.

Classification and motivation possibilities

Why is motivation needed, how does it affect a person? Based on common characteristics, motivation can be divided into 4 large groups, which play a key role during the entire process.

The first is basic groups. The classification of motivation in this case will be as follows:

  • material (desire for wealth, luxury, security);
  • labor (the desire to earn a promotion at work, to receive positive sanctions in the form of a bonus or award);
  • status (motivation to change position, change career, changes in personal life);
  • spiritual (thoughts about achieving internal constancy, studying an important detail that has not yet been described).

They are responsible for the initial emergence of the desire to achieve the desired result. They are retained throughout the entire process, but can be changed or replaced. In some cases, they may serve as a reason to stop motivating. For example, when there is an easier and more affordable alternative that forces you to abandon a previously thought-up plan.

The second group is ways to achieve the goal:

  • normative (suggestion, persuasion, information);
  • coercive (insults, threats, intimidation, pressure);
  • stimulating (providing real benefits and conditions, concluding written and oral agreements).

Influence the choice of means to be used during inducement. In frequent cases, they are combined and used in certain situations. For effective action, material goods are also used. The ability to persuade/pressure an interlocutor in many cases allows you to achieve a positive result, but any success must be consolidated.

The third group is the causes of occurrence. Classification:

  • internal (appears during a mental or physical process, when a person solves a problem, forms motives);
  • external (sources of influence from outside, such as wages or orders).

Strong motivation is only possible if there are internal and external sources. At the moment when you want to quit following the steps to achieve a goal, a person subconsciously begins to remember other reasons that in the future encourage him to work even harder.

The fourth group is focus on achieving results:

  • positive (incentives, rewards, praise);
  • negative (penalties, fines, public reprimand).

In reality, there are cases when a person strives to achieve one result, but in the end he gets something completely different. The mistake lies in choosing the direction of motivation. The general characteristics of motivation will tell you how to proceed.

What is it: definition of the term

What does motivation mean?

From a psychological point of view, motivation is the sum of all internal and external stimuli that motivate a person to purposeful activity.

In psychology, a concept is considered as the motivating basis of an individual’s mental life, a dynamic psychophysiological process.

In simple terms, the term can be defined as a person’s ability to satisfy personal needs through conscious activity.

When performing an action or being inactive, an individual puts a certain meaning into it, i.e. acts in a given way because of something/for something. And that “something” is motivation.

Types of motivations and their reflection in the psyche

It will be almost impossible to name a certain number of species. Anyone can find something new, something that will radically change their ideas and life. Types of motivation in psychology have always been actively discussed among specialists. Numerous theories of philosophers have been published in many textbooks. What are the motivations?

External motivation - does not depend on human desire, occurs with the participation of outsiders or phenomena, and is difficult to control.

Internal motivation is a spiritual desire to achieve a result with a clear understanding of what is needed for this and what means will be needed.

Sustainable motivation is directly related to the biological needs of a person, for example, the desire to find water or food, arrange housing, start a family.

Unstable motivation - requires constant control from another person. This may be an incentive to lead a healthy lifestyle, quit smoking and drinking.

Individual correct motivation affects a specific person, and can also influence the immediate environment. For example, thirst, maintaining a favorable body temperature.

Group strong motivation - unites people into a group that strives to achieve one goal: find a job, get married.

Cognitive achievement motivation - manifests itself in research activities, when a person, with the help of his own knowledge, seeks to study a new object.

There is also unconscious motivation; the types of motivation differ from the standard ones. Thus, a person has an inexplicable desire to achieve his goal, but he cannot name the reason that caused such an emotion.

The classification of motivation methods is individual for each theory. It is recommended to study this topic with the help of the works of American researchers in the field of psychosomatics.

The concept and types of motivation were derived based on human behavior, while taking into account his individual qualities.

Motivation for personal activity

A motive is a conscious impulse aimed at achieving a specific goal and accepted by an individual as a personal necessity.

The motivation of an individual is often driven by several motives. Certain motives are of leading importance and give meaning to an individual’s activities. Motives can conflict with the possibilities of their implementation. In these cases, the individual experiences a suppression of the motive or a change in it.

All motives must be distinguished from motivation. Motivation is understood as justifying statements regarding the action taken. Little-conscious impulsive actions occur on the basis of unconscious motives.

The motivation of an individual’s activity is determined by attitudes. An attitude is a readiness for a certain behavior. Attitude is the most constant, stable basis of human behavior. There are two types of installation - differentiated and general. Attitudes are the basis of behavioral stereotypes that free one from making decisions.

A complex mechanism of behavior includes the following components: motive, goals, programming, decisions, choice of means of implementation.

So, the motivation of an individual’s activity includes a complex of interrelated factors. And the motivation of the individual itself acts as a manifestation of needs. To understand the motive of a person, inner work is necessary. The term motivation was first mentioned by Schopenhauer. Currently, there are many interpretations of personal motivation. Motive is often confused with purpose and need. A need is understood as an unconscious desire to remove discomfort, and a goal is understood as the result of a conscious desire. For example: hunger is a need, the desire to satisfy hunger is a motive, and the peaches to which a person is drawn is a goal.

Motives of human desire for change

How to motivate people and yourself? Some people want to climb the career ladder and achieve high results in their professional activities, while others want to find a soul mate and create a cozy nest. The classification of motivation methods by general theme, attribute and type made it possible to identify key points that influence the formation of goals. The main motives that motivate a person to perform certain actions:

  • self-affirmation;
  • identification;
  • power;
  • procedural and content motives;
  • self-development;
  • achievements;
  • affiliation.

Each motive plays an important role and influences the entire cognitive process. Sooner or later, a person receives a real picture, which until that time he could only store in his own imagination. But what are the theories and concepts of motivation? What do famous psychologists and philosophers think about this?

There are 3 main theories that determine what level a person is at. These are substantive, procedural, specific theories.

The content base is based on human needs. They allow you to assess the state of an individual, consider the principle of his work, and follow the train of thought. In such a theory, a special emphasis is placed directly on studying the structure of human desire, its possibilities and future prospects. The task is to understand what exactly caused motivation in a person and how this process functions. Excellent works on this topic have been published by the greatest minds of all centuries. This is the famous theory of Maslow's hierarchy of needs and McClelland's theory of acquired needs, Alderfer's reasoning and forms of motivation, Herzberg's thoughts on two factors.

Process theories are primarily concerned with the analysis of the efforts that were made by a person. The feelings that a person feels in a specific situation or when performing a task are considered. Today, there are more than 50 interesting theories, including the reasoning and conclusions of Vroom, Adams, Porter-Walter, Locke.

Specific concepts are associated with a person’s perception of the outside world, the ability to feel and sympathize. The basis is the model of an employee who has a unique set of motives, needs, and emotions.

Methods of motivation in practice

There are many ways to motivate, and they all differ from one another.

Staff motivation

Social motivation is a system of moral, material and professional incentives for an employee.

It aims to increase employee activity and productivity. The measures used for this may depend on various conditions:

  • incentive systems at the enterprise;
  • features of enterprise management;
  • areas of its activity;
  • number of personnel;
  • management style, etc.

Motivation methods are divided into 3 groups:

  • economic (material);
  • organizational and administrative (following regulations);
  • socio-psychological (following social interests).

The most effective is the carrot and stick method, which is practiced by many enterprises.

Student motivation

It is also important for students and schoolchildren, as it contributes to good learning. It allows you to set long-term goals, choose a behavioral strategy, and achieve high results.

Motivation in children and adolescents rarely arises spontaneously. In this regard, psychologists and educators have developed various techniques to induce motivation. They provide an opportunity to develop safely, learn and experience new things. These techniques include:

  • attracting attention (interesting experiences and facts, comparisons, life stories);
  • experiencing emotions when presenting materials due to their scale and value;
  • making comparisons between scientific research and life experience;
  • creating an atmosphere of scientific discussion, educational discussion;
  • joyful experience of achievements;
  • giving information the effect of novelty;
  • equating educational materials to the category of achievements, their updating;
  • application of positive and negative motivation;
  • formation of social motives (the desire to acquire an authoritative opinion, to contribute to development).

Edwin Locke's Goal Setting Theory

The key question of the theory is: what are the goals of motivation, what motivates you to set them? The author of quite interesting works about human actions and the motives for these actions is the American psychologist and philosopher Edwin Locke. Hours of persistent research led the scientist to some very interesting thoughts. The psychologist carefully studied the forms and methods of motivation that had previously been written by his predecessors. Collected information about the effects of external conditions on the target.

What are the stages of motivation? How does a person set a goal? It was to these questions that the psychologist looked for intelligible answers, and ultimately created the theory of goal setting. The main idea is that a person’s behavior depends on the tasks that he has set for himself. It is common for an individual to experience emotional ups and downs. Any change in mood will certainly affect his goals.

Motivation and motives for actions taken depend on each other. The task plan chosen by a person should always lead him to a pleasant result. Using E. Locke's concept, a leader can raise the level of activity in the team. It is enough to know a few basic principles. The most important thing is to set a clear and achievable goal. You shouldn’t come up with something unimaginably complex and try to somehow bring it to life. At the same time, employees will have to work hard to achieve results. As a rule, in tasks of medium and high complexity, people strive to show all their abilities and perhaps reveal hidden potential. An additional advantage in this situation is the opportunity to bring people together in a team; a common goal allows you to forget differences and begin to act as a cohesive team.

Employees should be aware of all successes and progress in the common cause. Unreasonable secrecy and dissatisfaction with work can cause a huge collapse. At the same time, it is welcome if employees begin to actively share and implement their ideas. In most cases, it is precisely such thoughts that contribute to improving the quality of work, since favorable conditions appear. Who, if not the worker, knows what he needs for successful professional activity? Maybe you need to buy new equipment for the plant or make repairs in the office? In this case, an important role is played by the increase in motivation, which occurs due to the mutual understanding of colleagues.

If the goals of employees and management differ, then a common agreement should be reached. The main task of a leader is to hear people’s indignations and, if possible, resolve disputes and disagreements. At the same time, the boss should reward the employee for quality work. This can be either material means or ordinary praise. The main thing is to understand in what situation to use positive sanctions towards an employee.

Process theories of motivation

They are designed to analyze how efforts are distributed to achieve a goal, and what style of behavior is chosen. An important factor is the conditions for satisfying needs: good pay and high evaluation of work.

Vroom's expectancy theory

According to the theory of expectations, to stimulate a person to activity, one need is not enough. You need to be confident that they will lead to the desired result.

Conditions influencing motivation:

  1. Waiting for the desired result.
  2. Reward for results.
  3. Reward value.

Motivation increases in direct proportion to the increase in each of these factors.

In the absence of even 1 of them, motivation will disappear.

Adams' theory of equality of justice

The theory of justice states that a person independently evaluates the relationship between the efforts made and the reward received, and compares his work with similar ones. Making such a comparison can lead to feelings of injustice.

There are 6 reactions to injustice:

  • reduction of effort;
  • desire to increase remuneration;
  • decreased self-esteem;
  • an attempt to influence the workload and salary level of other employees;
  • finding another comparison object;
  • desire to change position or place of work.

Porter Lawler model

This theory is based on the fact that people’s motivation is influenced by many factors, including:

  • effort expended;
  • final result;
  • remuneration;
  • perception of reward;
  • degree of satisfaction.

According to this theory, putting in more effort leads to employee satisfaction with the final result.

E. Locke's theory of goal setting

Locke's assumption is that goal setting is a cognitive process that has practical benefits. According to the theory, personal conscious intentions and goals determine human behavior. This behavior continues until this goal is achieved. Intention is a fundamental factor in goal setting. The author of the theory uses the term conscious goals and intentions to show that high goals lead to higher levels of performance.

The concept of participatory management

This concept proclaims the need to involve employees in the management of the company to stimulate them. There are 3 levels of participation:

  1. Development of proposals.
  2. Creating an alternative.
  3. Decision-making.

This concept can only be implemented in companies with hardworking and creative staff.

Maslow's Hierarchy Theory

How to find motivation? You need to have certain knowledge to answer this question. In order to bring together many ideas about innate needs, the American psychologist had to carry out a thorough analysis of a person’s character, its changes depending on a change in goal, and study the types of motivation. The main provisions of this concept are:

  • a person always has a need for something, it does not depend on gender and age;
  • strongly expressed needs that an individual experiences in certain situations can be combined into groups;
  • the arrangement of these groups is built on a hierarchical principle;
  • a person takes actions due to unmet needs;
  • after some time, the person becomes dissatisfied again, he wants to get more;
  • in a normal state, an individual feels several needs, they can be interconnected;
  • first, the desires at the base of Maslow’s pyramid are satisfied, then the upper needs begin to influence;
  • a person is able to find a greater number of ways to satisfy high needs than low ones.

Later, American psychologist Abraham Maslow added several more important components of the pyramid. In his work “Toward the Psychology of Being,” the author identified growth needs that turned out to be difficult to describe. This book includes such interesting qualities as perfection, the desire to be above others, justice, responsibility, beauty, friendliness, completeness. The author described in detail the forms of motivation.

Maslow believes that in many cases, growth needs are the most powerful motivator for achieving goals. Each person can check the authenticity of these words for himself. It is enough to write down the most significant needs, arrange them according to a hierarchical principle: at the bottom is what is satisfied first, at the top is what you have to work hard for.

According to Maslow, only 2% of the population reaches the stage of self-realization, while others are forced to constantly strive for perfection. For many people, motivation to act appears only in critical situations.

Maslow's Motivation and Personality

In his works on the relationship between motivation, Abraham Maslow refers to the fact that man is an eternally desiring being. He rarely has a feeling of complete satisfaction, and if he does, it doesn’t last long. Having satisfied one desire, another immediately arises, a third, and so on endlessly. Incessant desires are a characteristic feature of a person, and also act as motivation throughout life. The external manifestation of one particular motive often depends on general satisfaction, as well as dissatisfaction with the needs of the body. For example, if a person is hungry or thirsty, if he is threatened every day by earthquakes or floods, if he constantly feels the hatred of others, then he will not have the desire to paint a picture, dress beautifully, or decorate his house.

A. Maslow argues that multiple motivations of behavior guide a person. This is confirmed by physiological studies of eating or sexual behavior. Psychologists know that often the same behavioral act expresses very different impulses. For example, a person eats so that the feeling of hunger disappears, but there are other reasons. Sometimes a person eats to satisfy other needs. By having sex, a person satisfies not only sexual desire. Some assert themselves; others feel power, feel strong; still others are looking for sympathy and warmth.

Alderfer's ERG theory

American psychologist Clayton Paul Alderfer studied motivation techniques for a long time, he came to the conclusion that all human needs and desires can be combined into 3 large groups. Needs depend on the following factors:

  • the desire to exist (due to physiological needs);
  • the presence of connections (the social sphere, a person’s place in society, his family, relatives and friends play an important role);
  • desire for growth (self-expression and desire to change both externally and internally, increased motivation is observed).

If the principle of hierarchy works in Maslow’s theory, then Alderfer is of the opinion that needs are directed in both directions. His definition of motivation is: a dynamic system that can move both up and down. For example, if a person manages to fulfill a higher desire, then the need to satisfy a lower level of tasks is activated and intensified, and vice versa.

For clarity, you can perform a small experiment. It is also worth filling out Maslow's pyramid and paying attention to the upper and lower levels. If there is a movement from bottom to top, then this will be a person’s self-satisfaction. If the path lies from top to bottom, then this is frustration (defeat). In order to return to the process of satisfaction, it will only be necessary to complete the key task from the drawn pyramid, starting from the end and going up.


The basis of motivation , its strong connection with human needs. A person strives to reduce the tension that develops against the background of need. He also strives to cover various needs (social and biological).

The structure of the concept is presented in the form of a chain of related elements: need, motivation, actions, goal.

It all starts with a feeling of discomfort experienced by a person as a result of a lack of something. From this feeling comes motivation to act , and then action, which ultimately leads to the goal. As soon as one need is fulfilled, the next cycle begins.

Motivation cannot exist as an independent unit.

In order for a person to be motivated to take certain actions, he must have an unsatisfied need and an ultimate goal .

Stages of motivation:

  1. The occurrence of discomfort. A person understands that he lacks something to organize normal life activities.
  2. Searching for options to get rid of discomfort (fill a need). The person considers options for satisfaction, suppressive control, replacement, and switching to other needs. He strives to get rid of the growing discomfort in the simplest and most justifiable way.
  3. Setting a goal. A person must understand what means he uses and what result he will get.
  4. Active actions. Volitional impulse and activity aimed at satisfying needs.
  5. Expected reward. Having achieved certain results, a person receives a reward (in the form of satisfying a need).
    As an additional reward, he can receive positive emotions and joy from fulfilling his dreams.
  6. Closing the need. If a person has chosen the right behavior strategy and completed all the necessary actions, the need will disappear (forever or for a certain period of time).

May have a negative impact on the process:

  • multiplicity of motives (a person experiences several needs at once and cannot identify the dominant one, as a result of which it becomes very difficult to build a behavioral strategy),
  • variety of motivational structures (their types) in people.

McClelland's theory

The main mechanism of motivation is built on the basis of concepts connecting opportunities and ways to achieve goals. The famous American professor, creator of a unique assessment method for the apperception test, David McClelland, developed his theory of human needs.

How to motivate yourself? According to the outstanding psychologist, there are 3 main factors that influence the desire to achieve the goal:

  • power - determined by the desire for self-improvement, learning, a person tends to have control over others;
  • success is felt only when the work is completed successfully and positive feedback is received;
  • involvement is a manifestation of participatory characteristics that are clearly expressed in spiritual culture.

The psychology of motivation has been carefully analyzed by scientists. The theory created by McClelland caused Western experts to once again pay attention to the structure of entrepreneurship. It was concluded that the motivation to achieve a goal differs greatly in different situations.

Thus, a society in which people strive to actively interact with each other and show interest in a common cause is subject to positive changes.

Motivation mechanism: people with high needs for achievement are more confident in their own success than those who do not set any goals for themselves. People from the first category are more balanced, calm, active, they are able to complete a large number of difficult tasks.

As for the motivation of the entire country itself, the state should pursue the following policy:

  • strive to use labor resources wisely;
  • create conditions for personal growth;
  • set maximum performance standards.

These conditions will allow people to work efficiently and reach heights faster.

Scope of application of the concept

The concept of motivation is used both in everyday life - to regulate the behavior of the individual himself and his family members, and from a scientific point of view - in psychology, economics, management, etc.

In psychology

The science of the soul studies the connection of motives with the needs, goals, desires, and interests of a person. The concept of motivation is considered in the following main directions:

  • behaviorism,
  • psychoanalysis,
  • cognitive theory,
  • humanistic theory.

The first direction claims that the need arises when the body deviates from a certain ideal norm. For example, this is how hunger arises, and the motive is designed to return a person to his original state - the desire to eat food. The method of action is determined by an object that can satisfy the need (you can cook soup or have a snack with something ready-made). This is called reinforcement. Behavior is formed under the influence of reinforcements.


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In psychoanalysis, motives are viewed as a reaction to needs formed by unconscious impulses. That is, in turn, they are based on the instincts of life (in the form of sexual and other physiological needs) and death (everything related to destruction).

Cognitive (cognitive) theories present motivation as a result of a person’s understanding of the world. Depending on what his vision is aimed at (for the future, to achieve balance or to overcome imbalance), behavior develops.

Humanistic theories represent a person as a conscious person capable of choosing a path in life. The main motivating force of his behavior is aimed at realizing his own needs, interests and abilities.

In management

In personnel management, motivation is understood as encouraging people to work for the benefit of the enterprise.

Theories of motivation in relation to personnel management are divided into substantive and procedural . The first study the needs of a person that force him to act in a certain way. The second considers factors influencing motivation.

By stimulating subordinates to perform work activities, the manager solves several problems:

  • increases employee job satisfaction;
  • achieves behavior aimed at desired results (for example, increasing sales).

This takes into account such concepts as the needs, motivations, values, motives of the employee, as well as incentives and rewards. Urge refers to the feeling of lack of something. Unlike a need, it is always conscious. Drives develop a goal to satisfy a need.

For example, the need for recognition creates an incentive to achieve career heights, and the goal may be to become a director (with intermediate stages along the way).

Values ​​can be all objects of the material world that are important to a person. In this case it is social position.

Motive is understood as the desire to satisfy a need. And incentives are those external factors that cause certain motives.

Motivation aims to form the desired motives in the employee in order to direct his activity in the right direction. After all, the desire for success depends on what is meant by success.

We wrote in more detail about staff motivation especially for managers.



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In economics

Among the economic theories of motivation, the teachings of the classic of science – Adam Smith – are interesting. In his opinion, work is certainly perceived by a person as something painful. Different activities are not attractive in their own way. In early societies, when a person appropriated everything he produced, the price of the product of labor was equal to compensation for the effort expended.

With the development of private property, this ratio changes in favor of the value of the product: it always seems to be greater than the effort expended to earn money for this product. In simple words, he is convinced that he works for cheap. But a person still wants to balance these components, which forces him to look for a better-paid job.

A look at employee motivation in economics is directly related to the problem of enterprise performance. As the experience of foreign, in particular Japanese, studies has shown, material incentives for labor are not always exhaustive. Often, the activity and involvement of workers in production is ensured by a comfortable environment, an atmosphere of trust, respect and belonging, social guarantees and a system of various incentives (from certificates to bonuses).

Nevertheless, the salary factor is important for the employee and is taken into account by many economic theories. For example, equity theory talks about the connection between rewards and the efforts of team members. An employee who believes that he is underappreciated reduces his productivity.

The cost of each type of incentive is assessed from an economic point of view. For example, an authoritarian management style involves an increase in the managerial apparatus, which means the allocation of additional rates and wage costs.

Labor productivity in such a team is average. While involving employees in production management, the ability to choose their own schedule or work remotely has low cost and produces high results.

Remote work is good because your income depends only on you, and you are responsible for your own motivation. Check out the list of Internet professions - perhaps you will soon be able to make good money from your hobby.

McGregor's Basic XY Theory

The author of this scientific book and detailed reflections is the famous American psychologist Douglas McGregor. The scientist worked on his work for several years. He studied people's behavior in detail and tried to find the connection between desire and opportunity. McGregor's theory contains two key aspects:

  • authoritarian benefit to employees X;
  • democratic employee benefits Y.

These theories are completely different; each has certain patterns of behavior and motives. Thus, reflections on the X theory suggest that initially the entire population of the country is lazy and weak-willed. They try to avoid mental and physical labor, so they must be under the careful guidance of more active and skillful workers. In this case, we can conclude that a person can be motivated to take action only with the help of incentives and rewards. For example, a person working at a factory is not at all interested in further advancement in the career ladder and improving the quality of work; he likes to be led. Managers need to create conditions that would allow employees to show all their talents and take care of a favorable place to work.

Theory Y motivation principles consist of the idea that all people are initially active and ambitious. They have developed abilities, they are ready to fight difficulties and go to the end. Such employees can take the initiative into their own hands; they understand what responsibility and self-control are. They are not afraid to entrust any task, since they are completely satisfied with their responsibilities and enjoy it. From this we can conclude that the average employee, given favorable conditions, is able to motivate himself to achieve his goal. It is much easier for managers to stimulate the work of employees than in the first case, because employees themselves are ready to show interest in the work being performed.

We should not forget that the main condition for human motivation is free space, the opportunity to be alone with oneself in order to better understand oneself, analyze mistakes and make fateful decisions. The XY theory can be applied by any person; it will motivate you to achieve results, suggest the right path and display possible outcomes.

Student motivation

Unfortunately, manifestations of independent motivation for learning among schoolchildren and students are rare. Therefore, it is necessary to help students form it in such a way as to ensure and support productive learning activities for the entire period of study. There are a sufficient number of effective methods today. Let's look at some of them.

  • an entertaining situation implies the introduction into the learning process of interesting examples or experiences, unusual facts, paradoxical analogies to revive the attention of students;
  • cognitive debate is based on involving students in a discussion, which arouses their interest and helps increase their level of attention;
  • the use of emotional experiences in the learning process. Presentation of material with facts of a large-scale nature;
  • the process of comparing science and life situations involves giving examples of the influence of scientific facts on the way of life of mankind;
  • creating successful situations can be used for students with learning difficulties. Learning difficulties are more easily accepted with joyful experiences.

Modern Z Ouchi Theory

The concept of motivation differs in many cultures. Japanese experiments in the field of psychology and medicine prompted the brilliant American psychologist William Ouchi to create his own model Z. It is based on the principle of collectivism, when a person is presented not as a separate element, but as an important part of the entire mechanism. And if he refuses his work, then the whole device will immediately collapse.

To use Theory Z, you need to understand that most employees like to work in a team rather than handle a difficult task alone. In addition, employees are firmly confident that the employer will take care of them, and they, in turn, will do a high-quality job. Model Z will actively develop if the company meets the wishes of employees. The manager must give employees the opportunity to improve their skills and get promoted up the career ladder.

Mutual understanding and mutual commitment are the main principles of motivation, the key to a successful business and an excellent tool for stimulating employees. Employees interested in increased pay, receiving awards and badges, bonuses and changing positions will strengthen the company’s position and promote it to a leading position.

Applicable in this case are motivation methods that affect staff, students and the person himself. In all cases, it is necessary to focus on material incentives and compliance with moral standards. For example, students receive a scholarship for successful studies, and staff receive a scholarship for quality work completed on time. However, with self-motivation the situation is a little more complicated. It is always difficult to start, namely to find a reason for which all efforts will be made. Nevertheless, it is one’s own desire that can radically change not only life, but also the person himself.

Staff motivation

Methods of motivating staff include a system of employee incentives, both material and moral. This is the use of comprehensive measures to increase work activity and labor efficiency. Depending on the management system and organizational characteristics, various incentive methods are used.

Incentive methods can be used for personnel, that is, employees are provided with material benefits for high-quality performance of certain work in the shortest possible time. Organizational (administrative) methods may also apply. These methods involve the influence of authority, charter, laws or regulations. The use of psychological influences involves influencing the consciousness of personnel and their social interests.

Practice shows that it is impossible to influence the entire staff using one method, since each person has his own priorities. One employee may be motivated by a bonus, while another employee may need administrative measures such as supervision or direction.

The Problem of Incentive Reduction

Lack of motivation is familiar to many people. Experts name 3 main reasons that are associated with the loss of desire to achieve goals. By carefully analyzing them, a person can rethink his own behavior and find new ways to solve pressing problems. How to get your motivation back:

  1. “Workout and proper nutrition from Monday.” Does a person believe himself when he says that he is going to go on a diet on Monday? Of course, it is much easier to postpone a difficult task until a later date than to start right now. In most cases, such ideas are not brought to life, and then disappear altogether. This is especially true for representatives of the fair sex. An excellent motivation for girls in such a situation: “I’ll start right now and finish the job much earlier.”
  2. “I want to be unique now and forever.” A person strives to get everything at once, dreams of possessing luxurious treasures, having a magnificent figure and a loving family. But is it really possible to achieve all this right away? In reality, you have to choose what is more important and useful at this stage. But this does not mean that there is no opportunity to achieve other goals.
  3. “I can’t do this because...” No matter what the answer is, people have heard this phrase millions of times. Instead of actually doing something significant, a person seeks to find a reason not to do it. And, as a rule, these very reasons are absurd and illogical.

How to develop motivation and fight your own laziness? Success doesn't just happen, it needs to be planned. Loss of motivation is a sign that an individual must reconsider his needs. A person must present a real picture of what he wants, set specific deadlines, see the goal and independently pave the way to it.


There are three classes of motivating factors:

  1. needs and instincts;
  2. motives that determine the direction of behavioral strategies;
  3. emotions and subjective experiences, as well as behavior-regulating attitudes.

Finding goals and self-motivation

What motivates people? Everyone knows that in order to stimulate and motivate, a specific goal must be set. It should be clear and precise, without the slightest pitfalls. But often finding this very goal is not so easy, and even more difficult to describe and characterize it. How to create motivation? What should you do for this?

In order to try to find that very task, you will need to perform several sets of exercises every day aimed at developing the individual’s inner world and revealing his creative potential.

Psychologists recommend conducting monthly training sessions for company employees, trying to attract them to a specific goal. This could be improving the quality of work, increasing the number of goods produced, or improving the skills of workers. Motivation tools: bonuses, praise, vacation, awards.

Schools and kindergartens often conduct interactive classes aimed at encouraging children to successfully complete their homework and strive to receive praise and good grades.

How to stay motivated? In everyday life, a person himself can perform a set of motivating exercises; he just needs to find free time and a cozy place for reflection. This could be a beautiful park with luxurious spruce and pine trees, or maybe some quiet and peaceful place in the apartment itself.

There is also such a thing as achievement motivation - this is a type of motivation associated with the desire to achieve success and overcome obstacles. This definition was first derived in the 1930s by the scientist G. Murray. Now achievement motivation is associated with receiving some positive emotions. This could be success at school or a promotion at work, a successful purchase or the arrival of relatives.

What is motivation: description

There is no clear definition of motivation. It is a set of external and internal motives that encourage an individual to act in one way or another.

The basis of motivation is the desire to carry out any action. It reflects the needs, interests and aspirations of a person, so motivation is always individual.

The main component of motivation is the presence of a motive. This is the standard (imaginary or real) that an individual strives to achieve.

Developmental exercises for children and adults

Where to get motivation? These interesting complexes will help set a goal and motivate a person to complete the assigned tasks:

The first is identification with your favorite animal. By associating himself with a fictional character or a very real object, an individual can quickly achieve personal growth. The fact is that a person subconsciously takes on the positive qualities of his favorite hero, and at the same time new goals appear. Animals are strong and wise creatures that are a major part of the world around us. By identifying with them, the individual cultivates caution, perseverance, and determination.

So, to complete the exercise you need to do the following:

  • choose one favorite animal, describe its positive and negative qualities;
  • try to imagine yourself as an imaginary creature, try to go towards your goal;
  • feel like a formidable lion or a cute rabbit for 5 minutes, try to overcome all the difficulties that the animal encounters on its way.

After this, you should evaluate your feelings and experiences, analyze which tasks were achieved and which were too difficult.

Complex two is to point out the mistake and note the improvement. What to do if you lose motivation, how to get it back? It is worth giving an example from life. Often, kindergarten teachers and school teachers make comments to children about performing various tasks. They point out errors in completing the test, and then analyze complex tasks. Why is this being done? This is how the older generation motivates children to perform the same tasks, but with a higher quality.

The motivation exercise should be performed several times a week. To begin with, it’s worth imagining a situation where a person is one step away from his goal. He should describe the pros and cons of this provision. As a rule, there are always more disadvantages than positive features. But this is not a reason to be upset, because the next attempt will be better than the previous one:

  • there will be many mistakes, but they will not be so serious;
  • There will be many difficulties along the way, but what is important is what a person has already managed to achieve;
  • let not everything go smoothly and according to plan, but this is not a reason to give up, because the hardest part is already behind us.

Daily trainings for yourself and family

You can motivate yourself to complete tasks in a circle of close people, ask for advice and find out what other people think about you. Such methods of motivation help you look at yourself from the other side, see what is being done wrong, where a mistake is being made:

  1. Braggart. Where to find motivation, how to develop it? This complex will help you change your ideas about your own life. The exercise is aimed at developing the inner world and unlocking creative potential. A person needs to imagine himself as the head of a well-known company; the boss has professional employees at his disposal. For the first time, a manager must reproach his employees, show his advantage, and deprive employees of a well-deserved bonus. In the second case, the boss should treat his team favorably. Listen to their requests, ideas, reward the best employees of the company. Thus, a person clearly sees that much depends on himself. The result of actions directly depends on a person’s attitude towards the process itself. A clear understanding of goals and ways to achieve them is the key to success and self-realization.
  2. Analysis of justifications. How often does a person find a seemingly logical explanation for a situation, but at the same time say nothing about the mistakes made? The goal of this exercise is to understand that everything depends only on your own strengths, and not on imaginary problems. The exercise works as a motivation mechanism; it allows you to find the missing detail or missed action in time. Most of the reasons for failure are related to wrong thinking, choosing the wrong path. It is the person’s own fault that he failed to achieve what he wanted. But this is not a reason to give up all ideas and go into depression, this is just a starting point for new achievements. When an individual begins to look for external reasons for failure, then he blocks his true motives and desires. A search for other reasons may indicate that a person:
  • does not know how to organize and control himself;
  • does not know how to set priorities correctly;
  • does not know how to systematically perform work.

To complete the exercise, you should take a blank piece of paper and write a sentence, for example: “I did not complete this task because...”. It is necessary to analyze the justification and answer the questions:

  1. Why was this particular justification chosen, is there an alternative to this?
  2. Does it depend on external and internal factors?
  3. What is preventing this situation from being corrected?

At this stage, you should consider what measures can be taken to achieve the goal. The main motivation tools: money, health, connections.

Psychology. “Motivation: the role of motives in human development”


“Motivation: the role of motives in human development”


Introduction________________________________________________________________ 1

Concepts of motivation and motive__________________________________________ 2

Types of motivation_________________________________________________________ 5

Need as the basis of motivation ___________________________________ 7

Motivational sphere of personality _____________________________________ 8

Conclusion_______________________________________________________________ 12



Motivation is one of the most difficult problems in psychological science. To date, it has not been sufficiently and comprehensively studied, which hinders the solution of other theoretical and practical problems related to it. It receives a lot of attention both in domestic and foreign science. Today there are no common views regarding this problem. Methodological guidelines and worldview position of scientists act as the foundations underlying its understanding. Representatives of Western psychological science consider motivation from a biologizing perspective as a manifestation of a biological essence, as a reflection of internal instinctive drives. Domestic scientists understand it in line with the interaction of the social and biological with the leading role of the social principle. Particular attention is paid to the activity approach. There is a difference between the concepts of motivation and motivational system. At the same time, various motivating factors are identified.

The problem of motivation and motives for human behavior and activity is one of the core problems in psychology.

A large number of domestic monographs are devoted to it (V. G. Aseev, V. K. Vilyunas, V. I. Kovalev, A. N. Leontiev, M. Sh. Magomed-Eminov, V. S. Merlin, P. V. Simonov, D.N. Uznadze, A.A. Faizullaev, P.M. Yakobson), and foreign authors (J. Atkinson, G. Hall, K. Madsen, A. Maslow, X. Heckhausen, etc. ). The abundance of literature on the problem of motivation and motives is accompanied by a variety of points of view on their nature. Meanwhile, an unbiased analysis allows us to see in various hypotheses and formulations a lot of valuable information that can be used in building a holistic and consistent concept of motivation and motive in human development.


To have at least the slightest idea about such a concept as motivation, let’s look at its definition. In Latin, "muvere" (to move) defines the word "motive", which is a derivative of the word "motivation".

Thus, we can give several options for the concept of this word: incentive to action; a psychophysiological process that controls human behavior, setting its direction, organization, activity and stability; a set of motivating factors that determine human activity.

Experts disagree on what motivation is. Some believe that it is a set of processes, while for others, a set of motives determines motivation. The motive is a material object, the desire for which determines the meaning of actions. For people, this is expressed in anxiety or worries, which in the future can cause both positive (in case of achieving the object) and negative (in case of dissatisfaction with the situation) emotions.

An example would be a desire caused by hunger. A person strives to get food in order to satisfy his desire. Positive emotions are caused by the fact that the goal is close, and negative emotions - if such an opportunity is not foreseen in the near future, in this case dissatisfaction appears.

Ilyin E.P. speaks about the diversity of interpretation of the concept of “motivation” in his book “Motivation and Motives”. He notes that the word “motivation” was first used by A. Schopenhauer in the article “Four Principles of Sufficient Reason” (1900-1910). Then this term firmly entered into psychological use to explain the reasons for the behavior of humans and animals.

Currently, motivation as a mental phenomenon is interpreted in different ways. In one case - as a set of factors that support and guide, i.e. determining behavior (K. Madsen, J. Godefroy), in another case - as a set of motives (K.K. Platonov), in the third - as an incentive that causes activity of the body and determining its direction. In addition, motivation is considered as a process of mental regulation of specific activities (M. Sh. Magomed-Eminov), as a process of action of a motive and as a mechanism that determines the emergence, direction and methods of implementing specific forms of activity (I. A. Dzhidaryan), as an integrated system processes responsible for motivation and activity (V.K. Vilyunas). Hence, all definitions of motivation can be attributed to two directions. The first considers motivation from a structural perspective, as a set of factors or motives.

For example, according to the scheme of V.D. Shadrikov (1982), motivation is determined by the needs and goals of the individual, the level of aspirations and ideals, conditions of activity (both objective, external and subjective, internal - knowledge, skills, abilities, character) and worldview, beliefs and orientation of the individual, etc. Taking these factors into account, a decision is made and an intention is formed.

The second direction considers motivation not as a static, but as a dynamic formation, as a process, a mechanism. However, in both cases, the authors’ motivation acts as a secondary formation and phenomenon in relation to the motive. Moreover, in the second case, motivation acts as a means or mechanism for the implementation of existing motives.

For example, V. A. Ivannikov (1985) believes that the process of motivation begins with the actualization of the motive. This interpretation of motivation is due to the fact that a motive is understood as an object of satisfying a need (A. N. Leontyev), i.e., a motive is given to a person as if ready. It does not need to be formed, but simply updated (to evoke its image in a person’s mind). However, with this approach, it remains unclear, firstly, what gives motivation - the situation or the motive, and secondly, how the motive arises if it appears earlier than motivation.

E.P. Ilyin states that the authors’ statements about the relationship between motive and motivation do not clarify this issue. Thus, R. A. Piloyan writes that motivation and motive are interconnected, interdependent mental categories and that motives for action are formed on the basis of a certain motivation (i.e. motives are secondary). And at the same time, he argues that through the development of individual motives we can influence motivation as a whole (i.e., motivation already depends on motives that become primary). In addition, the author believes that motives relate to actions, and motivation - to activities, without giving any justification for this. It is not easy to figure out the relationship between motivation and motive in the book by I. A. Dzhidaryan. She writes that, unlike motivation, motive has a narrower meaning. It records the actual psychological content, namely the internal background against which the process of motivating behavior as a whole unfolds. It is the motive that energizes and directs a person’s actions at every moment in time. The question arises: what then is the role of motivation if everything is accomplished with the help of a motive? In this case, the concept of “motivation” becomes redundant. Next, Ilyin E.P. refers to V.G. Leontyev, who distinguishes two types of motivation: primary, which manifests itself in the form of need, attraction, drive, instinct, and secondary, manifested in the form of motive. Consequently, in this case there is also an identification of motive with motivation. V. G. Leontyev believes that motive as a form of motivation arises only at the level of the individual and provides personal justification for the decision to act in a certain direction to achieve certain goals, and one cannot but agree with this. In many cases, psychologists (and biologists and physiologists - constantly) by motivation mean the determination of behavior, therefore they distinguish between external and internal motivation.

Thus, there is no unity of views either in understanding the essence of motivation, its role in the regulation of behavior, or in understanding the relationship between motivation and motive.

In many works these two concepts are used interchangeably.


Human motivation is one of the rather interesting questions that has worried many people for many years. No one will argue with the fact that it has a huge impact on the life and development of the individual as such. If a person chooses the right goal and motivates you enough, then there is no problem on the path to self-improvement or improving your personal qualities. If priorities are set incorrectly, then all attempts to get what you want will be doomed to failure, despite its different types. Before understanding the main driving factors, it is necessary to understand the types of motivation.

Here are the main types of motivation:

  • External.

    It is determined by the circumstances that occur around a person. For example, your colleague is purchasing real estate, and you have a certain desire to get the required amount to buy your home.

  • Internal.

    It has no connection with external circumstances or influences; everything happens inside a person. For example, you wanted to buy a car. Therefore, you begin to purposefully move towards getting what you want. Your internal motivation can become the object of external motivation for some person.

  • Sustainable.

    It will be maximally supported by some external influence or a person’s need for something. Usually there is no need for additional “magic kicks” in order for a person to understand the importance of achieving a goal.

  • Unstable.

    In this case, it is necessary to constantly push a person’s activities and feed his emotions in order for him to move towards his goal. Most often, unstable motivation occurs in work situations when a person is offered a “carrot”, but he understands that the game is not worth the candle. In this case, management simply needs to show that employees are working, so attempts at constant motivation begin.

  • Positive

    . It will be entirely based on some positive incentive. An example would be receiving the same bicycle for finishing a quarter well, or a promotion at work if you complete absolutely all assigned tasks well.

  • Negative.

    It will be based on the opposite. What should you do today to avoid getting into an unpleasant situation? An option may be for the student to attend a lecture in order not to be expelled. Or a person’s work in a certain place so that he is not kicked out or fined.

There are also secondary types of motivation, which include material, status, labor, forced or normative.


Today, there are quite a few theories of motivation, but the work of A. Maslow, “The Theory of Needs,” is most often taken as a basis. The defining idea of ​​the theory's creator was that every person has a hierarchy of needs. And some needs are satisfied only after basic needs are satisfied. Maslow gave as a basis the physiological needs of the individual, that is, those associated with survival (food, water, rest).

The second level of need is security and confidence in the future. A person strives to protect himself in the outside world and establish himself in the future.

Social need reaches the next level. This is a person’s attitude towards society, the desire for communication and the need for support.

The need for respect takes the next step. There is a desire to impress people and earn respect from significant others.

The final stage is occupied by the need for self-expression. This is when a person tries to realize his personal potential.

I.L. Aristova in her work “General Psychology. Motivation, emotions, will” writes: “If we look deeply into the study of the determination of human and animal activity (a detailed analysis of views on this issue is presented in the work of E. P. Ilyin “Motivation and Motives”, 2000), then the role that allocated to needs in the process of historical development of motivation. Most thinkers recognize needs as a universal property of living systems. We find a concentrated expression of this thought in Holbach, who believed that needs, through motives that are real or imaginary objects, activate the mind, feelings, and will. Thus, the question of needs is connected with the problem of motivation through its function. There is currently no unity in the interpretation of needs. A number of authors understand need as a need, others - as an object of satisfaction of a need, as the absence of a good, as a necessity, etc.”

Further, the author writes that the most generalized interpretation of needs by V. S. Magun, given by him in his work “Needs and Psychology of Social Activity of the Individual” (1983). He based his approach on the concept of preservation and development (improvement) of the subject. The phenomena of conservation and development are perceived as manifestations of the subject’s well-being, and the term “good” was introduced to denote them. The same term denotes the processes and states of the subject and the external environment, which are the reasons for the preservation and development of the subject. The absence of any good is called the need for this good. Thus, the appearance of a good destroys or reduces the need for it. If we compare this interpretation with the understanding of need as a need or necessity, it is clear that it has great explanatory capabilities. So need is a lack, a reduced amount of something. But it is well known that there are two types of deviations from favorable states - through deficiency and through excess, and the middle zone is optimal for development and functioning. For example, L. Levy and L. Anderson summarized a huge amount of material on the influence of the environment and population on the quality of life and came to the conclusion that the quality of life decreases under the influence of both redundancy and insufficiency in a number of environmental factors (parental care, communication, freedom of action etc.).

Thus, despite differences in understanding needs, most researchers see them as the driving force of activity.


In psychological works one can often come across the concept of “motivational sphere of personality”. In contrast to the orientation of the individual, which is associated with dominant needs and interests, the motivational sphere of the individual is understood as the entire set of motivational formations available to a given person: dispositions (motives), needs and goals, interests, etc. From the point of view of development, it is characterized by breadth, flexibility and hierarchization.

The breadth of the motivational sphere refers to the qualitative diversity of motivational factors. The more diverse motives, needs, interests and goals a person has, the more developed his motivational sphere is.

Ilyin E.P. in his work “Motivation and Motives” writes that the motivational sphere as a substructure of the personality consists not so much of actual needs and actual motives, but rather of stable latent motivational formations (personal orientation, interests, motivational attitudes, desires), which he and many other authors have cited potential motives. Consequently, the motivational sphere of the individual is itself a latent formation, in which specific motives as temporary functional formations appear only episodically, constantly replacing each other.

The breadth of the motivational sphere should not be confused with the breadth of the motivational field, which is involved in the formation of the actual motive.

The flexibility of the motivational sphere, notes E. P. Ilyin, referring to R.S. Nemov, is characterized by a variety of means by which the same need can be satisfied. That is, we are actually talking about replacing one goal with another.

The hierarchy of the motivational sphere is a reflection in a person’s consciousness of the significance of a particular need, motivational attitude, and other motivational dispositions, according to which some have a dominant role in the formation of a motive, while others have a subordinate, secondary significance; some are used more often, others less often.

The purposeful formation of the motivational sphere of the individual is, in essence, the formation of the personality itself, i.e., mainly a pedagogical task of instilling morality, forming interests and habits.

The certainty and originality of the motivational sphere of each person means that the motivational spheres of individuals differ in the content and structure of motivation, hierarchy, strength and stability of motives.

The dynamism of the motivational sphere is manifested in changes in the strength of both individual motives and motivation in general. The dynamics of motives can be positive or negative regarding activity; the desire to complete a task can weaken, fade away, or strengthen and intensify. The dynamism of the motivational sphere of the individual is also manifested in changes in the structure of motivation and the hierarchy of the main groups of motives.

Assessing the characteristics of the motivational sphere is important for predicting successful activities.

A person is born with basic organic needs. The needs of higher levels (according to A. Maslow) are acquired with the overall development of the body and psyche.

The motivational sphere of personality has the following development milestones. The first year of life: the main interests, on the basis of which the motivational sphere of the child’s personality develops, are associated with the perception of objects. His sphere of interests includes those that attract his attention with their brightness and unfamiliar sounds. Attempts to take these items. The embryos of emotional experiences are also observed: the child smiles, experiencing pleasure from contact with adults. We can talk about an unconscious need for impressions.

1.5-2 years: expanding the range of interests through increasing physical activity. The child independently manipulates objects (examines them, rotating them in his hands, periodically throws them on the floor, tracking their flight and sound upon impact, etc.). His emerging needs are based on unstable interests and emotional intensity of desires. The value side of the motivational sphere of the individual begins to form: he is able to distinguish bad from good. The motives for positive interaction with adults are more clearly manifested.

From 3 to 5 years: the formation of one’s own needs related to the objective world of toys, which has expanded significantly thanks to the child’s contacts with adults and peers. Speech plays the most important role in this. The development of social needs begins through interest in playing with other children. In games, the first signs of a child’s personality appear: the ability to evaluate the people around them on a scale of “good-bad, kind-evil,” leadership habits, and hard work. Motives for achieving success and avoiding failure appear. There is a tendency to compete.

Primary school age: a sharp increase in interest in knowledge, in school as a process of labor activity, in the world in general. For a child, everything here is equally interesting: the behavior of peers, the behavior of the teacher, grades in notebooks, and fussing between lessons. Feelings of duty and responsibility for studying are awakened, although the true motive here is masked by the desire to get a good mark or praise.

Middle school age: this is characterized by a sharp change in interests, especially in the area of ​​relationships with peers. This is the period of “transitional, critical age” from childhood to adolescence, the period of “desert of adolescence” (according to L. Tolstoy), the period of puberty and the emergence of bright desires. Former idols and authorities are overthrown, and new ones are formed on the basis of their own ideas, which provides them with a certain stability. The egoistic orientation of the individual often prevails over the collectivist one. The teenager begins to realize his social roles in the educational community. His interests, affecting the extracurricular sphere, grow. He thinks about his “yard” status and makes attempts to improve himself through various sports and music. There is an increase in the need for recognition by other people. The level of awareness of one's own motives receives a strong boost.

High school age: growing needs for intellectual, physical and moral self-improvement. A person thinks about the future, his place in life. At the same time, there is a differentiation of interests and even their sharp ranking. In the first place are those interests and needs that correspond to the individual’s ideas about his future and his profession. The needs for self-realization occupy an increasingly important place in the motivational sphere of the individual. The need for justice is intensively formed.

Adolescence and subsequent ages actualize interests related primarily to professional activities, gender relations, family, etc.

Thus, the motivational sphere of the individual is formed and develops in direct connection with the system of activity and social relations in which he is involved as he grows up. The phrase turns out to be statistically true: each age has its own motivational sphere of personality. A person, passing through the years, encounters various kinds of crisis phenomena.

These processes have ups and downs in the “range” of interests; in depth and duration of existence. But they never stop. This is especially true for people who remain active at all ages.


So, the motivational sphere of the individual is of great importance in the development of the individual.

For many years, scientists have not given up hope of explaining human behavior. The result of this interest are numerous theories of motivation, the number of which numbers more than a dozen.

From the analysis of the points of view of different authors, it is clear that motivation is a complex formation, the structural components of which are motives.

It is the motive that is the stimulant of human activity, its cause. Due to the fact that the motives of any person are individual, the ways to satisfy needs will also be different.

Under identical conditions, differences in the actions of different people when achieving the same goals are explained by the fact that people differ in the degree of perseverance and energy - some act uniformly in various situations, while others respond to the same situations with a variety of actions.

Analysis of theoretical material on the psychological problem, which explores the essence of personal motivation, shows that it is a complex structure that requires further theoretical and practical research, comparison of research materials by psychologists of the 20th century and the present, and observation of manifestations of motivation in real life.

The motivational sphere occupies a significant place in the personality structure. The influence of any motivation on a person is a fundamental factor that can influence a person to achieve his goals, that is, to coordinate his interests with the motivation system developed for him.

The variety of theories and results of scientific research allow us to conclude that the study of the motivational component in the personality structure is of interest and is and will always be an object of scientific knowledge.


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2. Meshkov N. I., Meshkov D. N. // Personal motivation as a key problem of psychology (Text) // Integration of education, T.19, No. 1, 2015. - URL https://edumag.mrsu.ru/ content/pdf/15-1/37-43.pdf (access date: 11/29/19). 3. Mikhalin V. N. // Motivation as the basis for developing readiness for professional activities of cadets of the Ministry of Emergency Situations of Russia // Scientific journal of KubSAU, No. 86(02), 2013.- URL https://ej.kubagro.ru/2013/02/ pdf/25.pdf (access date: 11/28/19).

4. Ilyin E. P. Motivation and motives. - St. Petersburg: Peter - (Series “Masters of Psychology”), 2000, 512 p. – URL https://uchebnikfree.com/personala-motivatsiya/motivatsiya-motivyi-spb-piter-512-seriya.html (access date: 11.29.19)


https://kladvsebe.ru/samorazvitie/vidy-motivacii-cheloveka.html https://psyera.ru/razvitie-i-narusheniya-motivacionnoy-sfery-lichnosti-50.htm

Consolidating results and maintaining motivation

There are 6 main ways to achieve what you want. Each of them is unique in its own way and is used in connection with specific conditions. The most important principle of any motivation is to do what you like and benefit. Only such things allow you to gain satisfaction; they are supported by an internal desire, the desire to accomplish the task in any way. These are the recommendations:

  1. Focus on the end result. Any task requires a special approach and considerable effort. Instead of focusing on the difficulties, you should remember the reason for which you will go all the way.
  2. Think only about victory. You should start by doing easy tasks and then enjoy the results. This, firstly, will cheer you up and help you gain confidence, and secondly, it will fill a person with energy to perform further actions.
  3. Do any difficult task. After you have successfully completed several easy tasks, you should take yourself to a more difficult task. If you postpone a difficult mission until the end of the day, it will smoothly move on to the next day, week, month. Thus, a difficult task will become almost impossible.
  4. Take regular breaks. When a person has rested and feels a new surge of strength, it is much easier for him to start performing any task. Instead of spending hours doing tedious work, you should relax and get some rest. This will bring you organization and help you do what you love without being distracted by extraneous things.
  5. Don't burden yourself with unnecessary troubles. Many people are often overwhelmed with goals and tasks, they want to achieve a lot quickly, but in the end they get nothing. The desire to be the smartest, most beautiful, the strongest is, of course, good, but you shouldn’t set such global goals for yourself. You should concentrate on one specific task.
  6. Reward yourself for success. Often there is achievement motivation that needs to be stimulated independently. Small prizes for each correctly taken step encourage a person to continue to work efficiently.

How to increase motivation? Everything depends on the person and his desire, it must come directly from the soul. Human motivation is, first of all, perseverance, patience, the ability to work, the ability to understand one’s needs, and the ability to control the situation. Only those people who have good motivation are able to realize themselves in life.

Components of human motivation

Any activity is not chaotic actions, but movement towards a specific goal. It can be grandiose (for example, make a scientific discovery) or the most ordinary (renovate an apartment, buy a car, go to the sea). Each direction is motivational and has a specific meaning.


A person gets out of bed in the morning and performs his usual actions. He is driven by the need to get himself in order, have breakfast and go to work. If it’s a day off, you can slightly change your plans: get up later, go on a visit, go shopping, or sit in front of the TV for half a day.

In each specific case, a person decides for himself what he needs most at the moment. Therefore, need can be called one of the motivating factors. But on its own it does not provide a clear direction to action.


This concept translated from Latin means “I move.” Motive not only directs a person’s activity in the right direction, but also gives meaning to actions. Even the need to lie in bed the entire weekend has a reasonable explanation - the body is exhausted during the working week and requires passive rest.

There is a motive for this action

If the individual ultimately receives satisfaction from such behavior, it means that the goal was achieved and fully justified, and the need turned out to have a logical motivation.


Motivation is based on the 2 factors described. If the need is an instinct, a prerequisite or an unconscious desire, then this is not enough for the motive. To choose the direction in the implementation of the plan, one more factor is needed. In psychology it is called a goal.

In other words, there must be some real or abstract thing called the end result. In the above example, the purpose of passive action is to gain strength for subsequent (more active) motivations of the person.

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